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Study sets matching "liquids solids"

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Study sets matching "liquids solids"

13 terms
Solids and Liquids
Intermolecular forces
London Dispersion forces
Dipole-Dipole attractions
Hydrogen bonding
attractions between 2 or more molecules
(covalent)... weakest... electrical attractions caused by the motio…
between two poles... not as much movement ... one side always negat…
different polar molecules... molecules with hydrogen bonded to N…
Intermolecular forces
attractions between 2 or more molecules
London Dispersion forces
(covalent)... weakest... electrical attractions caused by the motio…
38 terms
Liquids and Solids
If altitude goes up, boiling point ___…
Forces of attraction
If forces are strong, vapor pressure i…
If forces are strong, boiling point is…
goes down
intermolecular forces
lower
higher
If altitude goes up, boiling point ___…
goes down
Forces of attraction
intermolecular forces
36 terms
Solids and Liquids
intermolecular forces
intramolecular froces
ion-ion forces
dipole-dipole force
attractive forces between molecules
attractive forces within molecules and are much stronger than…
strongest force, force between positive and negative ions
3rd strongest force, force between polar molecules , partial…
intermolecular forces
attractive forces between molecules
intramolecular froces
attractive forces within molecules and are much stronger than…
44 terms
Liquids and Solids
Gasses
Heat of Fusion
Heat of Vaporization
Intra-
Liquids and solids are similar, but very different than ...
Energy involving the changing from solid to a liquid: (1 mol…
Energy involving the changing from a liquid to a gas: (1 mol…
What is stronger: Inter- or intra- molecular forces?
Gasses
Liquids and solids are similar, but very different than ...
Heat of Fusion
Energy involving the changing from solid to a liquid: (1 mol…
18 terms
Solids and Liquids
Crystalline solids (crystals)
Unit cell
Lattice
Amorphous
Particles making up the solid are arranged in an orderly, rep…
Units that make up the crystal
Pattern formed by unit cells
No crystalline shape
Crystalline solids (crystals)
Particles making up the solid are arranged in an orderly, rep…
Unit cell
Units that make up the crystal
16 terms
Liquids and Solids
a chemical bond is
the physical properties of gases, liqu…
water has a higher boiling point than…
an ionic solid will be
a bond between atoms in a molecule, always stronger than a fo…
the strength of attractive forces
it has strong hydrogen bonds
hard and brittle with a high melting point
a chemical bond is
a bond between atoms in a molecule, always stronger than a fo…
the physical properties of gases, liqu…
the strength of attractive forces
40 terms
Solids and liquids
Molecular motion
Vibrational
Rotational
Translational
Vibrational... Rotational... Translational
Moves up and down
Spin around
One point to another
Molecular motion
Vibrational... Rotational... Translational
Vibrational
Moves up and down
17 terms
Liquids and Solids
Liquid Boiling temp.
Critical temperature
Triple Point
Sublimation
Liquid boils at a temperature at which its vapor pressure is…
Temperature at which liquid phase of a pure substance cannot…
Point at which all 3 phases, solid liquid gas can exist
Process by which substance goes from solid to gas without goi…
Liquid Boiling temp.
Liquid boils at a temperature at which its vapor pressure is…
Critical temperature
Temperature at which liquid phase of a pure substance cannot…
15 terms
Solids and liquids
Amorphous liquid
Boiling point
Condensation
Condensed state
A solid that lacks the long range order of a crystal
the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equ…
change of water from its gaseous form (water vapor) into liqu…
branch of physics that deals with the physical properties of…
Amorphous liquid
A solid that lacks the long range order of a crystal
Boiling point
the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equ…
39 terms
Liquids and Solids
liquid
liquid
liquid
liquid
no definite shape
no definite volume
slightly compressible
slow diffusion
liquid
no definite shape
liquid
no definite volume
32 terms
Liquids and Solids
intermolecular forces
intramolecular forces
3 intermolecular forces
London Dispersion Forces
Attractive forces that exist between molecules, LDF, DD, HB (…
bonding forces that hold the atoms of a molecule together, co…
LDF, DD, HB
attraction between 2 instantaneous dipoles, asymmetrical elec…
intermolecular forces
Attractive forces that exist between molecules, LDF, DD, HB (…
intramolecular forces
bonding forces that hold the atoms of a molecule together, co…
39 terms
liquids and solids
kinetic-moleular theory
ideal gas
elastic collision
diffusion
the idea that particles of matter are always in motion
a hypothetical gas that perfectly fits all the assumptions of…
collisions between gas particles and between particles and co…
spontaneous mixing of the particles of two substances caused…
kinetic-moleular theory
the idea that particles of matter are always in motion
ideal gas
a hypothetical gas that perfectly fits all the assumptions of…
23 terms
Solids and Liquids
Avagadro's Hypothesis
Standard Volume
Avagadro's Number
Mole
States that equal volumes of gases at the same temperature an…
22.4 L
6.02x10^23
A group of atoms bonded together
Avagadro's Hypothesis
States that equal volumes of gases at the same temperature an…
Standard Volume
22.4 L
18 terms
Solids and Liquids
Crystalline solids (crystals)
Unit cell
Lattice
Amorphous
Particles making up the solid are arranged in an orderly, rep…
Units that make up the crystal
Pattern formed by unit cells
No crystalline shape
Crystalline solids (crystals)
Particles making up the solid are arranged in an orderly, rep…
Unit cell
Units that make up the crystal
114 terms
liquids and solids
solid to liquid
liquid to gas
viscosity
surface tension
fusion... melting
vaporization... boiling
resistance to motion of a liquid
the inward force or pull which tends to minimize the surface…
solid to liquid
fusion... melting
liquid to gas
vaporization... boiling
33 terms
Liquids and Solids
Intermolecular Forces
Intramolecular Forces
Dipole-Dipole Forces
Ion-Dipole Forces
attractive forces between molecules
hold atoms together in a molecule
attractive forces between polar molecules
attractive forces between an ion and a polar molecule
Intermolecular Forces
attractive forces between molecules
Intramolecular Forces
hold atoms together in a molecule
38 terms
Liquids and Solids
Kinetic theory
Gasses
Solids
Intermolecular force
the body of theory that explains the physical properties of m…
an airlike fluid substance which expands freely to fill any s…
Solids are one of the three states of matter and, unlike liqu…
forces of attraction or repulsion which act between neighbori…
Kinetic theory
the body of theory that explains the physical properties of m…
Gasses
an airlike fluid substance which expands freely to fill any s…
23 terms
Solids and Liquids
Cohesion
Adhesion
Surface Tension
Viscosity
Attractions between molecules of the same type
Molecules attracting another type of molecule
- Top is being pulled down which makes the top layer denser…
Resistance to flowing ... Stronger forces = stronger resistance
Cohesion
Attractions between molecules of the same type
Adhesion
Molecules attracting another type of molecule
17 terms
Solids and liquids
Crystalline solids
Unit cell
Lattice
Amorphous
Particles making up the solid are arranged in an orderly repe…
Units that make up the crystal
Pattern formed by the unit cells
No crystalline shape
Crystalline solids
Particles making up the solid are arranged in an orderly repe…
Unit cell
Units that make up the crystal
12 terms
Solids and Liquids
boiling point
condensation
deposition
evaporation
the temp at which a liquid boils at fixed pressure
gas to liquid
gas to solid
liquid to gas
boiling point
the temp at which a liquid boils at fixed pressure
condensation
gas to liquid
15 terms
Liquids and Solids
attractive forces between dipoles
polarizability
normal alkanes
cohesive forces
(δ+)(δ-)... F = ----------... r²
the ease with which the electron distribution in the atom or…
methane CH₄... ethane C₂H₆... propane C₃H₈... butane C₄H₁₀... ...
attractions between identical molecules in the liquid... ∩ curve…
attractive forces between dipoles
(δ+)(δ-)... F = ----------... r²
polarizability
the ease with which the electron distribution in the atom or…
15 terms
Liquids and solids
Intermolecular forces
3 main types of IMF
London dispersion
Higher boiling point =
Forces between particles
London dispersion forces... Dipole dipole... Hydrogen bonding
Weakest IMF... Between two non polar molecules
Greater IMFs
Intermolecular forces
Forces between particles
3 main types of IMF
London dispersion forces... Dipole dipole... Hydrogen bonding
21 terms
Solids and Liquids
Describe liquids
describe solids
LD forces
DD forces
Are loosely packed, so the intermolecular forces are importan…
Are tightly packed because of strong intermolecular forces.... H…
This class of forces affects all molecules and atoms, but is…
Polar molecules have dipole moments. The pole of one molecule…
Describe liquids
Are loosely packed, so the intermolecular forces are importan…
describe solids
Are tightly packed because of strong intermolecular forces.... H…
41 terms
Liquids and Solids
Characteristics of Liquids
Surface Tension
Liquids with large intermolecular forc…
Capillary action
-Low compressibility ... -lack of rigidity... -high density compare…
-resistance of a liquid to an increase in its surface area
high
spontaneous rising of a liquid in a narrow tube
Characteristics of Liquids
-Low compressibility ... -lack of rigidity... -high density compare…
Surface Tension
-resistance of a liquid to an increase in its surface area
55 terms
Liquids and Solids
Heat of Vaporization
What is the heat of vaporization of wa…
Heat of fusion
Heat of fusion of ice
heat required to vaporize 1 mole of liquid at its boiling point
2,260 j/g
heat required to melt 1 mole of a solid at its melting point
333 j/g
Heat of Vaporization
heat required to vaporize 1 mole of liquid at its boiling point
What is the heat of vaporization of wa…
2,260 j/g
40 terms
Solids and liquids
Ionic
Hydrogen bonds
Dipole-dipole forces
Ion-dipole
attractive forces between the positive end of one polar molec…
process or characteristic limited within the structure of a s…
forces of attraction or repulsion which act between neighbori…
formed by the electrostatic attraction of oppositely charged…
Ionic
attractive forces between the positive end of one polar molec…
Hydrogen bonds
process or characteristic limited within the structure of a s…
15 terms
solids and liquids
Thermodynamics
First law of thermodynamics
Solution
Solvent
the study of energy
the energy of the universe is constant: ... --energy can be tran…
mixture of 2 or more things that blend together in a uniform…
does the dissolving while the solute is dissolved
Thermodynamics
the study of energy
First law of thermodynamics
the energy of the universe is constant: ... --energy can be tran…
40 terms
Liquids and solids
Lattice point at each of corners
Lattice point at the center if unit ce…
Lattice point at each face and corner
Primitive cube atoms and coordination #
Primitive cube
Body centered cube
Face centered cube
1 atom; 6
Lattice point at each of corners
Primitive cube
Lattice point at the center if unit ce…
Body centered cube
Liquids and Solids
Bubbling up is created by
flattening out is created by
Hydrogen Bond
The boiling point is high of a liquid…
stronger intermolecular forces
weaker intermolecular forces
Strongest type of intermolecular force, occurs with Hydrogen…
stronger
Bubbling up is created by
stronger intermolecular forces
flattening out is created by
weaker intermolecular forces
22 terms
Liquids and Solids
intermolecular forces
the stronger the attractive forces, th…
3 different types of intermolecular fo…
dispersion forces
forces of attraction between neighboring particles, much weak…
melting and boiling points
dipole-dipole forces, dispersion forces, and hydrogen bonds
the motion of electrons can create a temporary dipole moment…
intermolecular forces
forces of attraction between neighboring particles, much weak…
the stronger the attractive forces, th…
melting and boiling points
33 terms
Liquids and Solids
molar heat of fusion
molar heat of vaporization
intramolecular forces
intermolecular forces
energy required to melt or freeze 1 mole of a substance
energy required to vaporize or condense 1 mole of a substance
bonds that hold the atoms of molecule together
attractions among molecules that cause them to aggregate to f…
molar heat of fusion
energy required to melt or freeze 1 mole of a substance
molar heat of vaporization
energy required to vaporize or condense 1 mole of a substance
8 terms
Solids And Liquids
Micible
Fluid
Viscous
Density
When a liquid mixes well with water
A liquid that is thin and moves quickly
A liquid that is thick and moves slowly
A measure of how tightly molecules are packed together in a s…
Micible
When a liquid mixes well with water
Fluid
A liquid that is thin and moves quickly
16 terms
Solids and Liquids
Intermolecular Forces
Intramolecular Forces
dipole-dipole attraction
hydrogen bonding
relatively weak interactions that occur between molecules
interactions that occur within a given molecule
the attractive force resulting when polar molecules line up s…
unusually strong dipole-dipole attractions that occur among m…
Intermolecular Forces
relatively weak interactions that occur between molecules
Intramolecular Forces
interactions that occur within a given molecule
17 terms
Liquids and Solids
condensed states of matter
intermolecular
intraparticle
unit cell
all solids and liquids
forces between molecules
forces within molecules
smallest repeating unit of of an ionic compound
condensed states of matter
all solids and liquids
intermolecular
forces between molecules
32 terms
Liquids and Solids
fluid
surface tension
capillary action
vaporization
substance that can flow and therefore take the shape of its c…
force that tends to pull adjacent parts of a liquid's surface…
the attraction of the surface of a liquid to the surface of a…
process by which a liquid or solid changes to a gas
fluid
substance that can flow and therefore take the shape of its c…
surface tension
force that tends to pull adjacent parts of a liquid's surface…
25 terms
Solids and liquids
Condensed states of matter
Intermolecular attractions
Van der waals forces
Dispersion forces
Solids and liquids
The force of attraction between molecules
The weakest attraction between molecules
Weakest; caused by motion of electrons/ increases with the #…
Condensed states of matter
Solids and liquids
Intermolecular attractions
The force of attraction between molecules
41 terms
Liquids and solids
Boiling point
Low boiling pts
London forces
Instantaneous dipole
Measure of how much kinetic energy mustbbe increased so it ca…
Low attractive forces
Dispersion forces, instantaneous dipole forces, induced dipol…
May be attracted to another one... Or induce another dipole by d…
Boiling point
Measure of how much kinetic energy mustbbe increased so it ca…
Low boiling pts
Low attractive forces
46 terms
Solids and Liquids
Vaporization
Normal Boiling Point
Crystal Lattice
Minimun Kinetic Energy
liquid to gas below boiling point
boiling point at 1 atm (101.3 kPa)
array of particle in a 3D repeating orderly arrangement
what is required for surface particles of a liquid to break a…
Vaporization
liquid to gas below boiling point
Normal Boiling Point
boiling point at 1 atm (101.3 kPa)
11 terms
Liquids and solids
Liquids
Fluidity
Viscosity
Surface tension
Much denser than gases because of the stronger intermolecular…
Ability to flow and diffuse
Measure of the resistance of a liquid to flow and is determin…
Energy required to increase the surface area of a liquid by a…
Liquids
Much denser than gases because of the stronger intermolecular…
Fluidity
Ability to flow and diffuse
18 terms
liquids and solids
alloy
atomic solid
crystalline solid
dipole-dipole attraction
a substance that contains a mixture of elements and has metal…
a solid that contains atoms at the lattice points
a solid characterized by the regular arrangement of its compo…
the attractive force resulting when polar molecules line up s…
alloy
a substance that contains a mixture of elements and has metal…
atomic solid
a solid that contains atoms at the lattice points
48 terms
Solids and Liquids
Diffusion
effusion
critical pressure
critical temperature
spontaneous mixing of the particles of two substances caused…
a process by which gas particles pass through a tiny opening
pressure required to liquify at critical temperature
temperature above which the substance cannot exist in the liq…
Diffusion
spontaneous mixing of the particles of two substances caused…
effusion
a process by which gas particles pass through a tiny opening
27 terms
Liquids and solids
Kinetic molecular theory
Intermolecular attractive forces
Vapor pressure
Average kinetic energy
Kinetic energy of the particles. Solid,low liquid,moderate, g…
Solid high, liquid low gas none
The pressure exerted from evaporating a liquid
Temperature
Kinetic molecular theory
Kinetic energy of the particles. Solid,low liquid,moderate, g…
Intermolecular attractive forces
Solid high, liquid low gas none
8 terms
Liquids And Solids
Intramolecular force
Intermolecular force (IMF)
Dispersion
Bonds
Bonds holds atoms together within a single molecule.... Polar an…
Attraction between molecules that hold molecules... together in…
Temporary dipole attractions... between nonpolar molecules that…
Ionic bond - holds metal/nonmetal ions together... Polar Covalen…
Intramolecular force
Bonds holds atoms together within a single molecule.... Polar an…
Intermolecular force (IMF)
Attraction between molecules that hold molecules... together in…
29 terms
Solids and Liquids
Endothermic
Exothermic
Absolute zero
Avogadro's Law
energy is absorbed (q+)
energy is released (-q)
the lowest possible temperature, the temperature at which all…
gases at the same temperature, pressure, and volume have the…
Endothermic
energy is absorbed (q+)
Exothermic
energy is released (-q)
26 terms
Solids and liquids
Ionic solids
Bonds in ionic solids
Are ionic solids soluble in water?
Is water polar or non polar?
Cryastalline solid at room temperature
Ionic bonds
Yes, "like dissolves like"
Polar
Ionic solids
Cryastalline solid at room temperature
Bonds in ionic solids
Ionic bonds
14 terms
Solids and Liquids
London Dispersion
Dipole Dipole
Hydrogen bonding
Ion ion
Weakest attraction
Between polar covalent molecules
Special case of dipole-dipole. Between hydrogen and either Ni…
Strongest attraction. Between ions
London Dispersion
Weakest attraction
Dipole Dipole
Between polar covalent molecules
52 terms
liquids and solids
intermolecular forces
intramolecular forces
ion dipole
dipole dipole force
forces of attraction between molecules
bonding forces that hold the atoms of a molecule together
polar molecules attracting cations or anion, ion and polar mo…
Intermolecular force of attraction between neighboring perman…
intermolecular forces
forces of attraction between molecules
intramolecular forces
bonding forces that hold the atoms of a molecule together
16 terms
Liquids and solids
Matter
The three states of matter
Solids
Liquids
Anything that takes up space
Solid,liquid,gas
Have definite shapes that do not change
Flow and take the shape of their containers
Matter
Anything that takes up space
The three states of matter
Solid,liquid,gas
60 terms
Solids and Liquids
How to Differentiate Particles...
Intermolecular Forces (IMFs)
London Dispersion Forces (LD)
The ________ the molecule, the stronge…
-Motion... -Shape (definite / unchanging or not, takes shape of…
Forces between molecules (gases have none or minimal, solids…
-Weak electrical attractions between all matter (protons and…
Bigger
How to Differentiate Particles...
-Motion... -Shape (definite / unchanging or not, takes shape of…
Intermolecular Forces (IMFs)
Forces between molecules (gases have none or minimal, solids…
45 terms
Liquids and Solids
Ionic crystal
Covalent crystal particles at lattice…
Examples of covalent crystals
Why are diamonds (sp3 hybrids) so hard?
Face centered cubic
Atoms
(Allotropes) ... Diamond (sp3) and graphite (sp2) and Quartz (Si…
Strong covalent bonds
Ionic crystal
Face centered cubic
Covalent crystal particles at lattice…
Atoms
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