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Study sets matching "language and thought chapter 8"

26 terms
Chapter 8 - Language and thought
Language
Properties of language
Phonemes
Morphemes
A set of symbols that convey meaning, and rules for combining…
1. Language is symbolic. ... 2. Language is semantic, or meaning…
The smallest units of sound in a spoken language (ex. for pla…
The smallest units of meaning in a language (ex. for unfriend…
Language
A set of symbols that convey meaning, and rules for combining…
Properties of language
1. Language is symbolic. ... 2. Language is semantic, or meaning…
50 terms
Chapter 8- Language and Thought
language
Semantics
Pragmatics
Five properties of language
Verbal form of communication... Can be spontaneous, written, sig…
meanings of words and sentences
appropriate use of language in different contexts... ASD example…
Creative and novel... Structured and patterned... Meaningful... Refere…
language
Verbal form of communication... Can be spontaneous, written, sig…
Semantics
meanings of words and sentences
54 terms
chapter 8 (language and thought)
cognition
language
phonemes
morphemes
refers to mental processes or thinking. (memory decision maki…
consists of symbols that convey meaning, plus rules for combi…
smallest elements of sound. ex- cat = c/a/t that = th/a/t
smallest units of language that provide meaning. prefix+base+…
cognition
refers to mental processes or thinking. (memory decision maki…
language
consists of symbols that convey meaning, plus rules for combi…
62 terms
Chapter 8: Language and Thought
Behaviorist
1956 conference
Simon and Newell
Chomsky
Focus on overt responses... -Arguments regarding incomplete pict…
Empirical study of cognition
problem solving
new model of language
Behaviorist
Focus on overt responses... -Arguments regarding incomplete pict…
1956 conference
Empirical study of cognition
12 terms
Chapter 8: Language and Thought
Cognition
Introspection
Language
Phonemes
The mental processes of thinking.
The analysis of one's own conscious experience
Consists of symbols that convey meaning, plus rules for combi…
The smallest speech units in a language that can be distingui…
Cognition
The mental processes of thinking.
Introspection
The analysis of one's own conscious experience
43 terms
Chapter 8: Language and Thought
language
phoneme
morpheme
syntax
symbols that convey meaning, plus rules for combining those s…
unit of sound
units of meaning
system of rules that specify how words can be arranged into s…
language
symbols that convey meaning, plus rules for combining those s…
phoneme
unit of sound
20 terms
Chapter 8 (Language and Thought)
Language
Syntax
Semantics
Bilingualism
Consists of symbols that convey meaning, plus rules for combi…
System of rules that specify how words can be arranged into s…
Area of language concerned with understanding the meaning of…
The acquisition of two languages that use different speech so…
Language
Consists of symbols that convey meaning, plus rules for combi…
Syntax
System of rules that specify how words can be arranged into s…
33 terms
Chapter 8 - Language and Thought
Algorithm
Availability heuristic
Bilinguilism
Cognition
A methodical, step-by-step procedure for trying all possible…
Basing the estimated probability of an event on the ease with…
The acquisition of two languages that use different speech so…
The mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge.
Algorithm
A methodical, step-by-step procedure for trying all possible…
Availability heuristic
Basing the estimated probability of an event on the ease with…
19 terms
Chapter 8 Language and Thought
Cognition
Language
What are the two basic elements of lan…
Phonemes
Thinking and mental processes... Ex: Memory, decision making, pr…
Turning thoughts into words
Symbols and grammer
The smallest elements of sound... Ex: cat= c/a/t... that=th/a/t
Cognition
Thinking and mental processes... Ex: Memory, decision making, pr…
Language
Turning thoughts into words
Chapter 8: Language and Thought
Accumulation
Alternative outcomes effects
Belief perseverance
Cognition
How much a person is socially and psychologically integrated…
Beliefs about outcome change depending how the information is…
The tendency to cling to our beliefs in the face of contrary…
Mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge
Accumulation
How much a person is socially and psychologically integrated…
Alternative outcomes effects
Beliefs about outcome change depending how the information is…
34 terms
Chapter 8- Language and Thought
language
phonemes
morphemes
semantics
symbols that convey meaning + rules for combining symbols = i…
smallest speech unit
smallest units of meaning in language
understanding the meaning of words/ word combos
language
symbols that convey meaning + rules for combining symbols = i…
phonemes
smallest speech unit
Chapter 8: Language and Thought
cognition
psycholinguistics
language
phonemes
mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge
study of the psychological mechanisms underlying the use of l…
consists of symbols that convey meaning, plus rules for combi…
basic units of sound in a spoken language
cognition
mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge
psycholinguistics
study of the psychological mechanisms underlying the use of l…
56 terms
Chapter 8: Thought and Language
Concept
Categories
Classic Categorization
Graded Membership
mental representation of an object, event, idea (you can have…
clusters of concepts
oldest approach to studying categories by rules ex: triangle-…
considered problem in thought when object falls into a grey a…
Concept
mental representation of an object, event, idea (you can have…
Categories
clusters of concepts
35 terms
Chapter 8: language and thought
morphemes
phonemes
syntax
human language
the smallest units of meaning in language.
the smallest units of sound in a language.
the rules for arranging words and symbols to form sentences o…
a communication system specific to Homo sapiens; it is open a…
morphemes
the smallest units of meaning in language.
phonemes
the smallest units of sound in a language.
22 terms
Chapter 8 Language and Thought
Means Ends Analysis
Hill Climbing Heuristics
Syntax
Subgoals
The current state and goal state then establish a subgoal tha…
Choosing a problem state that is closest to the goal state.
A system of rules for arranging words into sentences.
Intermediate goal between the final goal.
Means Ends Analysis
The current state and goal state then establish a subgoal tha…
Hill Climbing Heuristics
Choosing a problem state that is closest to the goal state.
29 terms
Chapter 8: Language and Thought
language
phonemes
morphemes
semantics
symbols that convey meaning, plus rules for combining those s…
the smallest speech units in a language that can be distingui…
the smallest units of meaning in a language
the area of language concerned with understanding the meaning…
language
symbols that convey meaning, plus rules for combining those s…
phonemes
the smallest speech units in a language that can be distingui…
50 terms
Chapter 8 - Thought and Language
Language
Phonemes
Morphemes
Semantics
Language is a form of communication that involve the use of s…
the most basic units of speech sounds... - do not have any meani…
the smallest meaningful units of language... -can be simple word…
the study of how people come to understand the meaning from w…
Language
Language is a form of communication that involve the use of s…
Phonemes
the most basic units of speech sounds... - do not have any meani…
14 terms
Chapter 8 language and thought
Cognition
Symbolic
Structure
Generative
Thought
Characteristic of language, (tree)
Word order, characteristic of language
Characteristic of language, Create new meaning
Cognition
Thought
Symbolic
Characteristic of language, (tree)
38 terms
Chapter 8: thought and language
concept
categories
Classical categorization
graded membership
the mental representation of an object, event, or idea ... examp…
cluster of interrelated groups ... example. furniture
theory claims that objects or events are categorized accordin…
observation that some concepts appear to make better category…
concept
the mental representation of an object, event, or idea ... examp…
categories
cluster of interrelated groups ... example. furniture
38 terms
Chapter 8: Language and Thought
Acculturation
Acquisition
Algorithm
Alternative outcomes effect
The degree to which a person is socially and psychologically…
The formation of a new conditioned response tendency
A methodical step by step procedure for trying all possible a…
Phenomenon that occurs when people's belief about whether an…
Acculturation
The degree to which a person is socially and psychologically…
Acquisition
The formation of a new conditioned response tendency
60 terms
Chapter 8 - Language and Thought
cognition
language
phonemes
morphemes
thinking and mental processes (memory, decision making, probl…
symbols and grammar
smallest element of sound
smallest unit of language that provides meaning... prefix + base…
cognition
thinking and mental processes (memory, decision making, probl…
language
symbols and grammar
76 terms
Language and Thought - Chapter 8
cognition
introspection
language
phonemes
Refers broadly to mental processes or thinking.
Analysis of one's own conscious experience.
Consists of symbols that convey meaning, plus rules for combi…
The smallest speech units in a language that can be distingui…
cognition
Refers broadly to mental processes or thinking.
introspection
Analysis of one's own conscious experience.
49 terms
Chapter 8: Language and Thought
Cognition
Language
Phonemes
Morphemes
This refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring kno…
This consists of symbols that convey meaning with rules for c…
The smallest speech units in a language that can be distingui…
The smallest units of meaning in a language.
Cognition
This refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring kno…
Language
This consists of symbols that convey meaning with rules for c…
34 terms
Chapter 8: Language and Thought
Cognition
Language
Language is
Phonemes
Refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge
Consists of symbols that convey meaning, plus rules for combi…
-language is symbolic: people use spoken sounds and written w…
- The smallest speech units in a language that can be disting…
Cognition
Refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge
Language
Consists of symbols that convey meaning, plus rules for combi…
33 terms
Chapter 8 - Language and Thought
algorithm
availability heuristic
bilingualism
cognition
a methodical, step-by-step procedure for trying all possible…
basing the estimated probability of an event on the ease with…
the acquisition of two languages that use different speech so…
the mental processes involved in acquired knowledge
algorithm
a methodical, step-by-step procedure for trying all possible…
availability heuristic
basing the estimated probability of an event on the ease with…
61 terms
Chapter 8: Thought and Language
cognitive psychology
thinking
mental images
concepts
branch of psychology that focuses on the study of cognition
manipulation of mental representations of information
representations in the mind that resemble the object or event…
categorizations of objects, events, or people that share comm…
cognitive psychology
branch of psychology that focuses on the study of cognition
thinking
manipulation of mental representations of information
52 terms
chapter 8: language and thought
language
phonemes
morphemes
semantics
consists of symbols that convey meaning, plus rules for combi…
smallest speech units in a language that can be distinguished…
smallest units of meaning in a language (root words, pre/suff…
area of language concerned with the meanings of words and wor…
language
consists of symbols that convey meaning, plus rules for combi…
phonemes
smallest speech units in a language that can be distinguished…
36 terms
Chapter 8 - Language and Thought
cognition
language
phonemes
morphemes
the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge
consists of symbols that convey meaning, plus rules for combi…
the smallest speech units in a language that can be distingui…
the smallest units of meaning in a language; roots words, pre…
cognition
the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge
language
consists of symbols that convey meaning, plus rules for combi…
51 terms
Chapter 8: Language and Thought
cognition
language
phonemes
morphemes
refers broadly to mental processes or thinking
consists of symbols that convey meaning, plus rules for combi…
the smallest speech units in a language that can be distingui…
the smallest units of meaning in a language
cognition
refers broadly to mental processes or thinking
language
consists of symbols that convey meaning, plus rules for combi…
27 terms
Chapter 8 - Thought and Language
Concept
Catergories
Classical Categorization
Graded Membership
is the mental representation of an object, event, or idea
is refer to these clusters of interrelated concepts
this theory claims that object or events are categorized acco…
the observation that some concepts appear to make better cate…
Concept
is the mental representation of an object, event, or idea
Catergories
is refer to these clusters of interrelated concepts
37 terms
Chapter 8: Language and Thought
Acculturation
Algorithm
Alternative Outcomes Effect
Availability Heuristic
The degree to which a person is socially and psychologically…
Is a methodical, step-by-step procedure for trying all possib…
Occurs when people's belief about whether an outcome will occ…
Involves basing the estimated probability of an event on the…
Acculturation
The degree to which a person is socially and psychologically…
Algorithm
Is a methodical, step-by-step procedure for trying all possib…
47 terms
Chapter 8 Language and Thought
cognition
language
phonemes
morphemes
mental processes or thinking
consists of symbols that convey meaning, plus rules for combi…
the smallest speech units in a language that can by distingui…
the smallest units of meaning in a language
cognition
mental processes or thinking
language
consists of symbols that convey meaning, plus rules for combi…
34 terms
Chapter 8: Language and Thought
Cognition
Language
Properties of language
Phoneme
Mental processes or thinking, knowing, remembering, and commu…
Turning thought into words
Symbolic, semantic, generative, structured
Smallest speech units
Cognition
Mental processes or thinking, knowing, remembering, and commu…
Language
Turning thought into words
33 terms
Language and Thought chapter 8
Phonemes
morphemes
syntax
milestones in language
smallest speech unit that can perceptually be distinguished,…
smallest unit of language that has meaning
system of rules that govern words to be made into sentences;…
babbling, one word stage, telegraphing, refining language ski…
Phonemes
smallest speech unit that can perceptually be distinguished,…
morphemes
smallest unit of language that has meaning
39 terms
Chapter 8 "Language and Thought"
Language
Benjamin Whorf's Theory of Linguistic…
Chomsky's Language Acquisition Device
phonemes
the system of symbols that convert meaning and allow for the…
one's language determines one's thoughts... ex. words for snow f…
humans possess an innate ability to learn language... hardwired…
smallest unit of sound that can be distinguished... initial phon…
Language
the system of symbols that convert meaning and allow for the…
Benjamin Whorf's Theory of Linguistic…
one's language determines one's thoughts... ex. words for snow f…
23 terms
Chapter 8, Language and Thought
Cognition
Language
Phonemes
Morphemes
Refers broadly to mental processes or thinking
Consists of symbols that convey meaning, plus rules for combi…
The smallest speech units in a language that can be distingui…
The smallest units of meaning in a language
Cognition
Refers broadly to mental processes or thinking
Language
Consists of symbols that convey meaning, plus rules for combi…
35 terms
Chapter 8-Thought and Language
Thought
Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis:
phonology
syntax
process of things you know, see and sense ... using knowledge to…
Language defines the way you think, ... thought processes
rule for word sounds
putting words into a sentence
Thought
process of things you know, see and sense ... using knowledge to…
Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis:
Language defines the way you think, ... thought processes
33 terms
Chapter 8: Language and Thought
Cognition
Language
Phonemes
Morphemes
The mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge.
A set of symbols that convey meaning, and rules for combining…
The smallest speech units in a language that can be distingui…
The smallest units of meaning in a language.
Cognition
The mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge.
Language
A set of symbols that convey meaning, and rules for combining…
10 terms
Chapter 8 Thought and Language
Cognitive Heuristics
1) Availability Heuristic
2) Representativeness Heuristic
3) Anchoring and Adjustment
Problem solving strategies based on prior experience > lead t…
The more available an idea is in memory, the more likely you…
Make judgements based on how well an example fits a specific…
Give an extreme so what you really want seems reasonable... -Re-…
Cognitive Heuristics
Problem solving strategies based on prior experience > lead t…
1) Availability Heuristic
The more available an idea is in memory, the more likely you…
107 terms
Chapter 8: Thought and Language
Concept
Categories
What are 2 types of categories?
Prototypes
A mental representation of an object, event, or idea.
Clusters of interrelated concepts
1. Classical categorization... 2. Graded membership
Mental representations of an average category member
Concept
A mental representation of an object, event, or idea.
Categories
Clusters of interrelated concepts
32 terms
Chapter 8: Language and Thought
cognition
language
phonemes
morphemes
refers broadly to mental processes or thinking
consists of symbols that convey meaning, plus rules for combi…
the smallest speech units in a language that can be distingui…
the smallest units of meaning in a language
cognition
refers broadly to mental processes or thinking
language
consists of symbols that convey meaning, plus rules for combi…
83 terms
Chapter 8 Language and Thought
Language and thought under the domain of
___ major advances in this empirical s…
Simon and Newell described
Noam Chomsky
cognitive psychology
3
problem solving- the first computer program simulating human…
new model of language: outlined a new model that changed the…
Language and thought under the domain of
cognitive psychology
___ major advances in this empirical s…
3
24 terms
chapter 8 language and thought
acculturation
algorithm
conceptual hierarchy
confirmation bias
the degree to which a person is socially and psychologically…
a methodical, step by step procedure for trying all possible…
a multilevel classification system based on common properties…
the tendency to seek info that supports one's decisions and b…
acculturation
the degree to which a person is socially and psychologically…
algorithm
a methodical, step by step procedure for trying all possible…
36 terms
Chapter 8: Language and Thought
Acculturation
Algorithm
Alternative outcomes effect
Availability heuristic
the degree to which a person is socially and psychologically…
a methodical, step-by-step procedure for trying all possible…
phenomenon that occurs when people's belief about whether an…
Basing the estimated probability of an event on the ease with…
Acculturation
the degree to which a person is socially and psychologically…
Algorithm
a methodical, step-by-step procedure for trying all possible…
22 terms
CHAPTER 8 - thought and language
Thinking
concept
categories
Explicit cognition
means manipulating mental representations for a purpose
mental representation of a class of objects, ideas or events…
groupings based on common properties
involves conscious manipulation of representations
Thinking
means manipulating mental representations for a purpose
concept
mental representation of a class of objects, ideas or events…
34 terms
Chapter 8: Language and Thought
cognition
language
phonemes
morphemes
refers broadly to mental processes or thinking
consists of symbols that convey meaning, plus rules for combi…
the smallest speech units in a language that can be distingui…
the smallest units of meaning in a language
cognition
refers broadly to mental processes or thinking
language
consists of symbols that convey meaning, plus rules for combi…
95 terms
Chapter 8 Language & Thought
Consists of symbols that convey meanin…
Focus on overt responses
1956
Simon and newell
Language
Behaviorist
Empirical study of cognition conference when
Problem solving people
Consists of symbols that convey meanin…
Language
Focus on overt responses
Behaviorist
50 terms
Chapter 8 - Thought and Language
Prosppagnosia
concept
Categories
graded membership
inability to recognize faces
is the mental representations of an object of interrelated co…
this theory claims that objects or events are categorized acc…
the oberservation that some concepts appear to make better ca…
Prosppagnosia
inability to recognize faces
concept
is the mental representations of an object of interrelated co…
59 terms
Chapter 8 - Language and Thought
phonemes
morphemes
semantics
syntax
Sounds... Estimated that humans can recognize 100 phonemes... Engli…
Part of language that has meaning : words, prefixes/suffixes
Understanding the meaning of words
System of rules that govern how words can be arranged into se…
phonemes
Sounds... Estimated that humans can recognize 100 phonemes... Engli…
morphemes
Part of language that has meaning : words, prefixes/suffixes
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