# Study sets matching "logic concepts"

How do we understand logical possibilit…

If something involves a contradiction?

What is the difference between logical…

Are some things that are physically imp…

If we can conceive a world where p is true, it is logically po…

It is not logically possible (round square, married bachelor)

Physical possibility is consistent with the laws of nature, lo…

Yes, if we can conceive it to be so in some possible world tha…

How do we understand logical possibilit…

If we can conceive a world where p is true, it is logically po…

If something involves a contradiction?

It is not logically possible (round square, married bachelor)

Argument

Inductive argument

Deductive argument

Valid argument

A group of statements of which a conclusion is supported by pr…

Argument that assuming the premises it is possible but unlikel…

Argument assuming the premises, it is impossible that the conc…

Deductive argument such that assuming the premises, it is impo…

Argument

A group of statements of which a conclusion is supported by pr…

Inductive argument

Argument that assuming the premises it is possible but unlikel…

Validity

Soundness

Modus Ponens

Modus Tollens

-An argument w/ good deductive form.... -If the premises are true…

-A valid argument that also has true premises.

-If P, then Q. P, therefore Q.... -Affirm the antecedent. VALID

-If P, then Q. Not Q, therefore not P.... -Deny the consequent. I…

Validity

-An argument w/ good deductive form.... -If the premises are true…

Soundness

-A valid argument that also has true premises.

Syntax

Semantics

Entailment

Sound

Specifies all the sentences in a language that are well formed

Defines truth of each sentence with respects to each possible…

The idea that a sentence follows logically from other sentances

An interference procedure that derives only entailed sentences

Syntax

Specifies all the sentences in a language that are well formed

Semantics

Defines truth of each sentence with respects to each possible…

Purpose of declarative sentences?

Why is logic important to epistemology…

Interrogative sentences

Imperative sentences

Communication: to tell someone that some state of affairs hold…

they are descriptions of some reality-- which we human perceiv…

Asks a question

Gives a command or makes a request

Purpose of declarative sentences?

Communication: to tell someone that some state of affairs hold…

Why is logic important to epistemology…

they are descriptions of some reality-- which we human perceiv…

Premise Indicators

Conclusion Indicators

What makes an argument?

Non-Arguments:... Non-inferential Passages

Since, as indicated by, bc, in that, as, given that, seeing th…

Therefore, wherefore, thus, consequently, we may infer, accord…

1) At least one of the statements must claim to present eviden…

Lack a claim that anything is being proved... 1) Warning... 2) Advi…

Premise Indicators

Since, as indicated by, bc, in that, as, given that, seeing th…

Conclusion Indicators

Therefore, wherefore, thus, consequently, we may infer, accord…

Logic

Proposition

Statement

Inference

The study of the methods and principles used to distinguish co…

A statement; what is typically asserted using a declarative se…

A proposition; what is typically asserted by a declarative sen…

process by which one proposition is arrived at and affirmed on…

Logic

The study of the methods and principles used to distinguish co…

Proposition

A statement; what is typically asserted using a declarative se…

Proposition/Statement

Simple Proposition

Conjunctive Proposition

Disjunctive Propositions

What is asserted or denied by a sentence that is either true o…

Contains a subject and one predicate (can be a compound predic…

Either a compound subject and single predicate or a simple sub…

Either/or propositions (i.e. either the Buddha did achieve enl…

Proposition/Statement

What is asserted or denied by a sentence that is either true o…

Simple Proposition

Contains a subject and one predicate (can be a compound predic…

Spiritual concept

Abstract concept

universal concept

interrelated concept

concept of its meaning (ex: apple v. the WORD "Apple")

mentally taking away from (ex: the size or color of a flower)

"everything" (ex: TREES, everything, etc.)

relations between other concepts (ex: Trees have leaves)

Spiritual concept

concept of its meaning (ex: apple v. the WORD "Apple")

Abstract concept

mentally taking away from (ex: the size or color of a flower)

false

false

false

true

if an argument is sound or cogent, we say that it is a true ar…

a valid argument must have a true conclusion

a cogent argument may have a false premise

it is possible an argument with all true premises to be invalid

false

if an argument is sound or cogent, we say that it is a true ar…

false

a valid argument must have a true conclusion

Deductive argument

Inductive argument

Argument based on mathematics

Argument from definition

arguments that incorporate the claim that it is impossible for…

an argument incorporating the claim that it is improbable that…

an argument in which the conclusion depends on some purely ari…

an argument in which the conclusion is claimed to depend merel…

Deductive argument

arguments that incorporate the claim that it is impossible for…

Inductive argument

an argument incorporating the claim that it is improbable that…

Deductive argument

Inductive argument

Argument based on mathematics

Argument from definition

arguments that incorporate the claim that it is impossible for…

an argument incorporating the claim that it is improbable that…

an argument in which the conclusion depends on some purely ari…

an argument in which the conclusion is claimed to depend merel…

Deductive argument

arguments that incorporate the claim that it is impossible for…

Inductive argument

an argument incorporating the claim that it is improbable that…

A name, or singular term, is...

A predicate is...

The extension of a predicate is...

Two predicates are coextensive if...

any expression in a statement that purportedly designates a si…

the expression obtained from a statement by removing one or mo…

the collection of things of which the predicate is true

iff they are true of exactly the same things

A name, or singular term, is...

any expression in a statement that purportedly designates a si…

A predicate is...

the expression obtained from a statement by removing one or mo…

Conjunctive Fallacy

Heuristic

representative heuristic

Cognitive Biases

One assumes that specific conditions are more probable than a…

judgmental shortcut used to arrive at an answer instead of log…

evaluates a particular case in relation to a certain stereotype

Psychological tendencies that can interfere with identifying t…

Conjunctive Fallacy

One assumes that specific conditions are more probable than a…

Heuristic

judgmental shortcut used to arrive at an answer instead of log…

Logic

Arguement

Statement

Truth Values

organized body of knowledge, or science, that evaluates arguem…

a group of statements claimed to provide support for/reasons t…

a sentence that is either true or false. A declarative sentenc…

there are two: truth and falsity

Logic

organized body of knowledge, or science, that evaluates arguem…

Arguement

a group of statements claimed to provide support for/reasons t…

Argument

Deductively Valid

Deductive Soundness

Logical Consistency

A set of two or more sentences, one of which is designated as…

if and only if it is not possible for the premises to be true…

if and only if it is deductively valid and all its premises ar…

if and only if it is possible for all the members of that set…

Argument

A set of two or more sentences, one of which is designated as…

Deductively Valid

if and only if it is not possible for the premises to be true…

Argument

Statement

premise indicators

conclusion indicators

a set of statements, one of which, the conclusion, is supporte…

a sentence that is either true or false

because, since, for

consequently, therefore, hence, it follows that

Argument

a set of statements, one of which, the conclusion, is supporte…

Statement

a sentence that is either true or false

logic

argument

inference

deductive argument

The branch of philosophy that studies inference and argument—i…

a set of claims, one of which (the conclusion) is supposed to…

the support that the premises of an argument provide for the c…

an argument such that, on the assumption that the premises are…

logic

The branch of philosophy that studies inference and argument—i…

argument

a set of claims, one of which (the conclusion) is supposed to…

Heart of Logic

Basic essentialities

Concept

Plato and Aristotle

Spending most of oyr time and effort analyzing arguments

1. All humans are mortals.... 2. Some Mortals are not rational be…

(Idea) is a product of mental act.

Theory of Knowledge

Heart of Logic

Spending most of oyr time and effort analyzing arguments

Basic essentialities

1. All humans are mortals.... 2. Some Mortals are not rational be…

Proposition

Axiom

Deduction

Argument

An unambiguous declarative statement that is either true or fa…

Simple proposition we assume to be true, very hard to prove be…

Logical reasoning dealing with truth preservation... if p then q…

Set of propositions called premises leading to a proposition c…

Proposition

An unambiguous declarative statement that is either true or fa…

Axiom

Simple proposition we assume to be true, very hard to prove be…

Logic

Analysis

Appraisal

Arguments

The analysis and appraisal of arguments.

Looking at somethings structure

Deciding how good something is

ONLY arguments can be valid or invalid... Arguments can't be true…

Logic

The analysis and appraisal of arguments.

Analysis

Looking at somethings structure

Logic

Fallacy

Induction

Deduction

the Science of Reasoning; the formal study of the processes of…

an error in reasoning; a mistake in the rational thought proce…

reasoning from particular data gathered to a general conclusio…

reasoning from general to particular; in deduction an already…

Logic

the Science of Reasoning; the formal study of the processes of…

Fallacy

an error in reasoning; a mistake in the rational thought proce…

logic

argument

deductive argument

inductive argument

study of methods for evaluating whether the premises of an arg…

set of statements where some of the statements, called premise…

premises are intended to garuntee the conclusion

premises are intended to make the conclusion probable, without…

logic

study of methods for evaluating whether the premises of an arg…

argument

set of statements where some of the statements, called premise…

What is a truth function?

A schema is in CNF if...

Every truth function is expressible by.…

Every truth function is equivalent to o…

a truth function is the correlation of each truth-value assign…

it is a conjunction where every conjunct is a disjunction of s…

CNF

in CNF and one in DNF

What is a truth function?

a truth function is the correlation of each truth-value assign…

A schema is in CNF if...

it is a conjunction where every conjunct is a disjunction of s…

Deductively valid

truth-functionally valid

Deductively sound

Logically consistent

an argument is deductively valid if and only if it is not poss…

an argument of SL: iff there is no truth-value assignment on w…

an argument is deductively sound if and only if it is valid an…

a set of sentences is logically consistent if and only if it i…

Deductively valid

an argument is deductively valid if and only if it is not poss…

truth-functionally valid

an argument of SL: iff there is no truth-value assignment on w…