Study sets matching "liquids solids"

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Study sets matching "liquids solids"

40 terms
Solids and liquids
Ionic
Hydrogen bonds
Dipole-dipole forces
Ion-dipole
attractive forces between the positive end of one polar molec…
process or characteristic limited within the structure of a s…
forces of attraction or repulsion which act between neighbori…
formed by the electrostatic attraction of oppositely charged…
Ionic
attractive forces between the positive end of one polar molec…
Hydrogen bonds
process or characteristic limited within the structure of a s…
23 terms
Solids and Liquids
Cohesion
Adhesion
Surface Tension
Viscosity
Attractions between molecules of the same type
Molecules attracting another type of molecule
- Top is being pulled down which makes the top layer denser…
Resistance to flowing ... Stronger forces = stronger resistance
Cohesion
Attractions between molecules of the same type
Adhesion
Molecules attracting another type of molecule
17 terms
Solids and liquids
Crystalline solids
Unit cell
Lattice
Amorphous
Particles making up the solid are arranged in an orderly repe…
Units that make up the crystal
Pattern formed by the unit cells
No crystalline shape
Crystalline solids
Particles making up the solid are arranged in an orderly repe…
Unit cell
Units that make up the crystal
12 terms
Solids and Liquids
boiling point
condensation
deposition
evaporation
the temp at which a liquid boils at fixed pressure
gas to liquid
gas to solid
liquid to gas
boiling point
the temp at which a liquid boils at fixed pressure
condensation
gas to liquid
16 terms
Liquids and Solids
Intermolecular Forces
Intramolecular Forces
dipole-dipole attraction
London Dispersion Forces
Forces in between molecules
Inside molecules (atoms)
positive end/ negative end
weak; uneven distribution of electrons
Intermolecular Forces
Forces in between molecules
Intramolecular Forces
Inside molecules (atoms)
Liquids and solids
Lattice point at each of corners
Lattice point at the center if unit ce…
Lattice point at each face and corner
Primitive cube atoms and coordination #
Primitive cube
Body centered cube
Face centered cube
1 atom; 6
Lattice point at each of corners
Primitive cube
Lattice point at the center if unit ce…
Body centered cube
17 terms
Liquids and solids
Vaporization
Evaporation
Boiling
Freezing
Process by which a liquid or solid changes to a gas
Process by which particles escape from the surface of a non b…
Change of a liquid to bubbles of vapor
Temp at which pure liquid changes to a crystalline solid
Vaporization
Process by which a liquid or solid changes to a gas
Evaporation
Process by which particles escape from the surface of a non b…
21 terms
Solids and Liquids
Describe liquids
describe solids
LD forces
DD forces
Are loosely packed, so the intermolecular forces are importan…
Are tightly packed because of strong intermolecular forces.... H…
This class of forces affects all molecules and atoms, but is…
Polar molecules have dipole moments. The pole of one molecule…
Describe liquids
Are loosely packed, so the intermolecular forces are importan…
describe solids
Are tightly packed because of strong intermolecular forces.... H…
Solids and Liquids
van der Waals forces
dipole-dipole interaction
hydrogen bond
dispersion (London) force
a general term for intermolecular forces including dipole-dip…
the attraction of the positive end of one polar molecule to t…
the electrostatic attraction between an unshared pair of elec…
an electrostatic attraction that arises between atoms or mole…
van der Waals forces
a general term for intermolecular forces including dipole-dip…
dipole-dipole interaction
the attraction of the positive end of one polar molecule to t…
55 terms
Liquids and Solids
Heat of Vaporization
What is the heat of vaporization of wa…
Heat of fusion
Heat of fusion of ice
heat required to vaporize 1 mole of liquid at its boiling point
2,260 j/g
heat required to melt 1 mole of a solid at its melting point
333 j/g
Heat of Vaporization
heat required to vaporize 1 mole of liquid at its boiling point
What is the heat of vaporization of wa…
2,260 j/g
Liquids and Solids
Condensed States
According to the Kinetic Molecular The…
Intermolecular Forces
Intermolecular Forces
Substances in this state have substation ally higher densitie…
The state of a substance at room temperature depends on the s…
Forces that exist inside of the molecule
The force of attraction between neighboring molecules
Condensed States
Substances in this state have substation ally higher densitie…
According to the Kinetic Molecular The…
The state of a substance at room temperature depends on the s…
32 terms
Liquids and solids
Ionic bonds
Metallic bond
Covalent bond
Intermolecular forces
Very strong, solid at room temperature, crystal lattice, tran…
Strong, most are sold at room temperature, malleable, ductile…
Vary, based on intermolecular forces of attraction, stronger…
Dispersion, dipole-dipole, hydrogen bonding, between neighbor…
Ionic bonds
Very strong, solid at room temperature, crystal lattice, tran…
Metallic bond
Strong, most are sold at room temperature, malleable, ductile…
Liquids and Solids
Gas
Liquid
Solid
According to KMT, the state of matter…
Particle Arrangement: very spread out ... Compressibility: High…
Particle Arrangement: moderately close together ... Compressibil…
Particle Arrangement: close together ... Compressibility: Very s…
the strength of attractive forces between particles
Gas
Particle Arrangement: very spread out ... Compressibility: High…
Liquid
Particle Arrangement: moderately close together ... Compressibil…
solids and liquids
Thermodynamics
First law of thermodynamics
Solution
Solvent
the study of energy
the energy of the universe is constant: ... --energy can be tran…
mixture of 2 or more things that blend together in a uniform…
does the dissolving while the solute is dissolved
Thermodynamics
the study of energy
First law of thermodynamics
the energy of the universe is constant: ... --energy can be tran…
22 terms
Solids and liquids
Solid
Liquid
Fluid
Surface tension
A substance having a definite shape and volume.
A substance having a definite volume but no definite shape
A liquid or a gas that can flow easily
The result of an inward pull among the molecules of a liquid…
Solid
A substance having a definite shape and volume.
Liquid
A substance having a definite volume but no definite shape
Liquids and Solids
Bubbling up is created by
flattening out is created by
Hydrogen Bond
The boiling point is high of a liquid…
stronger intermolecular forces
weaker intermolecular forces
Strongest type of intermolecular force, occurs with Hydrogen…
stronger
Bubbling up is created by
stronger intermolecular forces
flattening out is created by
weaker intermolecular forces
22 terms
Liquids and Solids
intermolecular forces
the stronger the attractive forces, th…
3 different types of intermolecular fo…
dispersion forces
forces of attraction between neighboring particles, much weak…
melting and boiling points
dipole-dipole forces, dispersion forces, and hydrogen bonds
the motion of electrons can create a temporary dipole moment…
intermolecular forces
forces of attraction between neighboring particles, much weak…
the stronger the attractive forces, th…
melting and boiling points
Liquids and Solids
Intermolecular Forces
Intramolecular Forces
Dipole-dipole Attraction
Hydrogen Bonding
Bonds between molecules.
Bonds within a molecule.
Intermolecular forces between polar molecules.
A dipole-dipole bond that consists of F, O, or N along with a…
Intermolecular Forces
Bonds between molecules.
Intramolecular Forces
Bonds within a molecule.
Liquids and Solids
intermolecular forces
weaker
higher
dipole-dipole forces
forces of attraction between neighboring particles
intermolecular forces are --- than bonding forces
the stronger the attractive intermolecular forces, the --- th…
occur when the positive end of one molecule is attracted to t…
intermolecular forces
forces of attraction between neighboring particles
weaker
intermolecular forces are --- than bonding forces
# 3 - Solids Liquids Gases
solid
gas
liquid
gas
Is a brick a solid, a liquid, or a gas?
Is helium inside balloons a solid, a liquid, or a gas?
Is gasoline a solid, a liquid, or a gas?
Is air a solid, a liquid, or a gas?
solid
Is a brick a solid, a liquid, or a gas?
gas
Is helium inside balloons a solid, a liquid, or a gas?
13 terms
Solids and Liquids
Intermolecular forces
London Dispersion forces
Dipole-Dipole attractions
Hydrogen bonding
attractions between 2 or more molecules
(covalent)... weakest... electrical attractions caused by the motio…
between two poles... not as much movement ... one side always negat…
different polar molecules... molecules with hydrogen bonded to N…
Intermolecular forces
attractions between 2 or more molecules
London Dispersion forces
(covalent)... weakest... electrical attractions caused by the motio…
34 terms
Solids and Liquids
electronegativity
condensed states of matter
Kinetic theory
Intermolecular Attractions
an atoms attraction for electrons in a covalent bond
solids and liquids
the state of a substance at room temperature depends on the s…
force of attraction between molecules
electronegativity
an atoms attraction for electrons in a covalent bond
condensed states of matter
solids and liquids
Solids And Liquids
Micible
Fluid
Viscous
Density
When a liquid mixes well with water
A liquid that is thin and moves quickly
A liquid that is thick and moves slowly
A measure of how tightly molecules are packed together in a s…
Micible
When a liquid mixes well with water
Fluid
A liquid that is thin and moves quickly
36 terms
Solids and Liquids
intermolecular forces
intramolecular froces
ion-ion forces
dipole-dipole force
attractive forces between molecules
attractive forces within molecules and are much stronger than…
strongest force, force between positive and negative ions
3rd strongest force, force between polar molecules , partial…
intermolecular forces
attractive forces between molecules
intramolecular froces
attractive forces within molecules and are much stronger than…
Solids and Liquids
Intermolecular Forces
Intramolecular Forces
dipole-dipole attraction
hydrogen bonding
relatively weak interactions that occur between molecules
interactions that occur within a given molecule
the attractive force resulting when polar molecules line up s…
unusually strong dipole-dipole attractions that occur among m…
Intermolecular Forces
relatively weak interactions that occur between molecules
Intramolecular Forces
interactions that occur within a given molecule
17 terms
Liquids and Solids
condensed states of matter
intermolecular
intraparticle
unit cell
all solids and liquids
forces between molecules
forces within molecules
smallest repeating unit of of an ionic compound
condensed states of matter
all solids and liquids
intermolecular
forces between molecules
32 terms
Liquids and Solids
fluid
surface tension
capillary action
vaporization
substance that can flow and therefore take the shape of its c…
force that tends to pull adjacent parts of a liquid's surface…
the attraction of the surface of a liquid to the surface of a…
process by which a liquid or solid changes to a gas
fluid
substance that can flow and therefore take the shape of its c…
surface tension
force that tends to pull adjacent parts of a liquid's surface…
Solids and liquids
Condensed states of matter
Intermolecular attractions
Van der waals forces
Dispersion forces
Solids and liquids
The force of attraction between molecules
The weakest attraction between molecules
Weakest; caused by motion of electrons/ increases with the #…
Condensed states of matter
Solids and liquids
Intermolecular attractions
The force of attraction between molecules
41 terms
Liquids and solids
Boiling point
Low boiling pts
London forces
Instantaneous dipole
Measure of how much kinetic energy mustbbe increased so it ca…
Low attractive forces
Dispersion forces, instantaneous dipole forces, induced dipol…
May be attracted to another one... Or induce another dipole by d…
Boiling point
Measure of how much kinetic energy mustbbe increased so it ca…
Low boiling pts
Low attractive forces
46 terms
Solids and Liquids
Vaporization
Normal Boiling Point
Crystal Lattice
Minimun Kinetic Energy
liquid to gas below boiling point
boiling point at 1 atm (101.3 kPa)
array of particle in a 3D repeating orderly arrangement
what is required for surface particles of a liquid to break a…
Vaporization
liquid to gas below boiling point
Normal Boiling Point
boiling point at 1 atm (101.3 kPa)
11 terms
Liquids and solids
Liquids
Fluidity
Viscosity
Surface tension
Much denser than gases because of the stronger intermolecular…
Ability to flow and diffuse
Measure of the resistance of a liquid to flow and is determin…
Energy required to increase the surface area of a liquid by a…
Liquids
Much denser than gases because of the stronger intermolecular…
Fluidity
Ability to flow and diffuse
liquids and solids
alloy
atomic solid
crystalline solid
dipole-dipole attraction
a substance that contains a mixture of elements and has metal…
a solid that contains atoms at the lattice points
a solid characterized by the regular arrangement of its compo…
the attractive force resulting when polar molecules line up s…
alloy
a substance that contains a mixture of elements and has metal…
atomic solid
a solid that contains atoms at the lattice points
79 terms
Solids and Liquids
Convection
Conduction
Radiation
A state of matter is essentially
heat transfer by movement
heat transfer by contact
heat transfer by light waves
•The distance between the constituent units.... •The attractive…
Convection
heat transfer by movement
Conduction
heat transfer by contact
48 terms
Solids and Liquids
Diffusion
effusion
critical pressure
critical temperature
spontaneous mixing of the particles of two substances caused…
a process by which gas particles pass through a tiny opening
pressure required to liquify at critical temperature
temperature above which the substance cannot exist in the liq…
Diffusion
spontaneous mixing of the particles of two substances caused…
effusion
a process by which gas particles pass through a tiny opening
27 terms
Liquids and solids
Kinetic molecular theory
Intermolecular attractive forces
Vapor pressure
Average kinetic energy
Kinetic energy of the particles. Solid,low liquid,moderate, g…
Solid high, liquid low gas none
The pressure exerted from evaporating a liquid
Temperature
Kinetic molecular theory
Kinetic energy of the particles. Solid,low liquid,moderate, g…
Intermolecular attractive forces
Solid high, liquid low gas none
8 terms
Liquids And Solids
Intramolecular force
Intermolecular force (IMF)
Dispersion
Bonds
Bonds holds atoms together within a single molecule.... Polar an…
Attraction between molecules that hold molecules... together in…
Temporary dipole attractions... between nonpolar molecules that…
Ionic bond - holds metal/nonmetal ions together... Polar Covalen…
Intramolecular force
Bonds holds atoms together within a single molecule.... Polar an…
Intermolecular force (IMF)
Attraction between molecules that hold molecules... together in…
29 terms
Solids and Liquids
Endothermic
Exothermic
Absolute zero
Avogadro's Law
energy is absorbed (q+)
energy is released (-q)
the lowest possible temperature, the temperature at which all…
gases at the same temperature, pressure, and volume have the…
Endothermic
energy is absorbed (q+)
Exothermic
energy is released (-q)
14 terms
Solids and Liquids
London Dispersion
Dipole Dipole
Hydrogen bonding
Ion ion
Weakest attraction
Between polar covalent molecules
Special case of dipole-dipole. Between hydrogen and either Ni…
Strongest attraction. Between ions
London Dispersion
Weakest attraction
Dipole Dipole
Between polar covalent molecules
52 terms
liquids and solids
intermolecular forces
intramolecular forces
ion dipole
dipole dipole force
forces of attraction between molecules
bonding forces that hold the atoms of a molecule together
polar molecules attracting cations or anion, ion and polar mo…
Intermolecular force of attraction between neighboring perman…
intermolecular forces
forces of attraction between molecules
intramolecular forces
bonding forces that hold the atoms of a molecule together
16 terms
Liquids and solids
Matter
The three states of matter
Solids
Liquids
Anything that takes up space
Solid,liquid,gas
Have definite shapes that do not change
Flow and take the shape of their containers
Matter
Anything that takes up space
The three states of matter
Solid,liquid,gas
60 terms
Solids and Liquids
How to Differentiate Particles...
Intermolecular Forces (IMFs)
London Dispersion Forces (LD)
The ________ the molecule, the stronge…
-Motion... -Shape (definite / unchanging or not, takes shape of…
Forces between molecules (gases have none or minimal, solids…
-Weak electrical attractions between all matter (protons and…
Bigger
How to Differentiate Particles...
-Motion... -Shape (definite / unchanging or not, takes shape of…
Intermolecular Forces (IMFs)
Forces between molecules (gases have none or minimal, solids…
15 terms
Liquids and solids
Intermolecular forces
3 main types of IMF
London dispersion
Higher boiling point =
Forces between particles
London dispersion forces... Dipole dipole... Hydrogen bonding
Weakest IMF... Between two non polar molecules
Greater IMFs
Intermolecular forces
Forces between particles
3 main types of IMF
London dispersion forces... Dipole dipole... Hydrogen bonding
130 terms
Liquids and Solids
Gas and liquid at the same temperature…
The density of liquid is much greater…
Forces of attraction within a liquid l…
But liquid cannot ______ to fill its c…
intermolecular forces
of its vapor at the same conditions
range of motion
expand
Gas and liquid at the same temperature…
intermolecular forces
The density of liquid is much greater…
of its vapor at the same conditions
20 terms
Liquids and Solids
crystal
amorphous solids
crystal lattice
4 types of crystals
a substance in which particles are arranged in an orderly, ge…
solids in which particles are arranged randomly
the total 3D array of points that describes the arrangement o…
- ionic crystal ... - covalent network crystal... - metallic crysta…
crystal
a substance in which particles are arranged in an orderly, ge…
amorphous solids
solids in which particles are arranged randomly
23 terms
solids and liquids
Dipole Dipole Attraction
Hydrogen Bonding
London Dispersion Forces
Metallic Bond
molecules lined up so that the opposite charges are close to…
a very strong Dipole Dipole attraction... -H + N,O,F
force that holds atoms (noble gas) or molecules with no dipol…
metals bond to each other
Dipole Dipole Attraction
molecules lined up so that the opposite charges are close to…
Hydrogen Bonding
a very strong Dipole Dipole attraction... -H + N,O,F
13 terms
Solids and Liquids
intermolecular forces
surface tension
capillary action
cohesive
attractions that occur between separate molecules/ atoms
amount of energy required to stretch or increase the surface…
liquids climb up a tube due to cohesive and adhesive forces (…
attraction of like molecules
intermolecular forces
attractions that occur between separate molecules/ atoms
surface tension
amount of energy required to stretch or increase the surface…
10 terms
Liquids and Solids
intermolecular forces
3 main types of IMF
london dispersion forces
LDF: strength increases as ________ in…
forces between particles
London Dispersion Forces... Dipole-Dipole Forces... Hydrogen Bonding
IMF between 2 non-polar molecules formed by temporarily posit…
molar mass/ #of electrons
intermolecular forces
forces between particles
3 main types of IMF
London Dispersion Forces... Dipole-Dipole Forces... Hydrogen Bonding
36 terms
Solids and Liquids
Dipole-dipole forces
Hydrogen bonds
Name 4 tendencies of hydrogen bonds
London dispersion forces
When partial positive and negative charges from neighboring p…
FON; dipoles in small, highly electronegative atoms form a st…
1. High boiling point... 2. Low vapor pressure... 3. High heat of v…
Caused by instantaneous dipoles which arise from momentary im…
Dipole-dipole forces
When partial positive and negative charges from neighboring p…
Hydrogen bonds
FON; dipoles in small, highly electronegative atoms form a st…
34 terms
Liquids and Solids
Ionic Bonds
Covalent Bonds
Intermolecular Forces
Hydrogen Bonding
- Electrons are transferred (More EN atoms steals from less E…
- Electrons Shared (2 nonmetals)... - Less EN Difference... - Attra…
between two molecules. Leads to higher boiling points, lower…
Strongest Forces (Occurs when H bonds to F, O, N
Ionic Bonds
- Electrons are transferred (More EN atoms steals from less E…
Covalent Bonds
- Electrons Shared (2 nonmetals)... - Less EN Difference... - Attra…
12 terms
Solids, Liquids, and Gas
solid
liquid
gas
temperature
Matter with definite volume and definite shape
A state of matter that has a definite volume but no definite…
A form of matter that does not have a definite volume or shap…
A measure of how hot or cold something is.
solid
Matter with definite volume and definite shape
liquid
A state of matter that has a definite volume but no definite…
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