#### Study sets matching "logic concepts"

#### Study sets matching "logic concepts"

How do we understand logical possibilit…

If something involves a contradiction?

What is the difference between logical…

Are some things that are physically imp…

If we can conceive a world where p is true, it is logically po…

It is not logically possible (round square, married bachelor)

Physical possibility is consistent with the laws of nature, lo…

Yes, if we can conceive it to be so in some possible world tha…

How do we understand logical possibilit…

If we can conceive a world where p is true, it is logically po…

If something involves a contradiction?

It is not logically possible (round square, married bachelor)

Validity

Soundness

Modus Ponens

Modus Tollens

-An argument w/ good deductive form.... -If the premises are true…

-A valid argument that also has true premises.

-If P, then Q. P, therefore Q.... -Affirm the antecedent. VALID

-If P, then Q. Not Q, therefore not P.... -Deny the consequent. I…

Validity

-An argument w/ good deductive form.... -If the premises are true…

Soundness

-A valid argument that also has true premises.

Syntax

Semantics

Entailment

Sound

Specifies all the sentences in a language that are well formed

Defines truth of each sentence with respects to each possible…

The idea that a sentence follows logically from other sentances

An interference procedure that derives only entailed sentences

Syntax

Specifies all the sentences in a language that are well formed

Semantics

Defines truth of each sentence with respects to each possible…

Argument

Inductive argument

Deductive argument

Valid argument

A group of statements of which a conclusion is supported by pr…

Argument that assuming the premises it is possible but unlikel…

Argument assuming the premises, it is impossible that the conc…

Deductive argument such that assuming the premises, it is impo…

Argument

A group of statements of which a conclusion is supported by pr…

Inductive argument

Argument that assuming the premises it is possible but unlikel…

Purpose of declarative sentences?

Why is logic important to epistemology…

Interrogative sentences

Imperative sentences

Communication: to tell someone that some state of affairs hold…

they are descriptions of some reality-- which we human perceiv…

Asks a question

Gives a command or makes a request

Purpose of declarative sentences?

Communication: to tell someone that some state of affairs hold…

Why is logic important to epistemology…

they are descriptions of some reality-- which we human perceiv…

Antecedent

Argument

Argument based on mathematics

Argument based on signs

(1) The component of a conditional statement immediately follo…

A group of statements, one or more of which (the premises) are…

A deductive argument in which the conclusion depends on some p…

An inductive argument that proceeds from the knowledge of a si…

Antecedent

(1) The component of a conditional statement immediately follo…

Argument

A group of statements, one or more of which (the premises) are…

Premise Indicators

Conclusion Indicators

What makes an argument?

Non-Arguments:... Non-inferential Passages

Since, as indicated by, bc, in that, as, given that, seeing th…

Therefore, wherefore, thus, consequently, we may infer, accord…

1) At least one of the statements must claim to present eviden…

Lack a claim that anything is being proved... 1) Warning... 2) Advi…

Premise Indicators

Since, as indicated by, bc, in that, as, given that, seeing th…

Conclusion Indicators

Therefore, wherefore, thus, consequently, we may infer, accord…

Spiritual concept

Abstract concept

universal concept

interrelated concept

concept of its meaning (ex: apple v. the WORD "Apple")

mentally taking away from (ex: the size or color of a flower)

"everything" (ex: TREES, everything, etc.)

relations between other concepts (ex: Trees have leaves)

Spiritual concept

concept of its meaning (ex: apple v. the WORD "Apple")

Abstract concept

mentally taking away from (ex: the size or color of a flower)

false

false

false

true

if an argument is sound or cogent, we say that it is a true ar…

a valid argument must have a true conclusion

a cogent argument may have a false premise

it is possible an argument with all true premises to be invalid

false

if an argument is sound or cogent, we say that it is a true ar…

false

a valid argument must have a true conclusion

Argument

Deductively Valid

Deductive Soundness

Logical Consistency

A set of two or more sentences, one of which is designated as…

if and only if it is not possible for the premises to be true…

if and only if it is deductively valid and all its premises ar…

if and only if it is possible for all the members of that set…

Argument

A set of two or more sentences, one of which is designated as…

Deductively Valid

if and only if it is not possible for the premises to be true…

A name, or singular term, is...

A predicate is...

The extension of a predicate is...

Two predicates are coextensive if...

any expression in a statement that purportedly designates a si…

the expression obtained from a statement by removing one or mo…

the collection of things of which the predicate is true

iff they are true of exactly the same things

A name, or singular term, is...

any expression in a statement that purportedly designates a si…

A predicate is...

the expression obtained from a statement by removing one or mo…

Conjunctive Fallacy

Heuristic

representative heuristic

Cognitive Biases

One assumes that specific conditions are more probable than a…

judgmental shortcut used to arrive at an answer instead of log…

evaluates a particular case in relation to a certain stereotype

Psychological tendencies that can interfere with identifying t…

Conjunctive Fallacy

One assumes that specific conditions are more probable than a…

Heuristic

judgmental shortcut used to arrive at an answer instead of log…

Argument

Statement

premise indicators

conclusion indicators

a set of statements, one of which, the conclusion, is supporte…

a sentence that is either true or false

because, since, for

consequently, therefore, hence, it follows that

Argument

a set of statements, one of which, the conclusion, is supporte…

Statement

a sentence that is either true or false

suicidal patient threatening to leave A…

gurgling sound from Central venous cath…

effective communication strategies for…

positioning for an infant 24 hours post…

discuss risks associated with leaving

stop the infusion

cue client by providing cards that portray common needs

supine with HOB 30 degrees

suicidal patient threatening to leave A…

discuss risks associated with leaving

gurgling sound from Central venous cath…

stop the infusion

Antecedent

Argument

Argument based on mathematics

Argument based on signs

(1) The component of a conditional statement immediately follo…

A group of statements, one or more of which (the premises) are…

A deductive argument in which the conclusion depends on some p…

An inductive argument that proceeds from the knowledge of a si…

Antecedent

(1) The component of a conditional statement immediately follo…

Argument

A group of statements, one or more of which (the premises) are…

logic

argument

inference

deductive argument

The branch of philosophy that studies inference and argument—i…

a set of claims, one of which (the conclusion) is supposed to…

the support that the premises of an argument provide for the c…

an argument such that, on the assumption that the premises are…

logic

The branch of philosophy that studies inference and argument—i…

argument

a set of claims, one of which (the conclusion) is supposed to…

Proposition

Axiom

Deduction

Argument

An unambiguous declarative statement that is either true or fa…

Simple proposition we assume to be true, very hard to prove be…

Logical reasoning dealing with truth preservation... if p then q…

Set of propositions called premises leading to a proposition c…

Proposition

An unambiguous declarative statement that is either true or fa…

Axiom

Simple proposition we assume to be true, very hard to prove be…

suicidal patient threatening to leave A…

gurgling sound from Central venous cath…

effective communication strategies for…

positioning for an infant 24 hours post…

discuss risks associated with leaving

stop the infusion

cue client by providing cards that portray common needs

supine with HOB 30 degrees

suicidal patient threatening to leave A…

discuss risks associated with leaving

gurgling sound from Central venous cath…

stop the infusion

a set of statements, one of which appea…

the statement of an argument which appe…

a deductive argument consisting of thre…

the PREDICATE of the conclusion and is…

Argument

Conclusion

Categorical syllogism

Major term of a syllogism

a set of statements, one of which appea…

Argument

the statement of an argument which appe…

Conclusion

Logic

Fallacy

Induction

Deduction

the Science of Reasoning; the formal study of the processes of…

an error in reasoning; a mistake in the rational thought proce…

reasoning from particular data gathered to a general conclusio…

reasoning from general to particular; in deduction an already…

Logic

the Science of Reasoning; the formal study of the processes of…

Fallacy

an error in reasoning; a mistake in the rational thought proce…

Tautology

Contingency

Contradiction

Logical Equivalence

A sentence is a tautology if it is true in

**every**caseA sentence is a contingency if it is

**true**in**at least one**…A sentence is a contradiction if it is

**false**in**every**rowTwo sentences are logically equivalent if they have the

**same**…Tautology

A sentence is a tautology if it is true in

**every**caseContingency

A sentence is a contingency if it is

**true**in**at least one**…Logic

Analysis

Appraisal

Arguments

The analysis and appraisal of arguments.

Looking at somethings structure

Deciding how good something is

ONLY arguments can be valid or invalid... Arguments can't be true…

Logic

The analysis and appraisal of arguments.

Analysis

Looking at somethings structure

Proposition/Statement

Simple Proposition

Conjunctive Proposition

Disjunctive Propositions

What is asserted or denied by a sentence that is either true o…

Contains a subject and one predicate (can be a compound predic…

Either a compound subject and single predicate or a simple sub…

Either/or propositions (i.e. either the Buddha did achieve enl…

Proposition/Statement

What is asserted or denied by a sentence that is either true o…

Simple Proposition

Contains a subject and one predicate (can be a compound predic…