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Study sets matching "learning and memory"

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Study sets matching "learning and memory"

260 terms
Learning and Memory
acquistion
ACT
action potential
activation
The process by which new memories are encoded into long-term…
J. R. Anderson's theory of how declarative and procedural rep…
The sudden change in electrical potential that travels down t…
An abstract concept in cognitive psychology used to refer to…
acquistion
The process by which new memories are encoded into long-term…
ACT
J. R. Anderson's theory of how declarative and procedural rep…
17 terms
Learning and Memory
Modal model of memory
Nondeclarative memory
Nonsense syllables
Organization
A general model of memory proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin i…
Also termed implicit or procedural memory. Refers to unconsci…
Meaningless but readable combinations of letters and vowels,…
A memory strategy involving grouping items to be remembered i…
Modal model of memory
A general model of memory proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin i…
Nondeclarative memory
Also termed implicit or procedural memory. Refers to unconsci…
25 terms
Learning and memory
Compare and contrast explicit (declara…
Where are explicit memories stored
Explicit memory
Implicit Memory
Association cortices in the frontal, parietal, temporal and o…
Episodic (autobiographical) knowledge involves prefrontal cor…
Implicit memories are ones that we are not consciously aware…
Compare and contrast explicit (declara…
Where are explicit memories stored
Association cortices in the frontal, parietal, temporal and o…
163 terms
Learning and Memory
What is long term memory composed of?
What is short term memory composed of?
What is in both long term and short te…
What are episodic memories?
Procedural memories (implicit)... Semantic memories
Sensory memories... Working memory
Episodic memories
Autobiographical/descriptive events.
What is long term memory composed of?
Procedural memories (implicit)... Semantic memories
What is short term memory composed of?
Sensory memories... Working memory
175 terms
learning and memory
PROCEEDURAL MEMORY
what did BADDELELY say memory was
what to psychologsits call photographi…
what is the normal layout to measure f…
motor perception skills , ie driving, perception gudies motor…
a storehouse, with specific contents , memory processes used…
EIDETIC MEMORY
learning stage- retention interval- test MEMORY
PROCEEDURAL MEMORY
motor perception skills , ie driving, perception gudies motor…
what did BADDELELY say memory was
a storehouse, with specific contents , memory processes used…
61 terms
Learning and Memory
definition of learning
definition of memory
we have the ability to learn what two…
different types of memory
acquisition of new info or knowledge
retention of learned information
- various types of info from facts... - ingrained motor pattern…
- declarative (explicit memory)... - nondeclarative (implicit me…
definition of learning
acquisition of new info or knowledge
definition of memory
retention of learned information
50 terms
Learning and Memory
is the process by which experiences ch…
(Blank) bring about change within our…
One stimulus becomes associated with a…
Between a particular response and a st…
Learning
Memories
Associative learning
Instrumental learning
is the process by which experiences ch…
Learning
(Blank) bring about change within our…
Memories
29 terms
Memory and Learning
Alzheimer's disease
association
brain
brainstem
a disease, found especially in older... adults, that damages or…
broad category of learning that involves forming... mental conne…
control center of the nervous system, located within... the skul…
structure that connects the rest of... the brain to the spinal c…
Alzheimer's disease
a disease, found especially in older... adults, that damages or…
association
broad category of learning that involves forming... mental conne…
16 terms
Learning and Memory
Semantic memory
Procedural memory
Episodic memory
Sensory memory
Knowledge of the world, meaning of words
Memory for how to do something... Quicker reaction times for re…
Description of specific event (time and place), re-experience…
short-term processing of sensory information
Semantic memory
Knowledge of the world, meaning of words
Procedural memory
Memory for how to do something... Quicker reaction times for re…
14 terms
Memory/Learning
comes back to me
bear something in mind
make a mental note
rack your brain
is remembered... Ex. I had forgotten about the problem last yea…
think about or consider something as you make a decision... Ex.…
decide to remember something in the future (ie, without writi…
try hard to remember something... Ex. I was __________ing my br…
comes back to me
is remembered... Ex. I had forgotten about the problem last yea…
bear something in mind
think about or consider something as you make a decision... Ex.…
19 terms
Learning and memory (skill memory)
Skill memories
Events and facts memories
Definition of expert
What does expertise seem to involve?
-are difficult to convey except by direct demonstration ... -may…
-can be communicated flexibly, in different formats ... -have co…
-has mastered a skill better than most people
-Perceptual learning that lets the expert see the world diffe…
Skill memories
-are difficult to convey except by direct demonstration ... -may…
Events and facts memories
-can be communicated flexibly, in different formats ... -have co…
58 terms
Learning and memory chapter 1
Associationism, 5
Behaviorism, 22
Blind Design, 18
Classical Conditioning, 19
memory depends on the formation of linkages ("associations")…
...
the participant does not know the hypothesis being tested or…
a form of learning in which an animal learns that one stimulu…
Associationism, 5
memory depends on the formation of linkages ("associations")…
Behaviorism, 22
...
24 terms
Learning and Memory
Hippocampus in coronal Section
EM scan of dendrite + Stimulation
Learning and memory
Declarative Memories
Hippocampus: Consolidation of memory... -Medial temporal lobe... -3…
LTP= Long term potentiation which is REPETITIVE stimulation o…
-Learning is the acquisition of NEW information... -Memory is t…
*Memories: facts and events that can be recalled and declared…
Hippocampus in coronal Section
Hippocampus: Consolidation of memory... -Medial temporal lobe... -3…
EM scan of dendrite + Stimulation
LTP= Long term potentiation which is REPETITIVE stimulation o…
25 terms
Learning and Memory
learning
a stimulus
habituation
dishabituation
the way in which we acquire new behaviors
anything to which an organism can respond (including sensory…
repeated exposure to the same stimulus results in decreased r…
the recovery of a response to a stimulus after habituation ha…
learning
the way in which we acquire new behaviors
a stimulus
anything to which an organism can respond (including sensory…
35 terms
Learning and Memory
Declarative memory
non declarative memory
Non-associative learning
Associative learning
explicit memory... memory for facts and events
implicit memory... memory of skills, habits, reflex and emotions
A change in the magnitude of response to environmental events…
A connection between two elements or events. ... Classical or in…
Declarative memory
explicit memory... memory for facts and events
non declarative memory
implicit memory... memory of skills, habits, reflex and emotions
96 terms
Learning and Memory
learning
stimulus
habitulation
dishabitulation
refers specifically to the way in which we acquire new behavi…
defined as anything to which an organism responds to, includi…
repeated exposure to the same stimulus can cause a decrease i…
recovery of a response to a stimulus after habituation has oc…
learning
refers specifically to the way in which we acquire new behavi…
stimulus
defined as anything to which an organism responds to, includi…
8 terms
Learning and memory
Classical Conditioning
Operant Conditioning
Social Learning
Working memory
E
E
E
E
Classical Conditioning
E
Operant Conditioning
E
29 terms
Memory and Learning
How do we remember things?
Short Term vs. Long Term Memory
Basic Forms of learning
Perceptual Learning
Record, retain and retrieve information
Perceptual, stimulus response, relational learning and motor…
Visual Association cortex identifies names and labels. Throug…
How do we remember things?
Record, retain and retrieve information
Short Term vs. Long Term Memory
46 terms
Learning and Memory
learning
associative learning
classical conditioning
spontaneous recovery
is a relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior du…
we learn by association. Our minds naturally connect events t…
it was a Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov(father of C.C.) who…
After a rest period an extinguished CR (salivation) spontaneo…
learning
is a relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior du…
associative learning
we learn by association. Our minds naturally connect events t…
52 terms
Memory and Learning
Explain the process and the areas of t…
two aspects to communication
The process of speech involves two sta…
Cortical areas involved in language
...
first, the sensory aspect (language input), involving the ear…
formation in the mind of thoughts to be expressed, as well as…
Wernicke's Area is important for language comprehension and i…
Explain the process and the areas of t…
...
two aspects to communication
first, the sensory aspect (language input), involving the ear…
79 terms
Learning and Memory ****
Learning
Stimulus
Habituation
Dehabituation
the way in which we acquire new behaviors
anything to which an organism can respond
repeated exposure to the same stimulus can cause a decrease i…
the recovery of a response to a stimulus after habituation ha…
Learning
the way in which we acquire new behaviors
Stimulus
anything to which an organism can respond
122 terms
Learning and Memory
learning
classical conditioning
neutral stimulus
optimum delay
a relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due t…
learning to associate one stimulus with another. ... Dominated b…
the object that does not yet receive a response... the bell/soun…
1/2 a second to 5 seconds after showing the neutral stimulus…
learning
a relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due t…
classical conditioning
learning to associate one stimulus with another. ... Dominated b…
260 terms
Learning and Memory
acquistion
ACT
action potential
activation
The process by which new memories are encoded into long-term…
J. R. Anderson's theory of how declarative and procedural rep…
The sudden change in electrical potential that travels down t…
An abstract concept in cognitive psychology used to refer to…
acquistion
The process by which new memories are encoded into long-term…
ACT
J. R. Anderson's theory of how declarative and procedural rep…
38 terms
Learning and Memory
learning
memory
amnesia (2 types)
qualitative categories of learning/mem…
acquiring new information, knowledge, skills... can be conscious…
encoding, storing, retrieving learned information and skills
retrospective: failure to recall previously learned informati…
declarative/explicit... procedural (non-delclarative)/implicit
learning
acquiring new information, knowledge, skills... can be conscious…
memory
encoding, storing, retrieving learned information and skills
8 terms
learning and memory
Disorders which affect learning
conscious vs. unconscious memory
memory storage
Hippocampus
Disorders which affect learning
conscious vs. unconscious memory
6 terms
Learning and Memory
Types of Learning
Types of Associative Learning
Classical Conditioning
Basic Process of Conditioning
1.Associative: associate b/w 2 stimulus or behavior and a res…
Classical Conditioning & Operant Conditioning
There must be:... unconditional stimulus... unconditional response…
-Acquisition: the initial stage of learning... -Extinction: The…
Types of Learning
1.Associative: associate b/w 2 stimulus or behavior and a res…
Types of Associative Learning
Classical Conditioning & Operant Conditioning
27 terms
Learning and Memory
Non-associative Learning... Habituation…
Associative Learning ... Classical condi…
Emotional conditioning ... Where... What
short-term memory... Capacity?
A type of learning... Lacks two stimulus ... habituation: decrease…
TIMING IS CRITICAL... Classical conditioning (Pavlovian): two s…
Amgdala... Neutral sensory stimuli + reinforcing stimuli inputs…
attention & working memory ... Seconds to minutes... limited in ca…
Non-associative Learning... Habituation…
A type of learning... Lacks two stimulus ... habituation: decrease…
Associative Learning ... Classical condi…
TIMING IS CRITICAL... Classical conditioning (Pavlovian): two s…
40 terms
Learning and Memory
Which two thalamic regions are importa…
Ventrolateral Nucleus (VA/VL)
Ventroposterolateral nucleus (VPL/VPM)
Anterior nucleus
1. Anterior thalamic nucleus... 2. Mediodorsal nucleus (dorsomed…
Involved in motor planning
Involved in sensory information processing
Memory consolidation... It is not representative of a position…
Which two thalamic regions are importa…
1. Anterior thalamic nucleus... 2. Mediodorsal nucleus (dorsomed…
Ventrolateral Nucleus (VA/VL)
Involved in motor planning
25 terms
Learning and Memory
Habituation
Dishabituation
Classical Conditioning
Acquisiton
Repeated exposure to the same stimulus can cause a decrease i…
recovery of a response to a stimulus after habituation has oc…
Creates associations between 2 unrelated stimuli... ex: Pavlov'…
Process of obtaining the conditioned response in classical co…
Habituation
Repeated exposure to the same stimulus can cause a decrease i…
Dishabituation
recovery of a response to a stimulus after habituation has oc…
8 terms
Learning and Memory
Habituation
Dishabituation
Observational Learning
Associative Learning
the process of becoming used to a stimulus
occurs when a second stimulus intervenes, causing resensitiza…
the acquisition of behavior by watching others
pairing together stimulus and responses, or behaviors and con…
Habituation
the process of becoming used to a stimulus
Dishabituation
occurs when a second stimulus intervenes, causing resensitiza…
Learning and memory
Serial Posititon effect
Primacy Effect
Recency Effect
Episodic Memory
demonstration that Dewey rundus researched in 1971 about how…
occurs when items at the beginning are recalled better
Occurs when items at the bottom of the list are recalled better
Memory of a specific event, flashbulb memory fits under this
Serial Posititon effect
demonstration that Dewey rundus researched in 1971 about how…
Primacy Effect
occurs when items at the beginning are recalled better
22 terms
Learning and Memory
Main Claims of Behaviorism
John B Watson - Behaviorism
Empiricist Philosophers
Learning
-Psychology is the science of behavior -- not of thoughts, fe…
"Behaviorism...holds that the SUBJECT OF MATTER OF HUMAN PSYC…
John Locke... George Berkeley
-Creating associations among ideas as a direct result of expe…
Main Claims of Behaviorism
-Psychology is the science of behavior -- not of thoughts, fe…
John B Watson - Behaviorism
"Behaviorism...holds that the SUBJECT OF MATTER OF HUMAN PSYC…
31 terms
learning and memory
memory and learning
engrams?
lashley experiments (1890-1958)
hebbian learning
so closely connected that they are often confused with each o…
change in the brain accounting for the existence/storage of m…
tried to locate the area of brain where engrams are located.…
When an axon of cell A is near enough to excite a cell B and…
memory and learning
so closely connected that they are often confused with each o…
engrams?
change in the brain accounting for the existence/storage of m…
learning and memory
learning
memory
Aristotle
Aristotle and associationism
process by which changes in behavior arise as a result of exp…
the record of our past experiences, which are acquired throug…
lover of data ( the facts and figures from which he could inf…
the principle that memory depends on the formation of linkage…
learning
process by which changes in behavior arise as a result of exp…
memory
the record of our past experiences, which are acquired throug…
70 terms
Learning and Memory
Categories of learning and memory are…
2 types of memory:
____________ memories can be establish…
Declarative Memories: examples (3)
1. Type of information learned... 2. Time after learning
1. Declarative (explicit)... 2. Procedural (non-declarative, imp…
declarative
1. Memory of events (episodic memory)... 2. Knowledge of facts (…
Categories of learning and memory are…
1. Type of information learned... 2. Time after learning
2 types of memory:
1. Declarative (explicit)... 2. Procedural (non-declarative, imp…
Learning and Memory
Semantic Memory
Typicality Effect
Category
Exemplar
knowledge of general facts and concepts without recollection…
typical instances of a concept come to mind more easily than…
General concept, such as "bird"
Ten within a category, such as "canary"
Semantic Memory
knowledge of general facts and concepts without recollection…
Typicality Effect
typical instances of a concept come to mind more easily than…
35 terms
Learning and Memory
Types of memories H.M was unable to make
Types of memory that were not affected…
Priming
Lesions in the hippocampus lead to the…
New Memories
Short term memory... Remote memory ... Skill learning
Previous exposure to a stimulus, even if unconscious, will af…
Shorter delays showed no difference between lesioned and non…
Types of memories H.M was unable to make
New Memories
Types of memory that were not affected…
Short term memory... Remote memory ... Skill learning
16 terms
Learning and Memory
Definition of Memory ... intelligence and…
3 types of Learning domains
Different Stages of Memory Formation
Different Types of Memory
Learning is the process by which we acquire knowledge about t…
Cognitive learning... process information and understand- applyi…
1.Acquisition... -sensory information is perceived and acquired…
Short term memory... - memories that last seconds to hours... - vul…
Definition of Memory ... intelligence and…
Learning is the process by which we acquire knowledge about t…
3 types of Learning domains
Cognitive learning... process information and understand- applyi…
11 terms
Learning and memory
Smiles can evoke vivid memories becaus…
Implicit memory is another name for no…
Which type of memory is retrieved unco…
Which of the following is an example o…
Hippocampus
True
Implicit memory
What happened at your best childhood birthday party ever
Smiles can evoke vivid memories becaus…
Hippocampus
Implicit memory is another name for no…
True
19 terms
Learning and Memory: Autobiographical Memory
4 types of autobiographical information
Levels of autobiographical information
Event-specific memories
General events
Autobiographical facts (semantic)... Repeated Events (things tha…
Individual, episodic memories--> general events--> lifetime p…
Memories for individual experiences (episodic)... Most closely…
Two types... Sequence of events (for example, a memory of your l…
4 types of autobiographical information
Autobiographical facts (semantic)... Repeated Events (things tha…
Levels of autobiographical information
Individual, episodic memories--> general events--> lifetime p…
Learning and Memory
types of memory
Declarative memory
Non-declarative memory
Declarative memory consolidation
Declaritive and nondeclarative
explicit memory... medial temproal lobe... facts and events
implicit memory... procedural (skills and habits)- striatum... sk…
sensory information --> short-term memory (working memory too…
types of memory
Declaritive and nondeclarative
Declarative memory
explicit memory... medial temproal lobe... facts and events
6 terms
Learning & Memory
Procedural Memories
Declarative Memories
Anterograde Amnesia
Retrograde Amnesia
procedural memories can be performed without conscious recoll…
declarative memories accessed from conscious recollection ... d…
An inability to form new memories following brain trauma
Memory loss for events prior to the trauma
Procedural Memories
procedural memories can be performed without conscious recoll…
Declarative Memories
declarative memories accessed from conscious recollection ... d…
72 terms
learning and memory
learning
memory
amnesia
types of learning and memory
-process of gaining new and enduring information (acquisition…
-once info aquired/learned need to be able to store and retri…
-loss of memory
-conditioning: classic and operant... -spacial: working and refe…
learning
-process of gaining new and enduring information (acquisition…
memory
-once info aquired/learned need to be able to store and retri…
17 terms
Learning & Memory
Extinction
Conditioning
Forgetting
Blocking
When the operant behavior that was being reinforced is no lon…
When we reinforce a desired behavior with a reward or punishm…
Not an active process. This is temporally graded, and simply…
When a second stimulus is added during conditioning, its effe…
Extinction
When the operant behavior that was being reinforced is no lon…
Conditioning
When we reinforce a desired behavior with a reward or punishm…
16 terms
Learning and Memory
Basis is Neuroplasticity
learning and memory =
learning
memory
ability of brain to change
different aspects of the same neuroplastic phenomenon
induction of experience - induced neural changes
maintenance of these neural changes and expression in the for…
Basis is Neuroplasticity
ability of brain to change
learning and memory =
different aspects of the same neuroplastic phenomenon
45 terms
Learning and memory
Classical conditioning
Operant conditioning
what are the steps in memory formation?
Declarative memory is thought to be lo…
*stimulus-outcome
-Response (lever press) = Reward (food)... Over time... -Conditione…
-encoding... -consolidation... -retrieval/reconsolidation
medial temporal lobe
Classical conditioning
*stimulus-outcome
Operant conditioning
-Response (lever press) = Reward (food)... Over time... -Conditione…
80 terms
Memory and Learning
learning
memory
how are memories represented in the br…
four types of learning
process by which experiences change our capacity for behavior…
product of changes in nervous system and behavior
a memory is a specific pattern of activity across a network o…
1) perceptual... 2) stimulus response... 3) motor... 4) relational
learning
process by which experiences change our capacity for behavior…
memory
product of changes in nervous system and behavior
71 terms
Learning + Memory
MEMORY DIAGRAM
learning
stimulus
habituation
specifically in which we require new behaviors
anything to which an organism can respond
process of becoming used to a stimulus
MEMORY DIAGRAM
learning
specifically in which we require new behaviors
44 terms
Learning & Memory
Learning
Memory
Non-associative learning
Associative learning
Acquisition of information about the world, which is evident…
The storage of information in the brain as the result of expe…
Experience-dependent modifications of behavior, which do not…
Experience-dependent modification of a behavior that involves…
Learning
Acquisition of information about the world, which is evident…
Memory
The storage of information in the brain as the result of expe…
29 terms
Learning and Memory
What are the two types of memory?
Describe implicity memory.
Describe explicit memory.
Describe sesitization in Aplysia.
Implicit memory ... -Explicit
learning how to do things - its about action (i.e. you get a…
these are memories that you recall from memory (i.e. what did…
Between the sensory neuron and the siphon there is a synapses…
What are the two types of memory?
Implicit memory ... -Explicit
Describe implicity memory.
learning how to do things - its about action (i.e. you get a…
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