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Logic

Law of Excluded Middle

Law of Identity

Law of Non-contradiction

The science and art of reasoning well.

Any statement is either true or false.

If a statement is true, then it is true.

A statement cannot be both true and false.

Logic

The science and art of reasoning well.

Law of Excluded Middle

Any statement is either true or false.

Conditional Statement

Hypothesis

Conclusion

Negation

Statement that can be written in "if...., then" form

Part of a conditional statement that follows "if"

Part of a conditional statement that follows "Then"

Denial of a statement formed by adding or removing not from a…

Conditional Statement

Statement that can be written in "if...., then" form

Hypothesis

Part of a conditional statement that follows "if"

1 term

1 definition

1 ambiguous word

1 lexical definition

a concept that can be expressed precisely

a statement that gives the meaning of a term

a word with more than one meaning

dictionary definition - a definition which shows relationship…

1 term

a concept that can be expressed precisely

1 definition

a statement that gives the meaning of a term

Logic

Argument

statement

premise

-the organized body of knowledge, or science, that evaluates…

-a group of statements:... -one or more of which (the PREMISES)…

-a sentence that is either TRUE or FALSE... -typically a declara…

-the statement that sets forth the reasons/evidence

Logic

-the organized body of knowledge, or science, that evaluates…

Argument

-a group of statements:... -one or more of which (the PREMISES)…

Logic

Validity

Modus ponens

Declarative sentences

the study of the principles of correct reasoning

ensuring that conclusion follow from the assumptions

logical syllogism; uses the process of adding

definite assertions, e.g., "He is here."

Logic

the study of the principles of correct reasoning

Validity

ensuring that conclusion follow from the assumptions

ad hominem

the fallacy of accident

affirming the consequent

denying the antecedent

An attack on the person rather than on the opponent's ideas.…

When a general rule is applied to a situation in which it was…

x->y to y->x... If it's a fish, then it lives under water.... If i…

x->y to (not y)->(not x)... If it's a fish, then it lives under…

ad hominem

An attack on the person rather than on the opponent's ideas.…

the fallacy of accident

When a general rule is applied to a situation in which it was…

Validity

Argument

Premises

Conclusion

an argument is valid if and only if it is not possible for th…

set propositions in which only one is the conclusion and the…

a proposition that gives evidence/supports/provides reason to…

a proposition derived from the premises

Validity

an argument is valid if and only if it is not possible for th…

Argument

set propositions in which only one is the conclusion and the…

strawman fallacy

appeal to ignorance

ad vercundiam

ad baculum

the attempt to disprove an opponents position (accusing oppon…

claiming that an argument is true/likely because it can't be…

appeal to illegitimate authority

appeal to fear

strawman fallacy

the attempt to disprove an opponents position (accusing oppon…

appeal to ignorance

claiming that an argument is true/likely because it can't be…

Aristotle's 3 laws of logic

Argument

Premise

Sound syllogism

1. Law of non-contradiction ... 2. Law of the excluded middle (m…

Series of statements consisting of a premise or premises and…

A factual statement, or proposition

Validity+truth

Aristotle's 3 laws of logic

1. Law of non-contradiction ... 2. Law of the excluded middle (m…

Argument

Series of statements consisting of a premise or premises and…

deductive reasoning

inductive reasoning

counterexample

postulate

A method of reasoning by which specific definitions, conclusi…

A type of logic in which generalizations are based on a large…

An example showing that a statement is false.

A statement that is accepted as true without proof

deductive reasoning

A method of reasoning by which specific definitions, conclusi…

inductive reasoning

A type of logic in which generalizations are based on a large…

fairmindedness, strong-sense thinking

sophist

intellectual unfairness

egocentrism

thinking of the other persons viewpoint as equally as my own,

someone who debates or argues selfishly

to lack a sense of responsibility to represent accurately and…

natural state of the human mind and struggles daily to not be…

fairmindedness, strong-sense thinking

thinking of the other persons viewpoint as equally as my own,

sophist

someone who debates or argues selfishly

Conditional Statement

Hypothesis

Conclusion

Negation

Statement that can be written in "if...., then" form

Part of a conditional statement that follows "if"

Part of a conditional statement that follows "Then"

Denial of a statement formed by adding or removing not from a…

Conditional Statement

Statement that can be written in "if...., then" form

Hypothesis

Part of a conditional statement that follows "if"

Ad fontem arguments

abusive

circumstantial

tu quoque

arguments that focus on the source of the argument, rather th…

Arguments that attempt to avoid the issue by insulting an opp…

Arguments that try to discrredit an opponent because of his b…

Arguments that assume that a rival's recommendation should be…

Ad fontem arguments

arguments that focus on the source of the argument, rather th…

abusive

Arguments that attempt to avoid the issue by insulting an opp…

a statement that reverses the subject…

a stament of the opposite quality with…

a statement that reverses and negates…

in at least on premise the middle term…

converse

obverse

contrapositive

Rule #1 Fallacy of the Undistibuted Middle

a statement that reverses the subject…

converse

a stament of the opposite quality with…

obverse

Simple statement

Compound statement

Conjunction

Truth Value

A statement that does not contain any other statement as a co…

a statement that has at least one simple statement as a compo…

Takes two simple statements and adds them together. represent…

The determination if the statement is true or false.. (how mu…

Simple statement

A statement that does not contain any other statement as a co…

Compound statement

a statement that has at least one simple statement as a compo…

The Law of Identity

Ambiguous

Statement

Self-supporting statement

If a statement is true, then it is true.

Words that have more than one possible meaning.

A sentence that is either true or false.

A statement whose truth value can be determined from the stat…

The Law of Identity

If a statement is true, then it is true.

Ambiguous

Words that have more than one possible meaning.

Enthymeme

Sorites

Propositional logic...

Modus ponens

argument that is incompletely stated

chain of syllogisms; predicate of one proposition becomes sub…

treats entire propositions as unites of meaning, which can be…

If P then Q. P --> Q.

Enthymeme

argument that is incompletely stated

Sorites

chain of syllogisms; predicate of one proposition becomes sub…

How do we acquire knowledge beyond exp…

Tautology

Arguments vs. Explanations

Truth and Validity

Through deductive reasoning

a proposition that does not need to be proved because it is l…

Arguments try to prove using evidence. Explanation already kn…

Arguments are either logically valid or invalid.

How do we acquire knowledge beyond exp…

Through deductive reasoning

Tautology

a proposition that does not need to be proved because it is l…

Ad Hominem

Genetic Fallacy

Straw Man

To Quoque (You Too)

attacking an opponents character or his motives for believing…

Condemning an argument because of where it began how it began…

Changing or exaggerating an opponents position or argument to…

Dismissing someones viewpoint on an issue because he's incons…

Ad Hominem

attacking an opponents character or his motives for believing…

Genetic Fallacy

Condemning an argument because of where it began how it began…

Logic

Law of Excluded Middle

Law of Identity

Law of noncontradiction

the science and art of reasoning well

any statement is either true or false

if a statement is true, it is true

a statement cannot be both true and false

Logic

the science and art of reasoning well

Law of Excluded Middle

any statement is either true or false

term1

term

oral term

terminus

1. from the standpoint of its being a sign of a concept

from the standpoint of its being the ultimate structural elem…

defined as articulate sound that serves as a conventional or…

the last element into which a proposition may broken down

term1

1. from the standpoint of its being a sign of a concept

term

from the standpoint of its being the ultimate structural elem…

Philosopher

Reason

Informal Logic

Formal Logic

lover of wisdom

process of producing "new truth" from the truth we already know

The discipline of logic that is concerned with the contents o…

The discipline of logic that is concerned with the form\struc…

Philosopher

lover of wisdom

Reason

process of producing "new truth" from the truth we already know

Definition

Term

Precising Definition

Persuasive Definition

is a statement that gives the meaning of a term

Concept with a precise meaning expressed by one or more words

Reduces vagueness

Can Influence attitudes

Definition

is a statement that gives the meaning of a term

Term

Concept with a precise meaning expressed by one or more words

Formal

Natural

Richness

Ambiguity

languages that are normally created by a group of experts to…

language that evolved in a natural way through common use, co…

numerous way of conveying the same information; many sentence…

property of an expression that has more than one meaning; one…

Formal

languages that are normally created by a group of experts to…

Natural

language that evolved in a natural way through common use, co…

Logic

Law of Excluded middle

Law of Identity

Law of Non- contradiction

The science and art of reasoning well

Any statement is either true or false

If a statement is true, then it is true

A statement cannot be both true and false

Logic

The science and art of reasoning well

Law of Excluded middle

Any statement is either true or false

Philosophy

Search for ultimate reality in the lif…

Phileo -love Sophia-wisdon

Gadamarian

Something weird, obscure or idiosyncratic

Classical meaning of Philosophy

Etymological meaning of Philosophy

No single method on arriving at truth

Philosophy

Something weird, obscure or idiosyncratic

Search for ultimate reality in the lif…

Classical meaning of Philosophy

An argument is valid if, and only if:

An argument is invalid if, and only if:

A sound argument is

The claim of the formal logician is th…

it is impossible that its premises be true... and its conclusion…

it is possible that its premises be true... and its conclusion f…

a valid argument with true premises.

purely in virtue of being a substitution-instance of a valid…

An argument is valid if, and only if:

it is impossible that its premises be true... and its conclusion…

An argument is invalid if, and only if:

it is possible that its premises be true... and its conclusion f…

Rule 1

Rule 2

Rule 3

Rule 4

In at least one premise, the middle term must be distributed.

If a term is distributed in the conclusion, it must also be d…

A valid syllogism cannot have two negative premises.

A valid syllogism cannot have a negative premise and an affir…

Rule 1

In at least one premise, the middle term must be distributed.

Rule 2

If a term is distributed in the conclusion, it must also be d…

Logic

Wisdom

Philosophy

Axiology

The pursuit of truth through reason; Methodology for Philosophy

Capacity to see truth

Rational, critical, speculative inquiry into reality, knowled…

The study of value; aisthetikos "sense experience"

Logic

The pursuit of truth through reason; Methodology for Philosophy

Wisdom

Capacity to see truth

Universal Quantifier

General Proposition

Range of Significance

Existenial Quantifier

This symbol governs an assertian that is claimed to hold for…

This type of proposition makes an assertion about the element…

The entire class of possible values for a variable, of indivi…

This symbol governs an assertion that is claimed to hold for…

Universal Quantifier

This symbol governs an assertian that is claimed to hold for…

General Proposition

This type of proposition makes an assertion about the element…