# Study sets matching "lsat flaws"

Study sets

Diagrams

Classes

Users

This occurs when the author uses a term…

When a persons character, and not the a…

When the author assumes as true what is…

The flaw would either be a Mistaken Rev…

Uncertian Use of a Term or Concept

Ad Hominem

Circular Reasoning

Errors of Conditional Reasoning

This occurs when the author uses a term…

Uncertian Use of a Term or Concept

When a persons character, and not the a…

Ad Hominem

Base Rate Fallacy

masked man fallacy

conjunction fallacy

Affirming the disjunct

making a probability judgment based on conditional probabiliti…

the substitution of identical designators in a true statement…

assumption that a outcome satisfying multiple conditions is mo…

Concluding that one disjunct of a logical disjunction must be…

Base Rate Fallacy

making a probability judgment based on conditional probabiliti…

masked man fallacy

the substitution of identical designators in a true statement…

Exclusivity

Sampling

Composition

Sufficiency and Necessity

-Fails to establish an exhaustive list of options ... -Fails to s…

-Sampling group not an accurate representation of group it pur…

-Whole has property, so all/most/some of its parts must have i…

A->B = B->A / A->B + B = A... A->B = Not A -> Not B / A->B + Not…

Exclusivity

-Fails to establish an exhaustive list of options ... -Fails to s…

Sampling

-Sampling group not an accurate representation of group it pur…

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illegal negation

sampling flaw

Equivocation

causation flaw

"taking the nonexistence of something as evidence that a neces…

"taking the fact that something is true of one sample of a cla…

"interpreting an ambiguous claim in one way in one part of the…

"supposing that because two things usually occur in conjunctio…

illegal negation

"taking the nonexistence of something as evidence that a neces…

sampling flaw

"taking the fact that something is true of one sample of a cla…

General Lack of Relevant Evidence for t…

Internal Contradiction

Exceptional Case/ Overgeneralization

Error in Assessing the Force of Evidence

Example: "Some critics claim that scientific progress has incr…

"Everyone should join our country club. After all, it's an exc…

"Two of my friends were shortchanged at that store. Therefore,…

"The White House has failed to offer any evidence that they ha…

General Lack of Relevant Evidence for t…

Example: "Some critics claim that scientific progress has incr…

Internal Contradiction

"Everyone should join our country club. After all, it's an exc…

Causal

Necessary vs. Sufficient

Surveys and Samples

Comparison

assumes correlation indicates causation; no other causes; caus…

assumes something required to get a result is enough by itself…

assumes survey/sample is representative of a larger population…

assumes two things or time periods are comparable in all relev…

Causal

assumes correlation indicates causation; no other causes; caus…

Necessary vs. Sufficient

assumes something required to get a result is enough by itself…

The three most common logical flaws are…

Less common logical flaws are the follo…

What does Correlation vs. Causation fla…

Example of a correlation vs. causation…

- Correlation vs. causation... - Analogy... - Statistical

- Personal... - Evidentiary

That since two events occurred, the first must have caused the…

Viktor ate cheese on his sandwich at lunch and because ill.... Vi…

The three most common logical flaws are…

- Correlation vs. causation... - Analogy... - Statistical

Less common logical flaws are the follo…

- Personal... - Evidentiary

Source Argument

Circular Reasoning

Mistaken Negation

Mistaken Reversal

Attacks the person or source instead of the argument they adva…

Author assumes as true what is supposed to be proved. When the…

Although statement might be true, it is not definitely true. J…

The attempted inference looks like a reverse of the original s…

Source Argument

Attacks the person or source instead of the argument they adva…

Circular Reasoning

Author assumes as true what is supposed to be proved. When the…

Circular reasoning

Ambiguous word usage

Misinterpreting a key term

Unfairly redefine term

When the conclusion simply restates the premise. Assumes what…

The argument changes in respect to the definition of a key term

The argument on intentionally miss reads a key term

The argument read to find a key term in a favorable but unjust…

Circular reasoning

When the conclusion simply restates the premise. Assumes what…

Ambiguous word usage

The argument changes in respect to the definition of a key term

Exclusivity

Sampling

Composition (Whole to Part, Part to Who…

Sufficiency and Necessity

1. An argument will fail to establish the list is exhaustive…

1. The sample group must be an accurate representation of the…

1. Occur when the author assumes the whole is nothing more tha…

1. Occur when a sufficient condition is confused with a necess…

Exclusivity

1. An argument will fail to establish the list is exhaustive…

Sampling

1. The sample group must be an accurate representation of the…

Exclusivity

Sampling

Composition

Sufficiency and Necessity

When an argument makes a wrong conclusion based on a limited s…

Sampling group must be an accurate representation of the group…

Occurs when author assumes that the whole is nothing more than…

Will be either the fallacy of the converse or fallacy of the i…

Exclusivity

When an argument makes a wrong conclusion based on a limited s…

Sampling

Sampling group must be an accurate representation of the group…

Causal

Necessary vs. Sufficient

Surveys and Samples

Comparison

assumes correlation indicates causation (with no other possibl…

assumes something required to get a result is enough by itself…

Assumes survey/Sample is representative of a larger population…

assumes to things or time periods are comparable in all releva…

Causal

assumes correlation indicates causation (with no other possibl…

Necessary vs. Sufficient

assumes something required to get a result is enough by itself…

cause and effect

advantage/ disadvantage

overgeneralization

unrepresentative sample

Overlooking alternative explanations for ... - An observed pheno…

Presenting at least one advantage and concluding that somethin…

Treating evidence more broadly than warranted ... - Ex: Treating…

Overgeneralizing, but when the stimulus gives reason to believ…

cause and effect

Overlooking alternative explanations for ... - An observed pheno…

advantage/ disadvantage

Presenting at least one advantage and concluding that somethin…

Exclusivity

Sampling

Composition

Sufficiency and Necessity

-Fails to establish an exhaustive list of options ... -Fails to s…

-Sampling group not an accurate representation of group it pur…

-Whole has property, so all/most/some of its parts must have i…

A->B = B->A / A->B + B = A... A->B = Not A -> Not B / A->B + Not…

Exclusivity

-Fails to establish an exhaustive list of options ... -Fails to s…

Sampling

-Sampling group not an accurate representation of group it pur…

lack of relevant evidence for the concl…

internal contradiction

exceptional case / overgeneralization

evidence errors

misuse of information to such a degree that they fail to provi…

when the author makes conflicting statements

the error takes a small number of instances and treats those i…

mis-assessing the force of evidence... -lack of evidence for a po…

lack of relevant evidence for the concl…

misuse of information to such a degree that they fail to provi…

internal contradiction

when the author makes conflicting statements

Correlation v. Causation

Overlooked Possibility

Necessity v. Sufficiency

Inappropriate Analogy

The author assumes that a mere correlation between two events…

The author overlooks an alternative explanation or justificati…

The author confuses sufficient and necessary conditions (a nec…

The author compares unlike objects, terms, etc.

Correlation v. Causation

The author assumes that a mere correlation between two events…

Overlooked Possibility

The author overlooks an alternative explanation or justificati…

2. Cause & Effect Flaw

1. Advantage/Disadvantage

3. Where did that come from?

4. Backward

Overlooking alternative explanations for 1) observed effects 2…

Presenting at least 1 advantage (or disadvantage) and concludi…

When the conclusion introduces a term or concept that was not…

Confusing sufficient and necessary conditions

2. Cause & Effect Flaw

Overlooking alternative explanations for 1) observed effects 2…

1. Advantage/Disadvantage

Presenting at least 1 advantage (or disadvantage) and concludi…

Correlation vs. Causation

Analogy

Statistical

Personal

assumes that since two events occurred, the first must have ca…

assumes total similarity without enough evidence

draws faulty conclusion from statistics (it may: ignore other…

draws a faulty conclusion about the verity and reliability of…

Correlation vs. Causation

assumes that since two events occurred, the first must have ca…

Analogy

assumes total similarity without enough evidence

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Correlation v. Causation

Overlooked Possibility

Necessity v. Sufficiency

Inappropriate Analogy

The author assumes that a mere correlation between two events…

The author overlooks an alternative explanation or justificati…

The author confuses sufficient and necessary conditions (a nec…

The author compares unlike objects, terms, etc.

Correlation v. Causation

The author assumes that a mere correlation between two events…

Overlooked Possibility

The author overlooks an alternative explanation or justificati…

Causal

Necessary v. Sufficient

Surveys and Samples

Comparison

assumes correlation indicates causation; no other causes; caus…

assumes something required to get a result is enough by itself…

assumes survey/sample is representative of a larger population…

assumes two things or time periods are comparable in all relev…

Causal

assumes correlation indicates causation; no other causes; caus…

Necessary v. Sufficient

assumes something required to get a result is enough by itself…

"...rejects an argument because of its…

"...concludes that a claim is false mer…

"...draws an inference on the basis of…

"...fails to address the possibility th…

Attacking a view by focusing on its PROPONENTS (Ad Hominem)

Treating a failure to prove a claim as proof of the DENIAL of…

Unrepresentative sample

Everything that come after this statement will WEAKEN the argu…

"...rejects an argument because of its…

Attacking a view by focusing on its PROPONENTS (Ad Hominem)

"...concludes that a claim is false mer…

Treating a failure to prove a claim as proof of the DENIAL of…

The three most common logical flaws are…

Less common logical flaws are the follo…

What does Correlation vs. Causation fla…

Example of a correlation vs. causation…

- Correlation vs. causation... - Analogy... - Statistical

- Personal... - Evidentiary

That since two events occurred, the first must have caused the…

Viktor ate cheese on his sandwich at lunch and because ill.... Vi…

The three most common logical flaws are…

- Correlation vs. causation... - Analogy... - Statistical

Less common logical flaws are the follo…

- Personal... - Evidentiary