Study sets matching "logic concepts"

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Study sets matching "logic concepts"

65 terms
Logic Concepts
How do we understand logical possibili…
If something involves a contradiction?
What is the difference between logical…
Are some things that are physically im…
If we can conceive a world where p is true, it is logically p…
It is not logically possible (round square, married bachelor)
Physical possibility is consistent with the laws of nature, l…
Yes, if we can conceive it to be so in some possible world th…
How do we understand logical possibili…
If we can conceive a world where p is true, it is logically p…
If something involves a contradiction?
It is not logically possible (round square, married bachelor)
Logic Concepts
Syntax
Semantics
Entailment
Sound
Specifies all the sentences in a language that are well formed
Defines truth of each sentence with respects to each possible…
The idea that a sentence follows logically from other sentances
An interference procedure that derives only entailed sentences
Syntax
Specifies all the sentences in a language that are well formed
Semantics
Defines truth of each sentence with respects to each possible…
LOGIC concepts
Validity
Soundness
Modus Ponens
Modus Tollens
-An argument w/ good deductive form.... -If the premises are tru…
-A valid argument that also has true premises.
-If P, then Q. P, therefore Q.... -Affirm the antecedent. VALID
-If P, then Q. Not Q, therefore not P.... -Deny the consequent.…
Validity
-An argument w/ good deductive form.... -If the premises are tru…
Soundness
-A valid argument that also has true premises.
Logic concepts
Argument
Inductive argument
Deductive argument
Valid argument
A group of statements of which a conclusion is supported by p…
Argument that assuming the premises it is possible but unlike…
Argument assuming the premises, it is impossible that the con…
Deductive argument such that assuming the premises, it is imp…
Argument
A group of statements of which a conclusion is supported by p…
Inductive argument
Argument that assuming the premises it is possible but unlike…
15 terms
Logic: Concepts
Logic
Argument
Premise vs. Conclusion
Declarative Sentence
The part of philosophy that studies arguments
Any set of two or more declarative sentences (propositions) o…
Premises are the declarative sentences used to come to the co…
Proposition = any sentence that is true or false (cannot be b…
Logic
The part of philosophy that studies arguments
Argument
Any set of two or more declarative sentences (propositions) o…
15 terms
logic concepts
Purpose of declarative sentences?
Why is logic important to epistemology…
Interrogative sentences
Imperative sentences
Communication: to tell someone that some state of affairs hol…
they are descriptions of some reality-- which we human percei…
Asks a question
Gives a command or makes a request
Purpose of declarative sentences?
Communication: to tell someone that some state of affairs hol…
Why is logic important to epistemology…
they are descriptions of some reality-- which we human percei…
106 terms
Logic Final Terms & Concepts
Equivocation
Amphiboly
Accent
Attacking the Man "Ad Hominem"
Using a word with two different senses: "Fire is God. Jim got…
Being unclear in syntax: "Once I worshipped fire wearing a ha…
Being unclear in the stressed word: "WE didn't start the fire…
Arguing against someone's personality instead of their argume…
Equivocation
Using a word with two different senses: "Fire is God. Jim got…
Amphiboly
Being unclear in syntax: "Once I worshipped fire wearing a ha…
21 terms
Logic Concepts for Bergin Chapter Three
~ means
the symbol ~ is called a
The main operator in a negation is a
. means
not
tilde
~
and
~ means
not
the symbol ~ is called a
tilde
39 terms
Logic - Chapter 1: Basic Concepts
Antecedent
Argument
Argument based on mathematics
Argument based on signs
(1) The component of a conditional statement immediately foll…
A group of statements, one or more of which (the premises) ar…
A deductive argument in which the conclusion depends on some…
An inductive argument that proceeds from the knowledge of a s…
Antecedent
(1) The component of a conditional statement immediately foll…
Argument
A group of statements, one or more of which (the premises) ar…
Basic logic Concepts
Conjunctive Fallacy
Heuristic
representative heuristic
Cognitive Biases
One assumes that specific conditions are more probable than a…
judgmental shortcut used to arrive at an answer instead of lo…
evaluates a particular case in relation to a certain stereotype
Psychological tendencies that can interfere with identifying…
Conjunctive Fallacy
One assumes that specific conditions are more probable than a…
Heuristic
judgmental shortcut used to arrive at an answer instead of lo…
Logic: Basic Concepts
Premise Indicators
Conclusion Indicators
What makes an argument?
Non-Arguments:... Non-inferential Passages
Since, as indicated by, bc, in that, as, given that, seeing t…
Therefore, wherefore, thus, consequently, we may infer, accor…
1) At least one of the statements must claim to present evide…
Lack a claim that anything is being proved... 1) Warning... 2) Adv…
Premise Indicators
Since, as indicated by, bc, in that, as, given that, seeing t…
Conclusion Indicators
Therefore, wherefore, thus, consequently, we may infer, accor…
8 terms
Logic Terms and Concepts
Proposition
Conclusion
Valid
Deductive Reasoning
A statement which is either true or false. ... In logical argume…
A conclusion is a statement which follows from the use of pre…
When a conclusions logically follows from the premises of an…
A type of argument which provides CONCLUSIVE PROOF of its con…
Proposition
A statement which is either true or false. ... In logical argume…
Conclusion
A conclusion is a statement which follows from the use of pre…
40 terms
Logic Midterm Concepts
Validity
Argument
Assertion
Key difference between an argument and…
whether the premises support the conclusion (may be false)
a group of statement, one or more of which (premises) are cla…
m
m
Validity
whether the premises support the conclusion (may be false)
Argument
a group of statement, one or more of which (premises) are cla…
Concepts of Propositional Logic
Argument
Deductively Valid
Deductive Soundness
Logical Consistency
A set of two or more sentences, one of which is designated as…
if and only if it is not possible for the premises to be true…
if and only if it is deductively valid and all its premises a…
if and only if it is possible for all the members of that set…
Argument
A set of two or more sentences, one of which is designated as…
Deductively Valid
if and only if it is not possible for the premises to be true…
20 terms
NursingLogic Nursing Concepts Advanced
suicidal patient threatening to leave…
gurgling sound from Central venous cat…
effective communication strategies for…
positioning for an infant 24 hours pos…
discuss risks associated with leaving
stop the infusion
cue client by providing cards that portray common needs
supine with HOB 30 degrees
suicidal patient threatening to leave…
discuss risks associated with leaving
gurgling sound from Central venous cat…
stop the infusion
18 terms
Logic Concepts for Bergin Chapter Five
Modus Ponens (MP)
Modus Tollens (MT)
Hypothetical Syllogism (HS)
Disjunctive Syllogism (DS)
p ⊃ q... p... ∴ q
p ⊃ q... ~q... ∴ ~p
p ⊃ q... q ⊃ r... ∴ p ⊃ r
p ∨ q... ~p... ∴ q
Modus Ponens (MP)
p ⊃ q... p... ∴ q
Modus Tollens (MT)
p ⊃ q... ~q... ∴ ~p
Logic Concepts Handout
Argument
Statement
premise indicators
conclusion indicators
a set of statements, one of which, the conclusion, is support…
a sentence that is either true or false
because, since, for
consequently, therefore, hence, it follows that
Argument
a set of statements, one of which, the conclusion, is support…
Statement
a sentence that is either true or false
20 terms
NursingLogic Nursing Concepts Advanced
suicidal patient threatening to leave…
gurgling sound from Central venous cat…
effective communication strategies for…
positioning for an infant 24 hours pos…
discuss risks associated with leaving
stop the infusion
cue client by providing cards that portray common needs
supine with HOB 30 degrees
suicidal patient threatening to leave…
discuss risks associated with leaving
gurgling sound from Central venous cat…
stop the infusion
Key Concepts in Logic
logic
argument
inference
deductive argument
The branch of philosophy that studies inference and argument—…
a set of claims, one of which (the conclusion) is supposed to…
the support that the premises of an argument provide for the…
an argument such that, on the assumption that the premises ar…
logic
The branch of philosophy that studies inference and argument—…
argument
a set of claims, one of which (the conclusion) is supposed to…
20 terms
Propositional Logic Concepts & Laws
Proposition
Axiom
Deduction
Argument
An unambiguous declarative statement that is either true or f…
Simple proposition we assume to be true, very hard to prove b…
Logical reasoning dealing with truth preservation... if p then q…
Set of propositions called premises leading to a proposition…
Proposition
An unambiguous declarative statement that is either true or f…
Axiom
Simple proposition we assume to be true, very hard to prove b…
95 terms
Introductory Logic: ALL Vocab & Concepts
a set of statements, one of which appe…
the statement of an argument which app…
a deductive argument consisting of thr…
the PREDICATE of the conclusion and is…
Argument
Conclusion
Categorical syllogism
Major term of a syllogism
a set of statements, one of which appe…
Argument
the statement of an argument which app…
Conclusion
9 terms
Basic Concepts of Logic
Logic
Argument
Truth values
Premises
The organized body of knowledge that evaluates arguments.
A group of statements in which the premises claim to provide…
Truth and falsity are called the two possible truth values of…
The statements that set forth the reasons or evidence.
Logic
The organized body of knowledge that evaluates arguments.
Argument
A group of statements in which the premises claim to provide…
Logic and Propaganda Terms and Concepts
Logic
Fallacy
Induction
Deduction
the Science of Reasoning; the formal study of the processes o…
an error in reasoning; a mistake in the rational thought proc…
reasoning from particular data gathered to a general conclusi…
reasoning from general to particular; in deduction an already…
Logic
the Science of Reasoning; the formal study of the processes o…
Fallacy
an error in reasoning; a mistake in the rational thought proc…
14 terms
Intro to Logic - The Central Concepts
Tautology
Contingency
Contradiction
Logical Equivalence
A sentence is a tautology if it is true in every case
A sentence is a contingency if it is true in at least one
A sentence is a contradiction if it is false in every row
Two sentences are logically equivalent if they have the *same…
Tautology
A sentence is a tautology if it is true in every case
Contingency
A sentence is a contingency if it is true in at least one
Logic Test 1 (Concepts)
Spiritual concept
Abstract concept
universal concept
interrelated concept
concept of its meaning (ex: apple v. the WORD "Apple")
mentally taking away from (ex: the size or color of a flower)
"everything" (ex: TREES, everything, etc.)
relations between other concepts (ex: Trees have leaves)
Spiritual concept
concept of its meaning (ex: apple v. the WORD "Apple")
Abstract concept
mentally taking away from (ex: the size or color of a flower)
21 terms
Logic Concepts for Bergin Chapter Three
~ means
the symbol ~ is called a
The main operator in a negation is a
. means
not
tilde
~
and
~ means
not
the symbol ~ is called a
tilde
64 terms
Basic Concepts Logic
logic
argument
deductive argument
inductive argument
study of methods for evaluating whether the premises of an ar…
set of statements where some of the statements, called premis…
premises are intended to garuntee the conclusion
premises are intended to make the conclusion probable, withou…
logic
study of methods for evaluating whether the premises of an ar…
argument
set of statements where some of the statements, called premis…
39 terms
Logic - Chapter 1: Basic Concepts
Antecedent
Argument
Argument based on mathematics
Argument based on signs
(1) The component of a conditional statement immediately foll…
A group of statements, one or more of which (the premises) ar…
A deductive argument in which the conclusion depends on some…
An inductive argument that proceeds from the knowledge of a s…
Antecedent
(1) The component of a conditional statement immediately foll…
Argument
A group of statements, one or more of which (the premises) ar…
15 terms
Bioethics Key Concepts in Logic
Logic
Argument
Inference
Deductive argument
The branch of philosophy that studies inference and argument—…
a set of claims, one of which (the conclusion) is supposed to…
the support that the premises of an argument provide for the…
an argument such that, on the assumption that the premises ar…
Logic
The branch of philosophy that studies inference and argument—…
Argument
a set of claims, one of which (the conclusion) is supposed to…
15 terms
Definitions for Key Concepts in Logic
Logic
argument
inference
Deductive argument
the branch of philosophy that studies inference and argument.…
a set of claims, one of which (the conclusion? is supposed to…
the support that the premises of an argument provide for the…
an argument such that, on the assumption that the premises ar…
Logic
the branch of philosophy that studies inference and argument.…
argument
a set of claims, one of which (the conclusion? is supposed to…
7 terms
Basic Concepts of Logic
Validity (definition)
If a set is SATISFIABLE,
A sentence is SATISFIABLE...
VALID sentences are ____
the truth of the premises guarantees the truth of the conclus…
it is not contradictory
iff it is not contradictory
true in every circumstance
Validity (definition)
the truth of the premises guarantees the truth of the conclus…
If a set is SATISFIABLE,
it is not contradictory
13 terms
1) Basic logic concepts
Argument
Statement
Premise
Conclusion
a group of of statements which one (the conclusion) is claime…
A sentence that is either true or false.
the information intended to provide support for a conclusion.
The statement that is claimed to follow from the premises of…
Argument
a group of of statements which one (the conclusion) is claime…
Statement
A sentence that is either true or false.
13 terms
Logic Concepts for Bergin Chapter One and Two
statement
argument
premise
conclusion
a sentence used to declare something is true
a set of statements in which some (premises) are used to supp…
in an argument, a reason given in support of a conclusion
in an argument, what the premises are supporting as true, wha…
statement
a sentence used to declare something is true
argument
a set of statements in which some (premises) are used to supp…
Logic basic concepts
Logic
Arguement
Statement
Truth Values
organized body of knowledge, or science, that evaluates argue…
a group of statements claimed to provide support for/reasons…
a sentence that is either true or false. A declarative senten…
there are two: truth and falsity
Logic
organized body of knowledge, or science, that evaluates argue…
Arguement
a group of statements claimed to provide support for/reasons…
basic concepts deductive logic
valid argument
invalid argument
venn diagram invalidity
venn diagram validity
just when, if the premises were all true, then the conclusion…
just when it is possible for the premises all to be true and…
just when it is possible to draw a Venn diagram in which the…
just when it is impossible to draw a Venn diagram in which th…
valid argument
just when, if the premises were all true, then the conclusion…
invalid argument
just when it is possible for the premises all to be true and…
45 terms
Argument and Logic Concepts
An argument is the kind of thing that…
A sentence that does not contain an ar…
An argument is the kind of thing that…
A sentence that does not contain an ar…
False; arguments can only be valid, invalid, strong, weak, so…
False
True
False
An argument is the kind of thing that…
False; arguments can only be valid, invalid, strong, weak, so…
A sentence that does not contain an ar…
False
NursingLogic Nursing Concepts Advanced
suicidal patient threatening to leave…
gurgling sound from Central venous cat…
effective communication strategies for…
positioning for an infant 24 hours pos…
discuss risks associated with leaving
stop the infusion
cue client by providing cards that portray common needs
supine with HOB 30 degrees
suicidal patient threatening to leave…
discuss risks associated with leaving
gurgling sound from Central venous cat…
stop the infusion
11 terms
Logic Concepts of Bergin Chapter Four
variable
symbol
a table for a statement with one varia…
a table for a statement with two varia…
when symbolizing propositional logic, a capital letter that i…
when symbolizing, the figure standing in for a logical operator
2 rows
4 rows
variable
when symbolizing propositional logic, a capital letter that i…
symbol
when symbolizing, the figure standing in for a logical operator
20 terms
Logic and Ethics : Concept
Heart of Logic
Basic essentialities
Concept
Plato and Aristotle
Spending most of oyr time and effort analyzing arguments
1. All humans are mortals.... 2. Some Mortals are not rational b…
(Idea) is a product of mental act.
Theory of Knowledge
Heart of Logic
Spending most of oyr time and effort analyzing arguments
Basic essentialities
1. All humans are mortals.... 2. Some Mortals are not rational b…
ATI Nurse Logic Nursing Concepts
goals of client centered care
client centered care
nursing process
higher level of satisfaction. Increase quality of care. More…
compassionate, culturally sensitive care, based on psych, soc…
assess, analyze, plan, implement, evaluate
goals of client centered care
higher level of satisfaction. Increase quality of care. More…
client centered care
compassionate, culturally sensitive care, based on psych, soc…
21 terms
Logic final concept recap
Deductively valid
truth-functionally valid
Deductively sound
Logically consistent
an argument is deductively valid if and only if it is not pos…
an argument of SL: iff there is no truth-value assignment on…
an argument is deductively sound if and only if it is valid a…
a set of sentences is logically consistent if and only if it…
Deductively valid
an argument is deductively valid if and only if it is not pos…
truth-functionally valid
an argument of SL: iff there is no truth-value assignment on…
15 terms
Basic Logical Concepts
There are no valid arguments with all…
All sound arguments are valid arguments
There are no invalid arguments with al…
All valid arguments are sound arguments.
False
True
False
False
There are no valid arguments with all…
False
All sound arguments are valid arguments
True
39 terms
Logic - Chapter 1: Basic Concepts
Antecedent
Argument
Argument based on mathematics
Argument based on signs
(1) The component of a conditional statement immediately foll…
A group of statements, one or more of which (the premises) ar…
A deductive argument in which the conclusion depends on some…
An inductive argument that proceeds from the knowledge of a s…
Antecedent
(1) The component of a conditional statement immediately foll…
Argument
A group of statements, one or more of which (the premises) ar…
29 terms
Logic | Chapter 1: Basic Concepts
logic
argument
statement
truth values
the organized body of knowledge, or science, that evaluates a…
a group of statements, one or more of which (the premises) ar…
a sentence that is either true or false
a fundamental property of any statement; two possibilities: t…
logic
the organized body of knowledge, or science, that evaluates a…
argument
a group of statements, one or more of which (the premises) ar…
14 terms
Basic Logical concepts
Logic
Proposition
Statement
Inference
The study of the methods and principles used to determine cor…
A statement that is being asserted. Always either true or fal…
A proposition that is being asserted but not the sentence its…
A process by which one proposition is arrived at and affirmed…
Logic
The study of the methods and principles used to determine cor…
Proposition
A statement that is being asserted. Always either true or fal…
logic chapter 1: basic concepts
logic
What is reasoning?
conclusion
premises
the study if methods for evaluating whether the premise of an…
the process of thinking by which we draw conclusion from info…
the claim to be supported
are the statements offered in support
logic
the study if methods for evaluating whether the premise of an…
What is reasoning?
the process of thinking by which we draw conclusion from info…
10 terms
NurseLogic: Nursing Concepts Advanced
a nurse is working in a provider's off…
a nurse working in a hospice facility…
A nurse is caring for a client who has…
A nurse is caring for a child who is 2…
-facial edema... indication of pregnancy induced hypertension
-Let's discuss some strategies you can use when this happens…
-determine respiratory status
-supine with the head of the bed elevated to 30 degrees
a nurse is working in a provider's off…
-facial edema... indication of pregnancy induced hypertension
a nurse working in a hospice facility…
-Let's discuss some strategies you can use when this happens…
Logical Concepts and Terms
Parts of an argument
Evaluating arguments and inferences
Types of logical systems
Ambiguity
argument, premises, conclusion, sentence, contant, variable,…
validity, soundness, equivalence, consequence, proof, counter…
tautological/sentential, first-order, Tarski's World,
a feature of natural languages that makes it possible for a s…
Parts of an argument
argument, premises, conclusion, sentence, contant, variable,…
Evaluating arguments and inferences
validity, soundness, equivalence, consequence, proof, counter…
13 terms
Logical Reasoning Concepts
Conditional Statement
Sufficient Condition
Necessary Condition
If...then
When a statement contains a sufficient condition and a necess…
An event or circumstance whose occurrence indicates that a ne…
An event or circumstance whose occurrence is required in orde…
If --> Necessary Then ---> Sufficient
Conditional Statement
When a statement contains a sufficient condition and a necess…
Sufficient Condition
An event or circumstance whose occurrence indicates that a ne…
20 terms
Basic Logical Concepts
Modus Ponens
Modus Tollens
Disjunctive Syllogism
Constructive Dilemma
(1) If p, then q.... (2)p.... Therefore, q.
(1) If p, then q.... (2)~q.... Therefore, ~p.
(1) p or q.... (2) ~q.... Therefore, p.
(1) p or q.... (2) If p, then r.... (3) If q, then s.... Therefore, r…
Modus Ponens
(1) If p, then q.... (2)p.... Therefore, q.
Modus Tollens
(1) If p, then q.... (2)~q.... Therefore, ~p.
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