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Study sets matching "logic critical thinking"

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Study sets matching "logic critical thinking"

23 terms
Logic & Critical Thinking Fallacies
Red Herring
Appealing to Pity
Appealing to Prejudice
Appealing to Tradition
When the speaker brings in something... to distract the attentio…
When an arguer tries to get people to... accept a conclusion by…
When the writers of an argument... benefit from appealing to the…
When the line of thinking asserts that... the premise must be tr…
Red Herring
When the speaker brings in something... to distract the attentio…
Appealing to Pity
When an arguer tries to get people to... accept a conclusion by…
29 terms
Logic & Critical Thinking
Reasoning
Inference
Statement
Argument
Finding a relationship between thoughts
the special relationship between different thoughts
is a sentence that is used to make a claim that is either tru…
a set of statements that claim something or another
Reasoning
Finding a relationship between thoughts
Inference
the special relationship between different thoughts
42 terms
WGU - CRITICAL THINKING & LOGIC
IMPEDIMENTS/BAD HABITS TO SOUND THINKI…
EGOCENTRISM:
SOCIOCENTRISM:
CRITICAL THINKING IS CHARACTERISTICALLY:
- Making generalizations unsupported by evidence... - Letting st…
the tendency to view everything in relationship to oneself.
the assumption that one's own social group is inherently supe…
self-directed; self-disciplined; self-monitored;... self-correct…
IMPEDIMENTS/BAD HABITS TO SOUND THINKI…
- Making generalizations unsupported by evidence... - Letting st…
EGOCENTRISM:
the tendency to view everything in relationship to oneself.
Logic and Critical Thinking Quiz
A argument
E argument
I argument
O argument
universal affirmative- all S are P
universal negative- no S are P
particular affirmative- some S are P
particular negative- some S are not P
A argument
universal affirmative- all S are P
E argument
universal negative- no S are P
Critical Thinking (Logic)
Definition of Logic
Informal Logic or Critical Thinking
Formal Logic
Declarative Statement
The study of the principles of correct reasoning
Sometimes it is used to refer to the study of reasoning and f…
Mainly concerned with formal systems of logic. These are spec…
Statements used for assertions
Definition of Logic
The study of the principles of correct reasoning
Informal Logic or Critical Thinking
Sometimes it is used to refer to the study of reasoning and f…
126 terms
Critical Thinking & Logic - WGU
Reasoned Opinion
Reasoning
Evidence
Conclusion
Statements that express opinions that are supported by reason…
A logical and systematic approach to thinking about something.
The facts available to support a conclusion.
The statement in an argument that we claim is implied by the…
Reasoned Opinion
Statements that express opinions that are supported by reason…
Reasoning
A logical and systematic approach to thinking about something.
114 terms
WGU Critical Thinking and Logic
Fallacy
Reasoning
Objective Statements
Evidence
An argument that is based on poor reasoning; A mistake in the…
A logical and systematic approach to thinking about something…
Statements based on factual research that are subject to form…
The facts available to support a conclusion or a particular c…
Fallacy
An argument that is based on poor reasoning; A mistake in the…
Reasoning
A logical and systematic approach to thinking about something…
387 terms
C168 - Critical Thinking and Logic
bottom-up approach to critical reasoning
Critical thinking comprises three inte…
Critical thinking is characteristically:
egocentrism
-Analyzing one's own thinking- breaking it down into its comp…
self-directed... self-disciplined... self-monitored... self-corrective
the tendency to view everything in relationship to oneself;
bottom-up approach to critical reasoning
Critical thinking comprises three inte…
-Analyzing one's own thinking- breaking it down into its comp…
51 terms
Logic and Critical Thinking
Intent
Appeal to force:
Appeal to pity
Appeal to the people:
Many fallacies are completed intentionally... Intent revolves ar…
An informal fallacy that occurs when an arguer threatens a re…
Appeal to pity: An informal fallacy that occurs when an argue…
An informal fallacy that occurs when an arguer plays on certa…
Intent
Many fallacies are completed intentionally... Intent revolves ar…
Appeal to force:
An informal fallacy that occurs when an arguer threatens a re…
92 terms
Critical Thinking and Logic
Egocentrism
Fair-mindedness
Fallacies
Intellectual cowardice
The tendency to view everything in relationship to oneself an…
The commitment to consider all relevant opinions equally with…
Flaws or errors in reasoning which, when found in the premise…
Fear of ideas or viewpoints that do not conform to one's own
Egocentrism
The tendency to view everything in relationship to oneself an…
Fair-mindedness
The commitment to consider all relevant opinions equally with…
154 terms
Critical Thinking and Logic
Critical Thinking
Analysis, Evaluation, Improvement
Purpose, Question, Information, Concep…
Clarity, Accuracy, Relevance, Logic, B…
the art of thinking about thinking while thinking in order to…
The 3 main steps in critical thinking are...
The 9 main Parts or Elements of Thinking are...
The 9 main Elements of Reasoning or Standards of Thought are...
Critical Thinking
the art of thinking about thinking while thinking in order to…
Analysis, Evaluation, Improvement
The 3 main steps in critical thinking are...
40 terms
Logic and Critical Thinking Final
Name "The Four Idols" of Francis Bacon
Describe the "Tribe" of Bacons four id…
Describe the "Cave" of Bacons four idols
Describe the "Market Place" of Bacons…
Tribe... Cave... Marketplace... Theater
1. People are inclined to place too much order and regularity…
1. Errors due to individual nature, education, teachers, book…
1) equivocation and imprecise language... 2) words cannot be def…
Name "The Four Idols" of Francis Bacon
Tribe... Cave... Marketplace... Theater
Describe the "Tribe" of Bacons four id…
1. People are inclined to place too much order and regularity…
114 terms
WGU Critical Thinking and Logic
Fallacy
Reasoning
Objective Statements
Evidence
An argument that is based on poor reasoning; A mistake in the…
A logical and systematic approach to thinking about something…
Statements based on factual research that are subject to form…
The facts available to support a conclusion or a particular c…
Fallacy
An argument that is based on poor reasoning; A mistake in the…
Reasoning
A logical and systematic approach to thinking about something…
20 terms
LOGIC and CRITICAL THINKING
Logic is an Art
Logic is an Science
Branches of philosophy
Ethics
Creativity in different forms.
Systematic approach.
Ethics, metaphysics, aesthetics, epistemology, cosmology, phe…
Morality of human conduct.
Logic is an Art
Creativity in different forms.
Logic is an Science
Systematic approach.
WGU - CRITICAL THINKING & LOGIC
IMPEDIMENTS/BAD HABITS TO SOUND THINKI…
EGOCENTRISM:
SOCIOCENTRISM:
CRITICAL THINKING IS CHARACTERISTICALLY:
- Making generalizations unsupported by evidence... - Letting st…
the tendency to view everything in relationship to oneself.
the assumption that one's own social group is inherently supe…
self-directed; self-disciplined; self-monitored;... self-correct…
IMPEDIMENTS/BAD HABITS TO SOUND THINKI…
- Making generalizations unsupported by evidence... - Letting st…
EGOCENTRISM:
the tendency to view everything in relationship to oneself.
126 terms
Critical Thinking & Logic - WGU
Reasoned Opinion
Reasoning
Evidence
Conclusion
Statements that express opinions that are supported by reason…
A logical and systematic approach to thinking about something.
The facts available to support a conclusion.
The statement in an argument that we claim is implied by the…
Reasoned Opinion
Statements that express opinions that are supported by reason…
Reasoning
A logical and systematic approach to thinking about something.
114 terms
Critical Thinking and Logic (Set 2)
Fallacy
Reasoning
Objective Statements
Evidence
An argument that is based on poor reasoning; A mistake in the…
A logical and systematic approach to thinking about something…
Statements based on factual research that are subject to form…
The facts available to support a conclusion or a particular c…
Fallacy
An argument that is based on poor reasoning; A mistake in the…
Reasoning
A logical and systematic approach to thinking about something…
70 terms
Logic and Critical Thinking [FINAL]
Statements in an explanation that do t…
Argument with false premises and a fal…
Argument with at least one false premi…
Purpose served by an non-argument is n…
Explanans
Inductively sound
Deductively sound
inform
Statements in an explanation that do t…
Explanans
Argument with false premises and a fal…
Inductively sound
13 terms
Critical Thinking- Formal Logic
Simple or Atomic Sentence
Compound Sentence
4 Logical Operators
Negation: it is not the case that (~)
A sentence in which there are no logical operators. "Seinfeld…
Sentence contains at least two atomic sentences joined by a l…
Negation: it is not the case that (~)... Disjunction: either...o…
1. Negation modifies an atomic or compound sentence... 2. It is…
Simple or Atomic Sentence
A sentence in which there are no logical operators. "Seinfeld…
Compound Sentence
Sentence contains at least two atomic sentences joined by a l…
126 terms
Critical Thinking & Logic (Set 1)
Reasoned Opinion
Reasoning
Evidence
Conclusion
Statements that express opinions that are supported by reason…
A logical and systematic approach to thinking about something.
The facts available to support a conclusion.
The statement in an argument that we claim is implied by the…
Reasoned Opinion
Statements that express opinions that are supported by reason…
Reasoning
A logical and systematic approach to thinking about something.
27 terms
Critical Thinking and logic module 1
Egocentrism
Sociocentrism
Fair-mindedness
Fallacies
The tendency to view everything in relationship to oneself; a…
The assumption that one's own social group is inherently supe…
The commitment to consider all relevant opinions equally with…
Flaws or errors in reasoning which, when found in the premise…
Egocentrism
The tendency to view everything in relationship to oneself; a…
Sociocentrism
The assumption that one's own social group is inherently supe…
37 terms
Logic and Critical Thinking
Statement
Inferences
Deductive argument
Inductive argument
Sentence that is used to make a claim that is capable of bein…
A conclusion reached on the basis of evidence
Arguments based on the logic of its form ... Does not require an…
Argument based on empirical evidence (sensory)... Premise should…
Statement
Sentence that is used to make a claim that is capable of bein…
Inferences
A conclusion reached on the basis of evidence
12 terms
Lists Logic and Critical Thinking
Types of Deductive Arguments
Types of Inductive Arguments
Types of Inductive Generalizations
Common Circumstances of Suppressed Pre…
Categorical... Propositional
Argument from Analogy... Argument from Authority... Inductive Gener…
Induction by Enumeration... Narrow-scope to Broad-scope Inductio…
common knowledge... strongly implied... previously stated in passage
Types of Deductive Arguments
Categorical... Propositional
Types of Inductive Arguments
Argument from Analogy... Argument from Authority... Inductive Gener…
33 terms
Logic & Critical Thinking
Slippery Slope
Amphiboly
Accent
Appeal to Pity
A relatively small first step leads to a chain of events culm…
a fallacy based on unclear grammar or sentence structure
a fallacy where the meaning of a sentence is changed by means…
an argument induces pity in order to convince the listener
Slippery Slope
A relatively small first step leads to a chain of events culm…
Amphiboly
a fallacy based on unclear grammar or sentence structure
47 terms
Terms Logic and Critical Thinking
Deductive Argument
Inductive Argument
Valid/Invalid
Deductively Sound
self-contained conclusion drawn only from stated premises, if…
aim to show likelihood of conclusion without entire proof... add…
depends on truth-preserving relation between premises and con…
when argument is valid and all premises are proven true
Deductive Argument
self-contained conclusion drawn only from stated premises, if…
Inductive Argument
aim to show likelihood of conclusion without entire proof... add…
27 terms
Philosophy-Logic/Critical Thinking
Defintions
Types of Defs.
Reportive Definition
Stipulative Def
-made up of two parts... -Definiendum-term to be defined... -Defini…
Reportive... Stipulative... Precising... Persuasive
-lexical def.... -reports the existing meaning of the term... -ex)…
-NOT used to explain the existing meaning of a term... -used to…
Defintions
-made up of two parts... -Definiendum-term to be defined... -Defini…
Types of Defs.
Reportive... Stipulative... Precising... Persuasive
26 terms
Logic and Critical Thinking
Gambler's fallacy
Faulty Analogy
Begging the question
Inappropriate Appeal to Authority
One assumes that events are dependent, when in fact they are…
This fallacy occurs when an analogy is not strong enough to s…
This fallacy presumes that the premises provide adequate supp…
The inappropriate appeal to authority occurs when the cited a…
Gambler's fallacy
One assumes that events are dependent, when in fact they are…
Faulty Analogy
This fallacy occurs when an analogy is not strong enough to s…
30 terms
Logic & Critical Thinking
Statements... Premises... Conclusion
Because, since, for, for the... reason th…
Therefor, thus, so, consequently, henc…
"if...... then."
An argument consists of one or more _____________, called ___…
Some common premise indicators: ___________, ___________, ___…
Some common conclusion indicators: ___________, ____________,…
Conditional statements are ___________________ statements.
Statements... Premises... Conclusion
An argument consists of one or more _____________, called ___…
Because, since, for, for the... reason th…
Some common premise indicators: ___________, ___________, ___…
25 terms
Logic & Critical Thinking
Logic
Argument
Sentences
True Values
Study and evaluation of arguments
Two or more statements, one of which is claimed to depend on…
Interrogatory, Statement, Exclamatory
False or True
Logic
Study and evaluation of arguments
Argument
Two or more statements, one of which is claimed to depend on…
15 terms
Logic and Critical Thinking
Strong Inductive Argument
Weak Inductive Argument
Deductive Argument
Valid deductive argument
Premises give evidence for conclusion
Premises do not give evidence for conclusion
An argument where if the premises are true then the conclusio…
Conclusion is guaranteed
Strong Inductive Argument
Premises give evidence for conclusion
Weak Inductive Argument
Premises do not give evidence for conclusion
48 terms
Philosophy: Logic and Critical Thinking
argument
what makes an argument good
good materials
good structure
a set of sentences that express propositions, some of which c…
good materials AND good structure
true premises
conclusion follows from premises
argument
a set of sentences that express propositions, some of which c…
what makes an argument good
good materials AND good structure
28 terms
Logic and Critical Thinking [2]
Rhetorical Device
Proof Surrogates
Ex. of Proof Surrogates
Guarding Expressions
Literary techniques used to heighten the effectiveness of exp…
an expression used to suggest that there is evidence for a cl…
Clearly, obviously, studies have shown,
words or phrases that serve to weaken a claim.
Rhetorical Device
Literary techniques used to heighten the effectiveness of exp…
Proof Surrogates
an expression used to suggest that there is evidence for a cl…
19 terms
Critical thinking (Logical fallacies)
Testimonial
Transfer
Ad Hominem
Bandwagon
A famous person endorses a product, ideal, or candidate.
A corrupt argument from ethos, falsely associating a famous p…
(Latin for "against the man") When the person presenting an a…
Creates the impression that everybody is doing it and so shou…
Testimonial
A famous person endorses a product, ideal, or candidate.
Transfer
A corrupt argument from ethos, falsely associating a famous p…
17 terms
Logic and Critical Thinking Final
Truth-Functional Logic
Variables can only have the values:
The operator (the middle part, telling…
~
Is also called propositional or sentential logic. ... Represent…
True or false, are typically letters.
Specific truth functional rules.
Definition: Not
Truth-Functional Logic
Is also called propositional or sentential logic. ... Represent…
Variables can only have the values:
True or false, are typically letters.
16 terms
Basic logic to critical thinking
Argument
Conclusion
Premise
Objection
A claim and a reason to belive that claim
The main point an argument is trying to prove
A statement from which the conclusion can be inferred
A reason that a claim is false
Argument
A claim and a reason to belive that claim
Conclusion
The main point an argument is trying to prove
40 terms
Logic and Critical Thinking Final
Valid argument
Logical Operator: ~
Logical Operator: &
Logical Operator: v
it is impossible for the premises to be true and the conclusi…
negation; not
conjunction; and
disjunction; or
Valid argument
it is impossible for the premises to be true and the conclusi…
Logical Operator: ~
negation; not
26 terms
Logic and Critical Thinking Midterm
Validity
Truth
Soundness
Opertators
the quality of being logically or factually sound... -Valid argu…
a statement which is true, and remains true under all reinter…
an argument that is valid and we also know that the statement…
...
Validity
the quality of being logically or factually sound... -Valid argu…
Truth
a statement which is true, and remains true under all reinter…
79 terms
Logic and Critical Thinking
Law of Non-Contradiction
Law of Excluded Middle
Tautology (logical truth)
Contradiction (logical falsehood)
Contradictory statements cannot both be true in the same sens…
States that for any proposition, either that proposition is t…
A statement which is true, and remains true under all reinter…
A statement is proven to be false, but the false itself is a…
Law of Non-Contradiction
Contradictory statements cannot both be true in the same sens…
Law of Excluded Middle
States that for any proposition, either that proposition is t…
70 terms
Logic and Critical Thinking [I]
Informal Logic
Formal Logic
Ex. of Informal Logic
Ex. of Formal Logic
based on things other than form alone.
-Based on form alone
saying that something is "true" just because it has not been…
All arachnids are invertebrates... All spiders are arachnids... ___…
Informal Logic
based on things other than form alone.
Formal Logic
-Based on form alone
14 terms
Logic & Critical Thinking
logic
fallacy
4 laws of logic
proposition
...
...
...
...
logic
...
fallacy
...
55 terms
Logic and Critical Thinking Terms
piece of advice
sound argument
general statement
logic
a form of expression that makes a recommendation about some f…
a deductive argument that is valid and has all true premises
a statement that makes a claim about all the members of a class
the science that evaluates arguments
piece of advice
a form of expression that makes a recommendation about some f…
sound argument
a deductive argument that is valid and has all true premises
21 terms
Critical Thinking (logic)
Sample
target feature
related variable
biasing factor
A relatively small proportion of people who are chosen in a s…
the feature of the subject case in which the argument is base…
a variable whose presence or absence could affect the presenc…
a related variable disproportionately present in the sample
Sample
A relatively small proportion of people who are chosen in a s…
target feature
the feature of the subject case in which the argument is base…
34 terms
Logic and Critical Thinking
Sentence
Non-Statement
Non-Sentences
Argument
is a statement that can be true or false
question, command , proposed exclamations, interjections;ouch…
Fragments ; the dog , five , you are ,
A set of statements in which some of those statements, premis…
Sentence
is a statement that can be true or false
Non-Statement
question, command , proposed exclamations, interjections;ouch…
18 terms
Critical Thinking & Logic Terms
Categorical Proposition
Categorical Syllogism
Categories
Quality
A proposition that relates two classes or categories. Categor…
A syllogism in which all three statements are categorical cla…
Quality and quantity are attributes of the categorical propos…
Is either affirmative or negative.
Categorical Proposition
A proposition that relates two classes or categories. Categor…
Categorical Syllogism
A syllogism in which all three statements are categorical cla…
63 terms
Logic and Critical Thinking
Statement
Argument
Premises
Conclusion
An asserted proposition
A group of two or more statements one of which - the conclusi…
The statements given as reasons for believing the conclusion
The statement that is advanced or defended in the argument an…
Statement
An asserted proposition
Argument
A group of two or more statements one of which - the conclusi…
29 terms
Critical Thinking & Logic
Group Think
Illusion of invulnerability
Collective rationalization
Belief in the inherent morality of the…
the practice of thinking or making decisions as a group in a…
symptom of groupthink; creates excessive optimism which encou…
symptom of groupthink; members discount warnings and do not r…
symptom of groupthink; members believe in the rightness of th…
Group Think
the practice of thinking or making decisions as a group in a…
Illusion of invulnerability
symptom of groupthink; creates excessive optimism which encou…
22 terms
critical thinking and logic
systematic empiricism
public verification
solvable problems
ruling out rival hypotheses
rely on systematically-obtained observations to draw conclusi…
findings must be observed, replicated, and verified by other…
must study questions that are potentially answerable through…
alternate explanations for the finding?
systematic empiricism
rely on systematically-obtained observations to draw conclusi…
public verification
findings must be observed, replicated, and verified by other…
96 terms
Critical Thinking/ Logic
logic
argument
statement
deductive argument
the study of methods for evaluating wether the premises of an…
a set of statements where some of the statements, called prem…
a declarative sentence that is either true or false
on in which the premises are intended to guarantee the conclu…
logic
the study of methods for evaluating wether the premises of an…
argument
a set of statements where some of the statements, called prem…
15 terms
logic & critical thinking FALLACIES
Genetic fallacy
Tu Quoque fallacy
Circumstantial fallacy
Abusive fallacy
arguments that state that a idea should be discounted simply…
you discredit your opponents ideas by changing him with the s…
arguments that attempt to discredit an opponent because of hi…
speaker attempts to discredit his opponents agrument by assum…
Genetic fallacy
arguments that state that a idea should be discounted simply…
Tu Quoque fallacy
you discredit your opponents ideas by changing him with the s…
64 terms
Logic and Critical Thinking
Modus Ponens
Disjunctive syllogism
Constructive dilemma
Hypothetical Syllogism
p-->q... p... Therefore q
p v q... ~p... Therefore q ... OR ... pvq... ~q... Therefore p
p-->q... q-->r... Therefore q-->r
p-->q... q-->r... Therefore p-->r
Modus Ponens
p-->q... p... Therefore q
Disjunctive syllogism
p v q... ~p... Therefore q ... OR ... pvq... ~q... Therefore p
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