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Study sets matching "lsat flaws"

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Study sets matching "lsat flaws"

19 terms
LSAT Flaws
This occurs when the author uses a ter…
When a persons character, and not the…
When the author assumes as true what i…
The flaw would either be a Mistaken Re…
Uncertian Use of a Term or Concept
Ad Hominem
Circular Reasoning
Errors of Conditional Reasoning
This occurs when the author uses a ter…
Uncertian Use of a Term or Concept
When a persons character, and not the…
Ad Hominem
19 terms
LSAT Flaws
This occurs when the author uses a ter…
When a persons character, and not the…
When the author assumes as true what i…
The flaw would either be a Mistaken Re…
Uncertian Use of a Term or Concept
Ad Hominem
Circular Reasoning
Errors of Conditional Reasoning
This occurs when the author uses a ter…
Uncertian Use of a Term or Concept
When a persons character, and not the…
Ad Hominem
32 terms
LSAT: Flaws
Ad Hominem
Tu Quoque
Red Herring
Straw Man
occurs when an attempt is made to discredit an argument by br…
occurs when (1) there is an attempt to defend an argument aga…
occurs when an attempt to discredit an argument is made by in…
occurs when an attempt to discredit an argument is made by re…
Ad Hominem
occurs when an attempt is made to discredit an argument by br…
Tu Quoque
occurs when (1) there is an attempt to defend an argument aga…
15 terms
LSAT Flaws
Exclusivity
Sampling
Composition
Sufficiency and Necessity
-Fails to establish an exhaustive list of options ... -Fails to…
-Sampling group not an accurate representation of group it pu…
-Whole has property, so all/most/some of its parts must have…
A->B = B->A / A->B + B = A... A->B = Not A -> Not B / A->B + No…
Exclusivity
-Fails to establish an exhaustive list of options ... -Fails to…
Sampling
-Sampling group not an accurate representation of group it pu…
96 terms
LSAT - Flaws
Over-generalization
Bad Sample
Fallacy of Composition
Fallacy of Division
The students at Yale are a bunch of thieves. I was on a ski t…
What do you mean your wedding cake was bad? I gave you sample…
This new car features the finest engine, axle, electrical sys…
Beth must be an excellent chef. She graduated from Le Cordon…
Over-generalization
The students at Yale are a bunch of thieves. I was on a ski t…
Bad Sample
What do you mean your wedding cake was bad? I gave you sample…
25 terms
LSAT Flaws
overlooks the possibility that
ignores the possibility that
fails to consider
treats one explanation as though it we…
OP
OP
OP
OP
overlooks the possibility that
OP
ignores the possibility that
OP
10 terms
LSAT Flaws
Unwarranted Assumption
Necessity versus Sufficiency
Unexamined alternative
Representativeness
Statement of fact, scope shift within argument: evidence and…
The argument mixes up necessary and sufficient terms in forma…
Negative statement of fact, causal.... This is the only..., the…
Studies, statistics, surveys are not representative of conclu…
Unwarranted Assumption
Statement of fact, scope shift within argument: evidence and…
Necessity versus Sufficiency
The argument mixes up necessary and sufficient terms in forma…
19 terms
LSAT Flaws
This occurs when the author uses a ter…
When a persons character, and not the…
When the author assumes as true what i…
The flaw would either be a Mistaken Re…
Uncertian Use of a Term or Concept
Ad Hominem
Circular Reasoning
Errors of Conditional Reasoning
This occurs when the author uses a ter…
Uncertian Use of a Term or Concept
When a persons character, and not the…
Ad Hominem
19 terms
LSAT Flaws
This occurs when the author uses a ter…
When a persons character, and not the…
When the author assumes as true what i…
The flaw would either be a Mistaken Re…
Uncertian Use of a Term or Concept
Ad Hominem
Circular Reasoning
Errors of Conditional Reasoning
This occurs when the author uses a ter…
Uncertian Use of a Term or Concept
When a persons character, and not the…
Ad Hominem
19 terms
LSAT Flaws
This occurs when the author uses a ter…
When a persons character, and not the…
When the author assumes as true what i…
The flaw would either be a Mistaken Re…
Uncertian Use of a Term or Concept
Ad Hominem
Circular Reasoning
Errors of Conditional Reasoning
This occurs when the author uses a ter…
Uncertian Use of a Term or Concept
When a persons character, and not the…
Ad Hominem
9 terms
LSAT flaws
Causal
Necessary vs. Sufficient
Surveys and Samples
Comparison
assumes correlation indicates causation (with no other possib…
assumes something required to get a result is enough by itsel…
Assumes survey/Sample is representative of a larger populatio…
assumes to things or time periods are comparable in all relev…
Causal
assumes correlation indicates causation (with no other possib…
Necessary vs. Sufficient
assumes something required to get a result is enough by itsel…
14 terms
LSAT Flaws
Exclusivity
Sampling
Composition
Sufficiency and Necessity
1. An argument will fail to establish that the list of option…
1. The sample group must be an accurate representation of the…
1. From the fact that a whole has a certain property, it is c…
1. Fallacy of Converse: ... A -> B, Therefore, B->A... 2. Fallacy…
Exclusivity
1. An argument will fail to establish that the list of option…
Sampling
1. The sample group must be an accurate representation of the…
21 terms
LSAT FLAWS
Source Argument
Circular Reasoning
Mistaken Negation
Mistaken Reversal
Attacks the person or source instead of the argument they adv…
Author assumes as true what is supposed to be proved. When th…
Although statement might be true, it is not definitely true.…
The attempted inference looks like a reverse of the original…
Source Argument
Attacks the person or source instead of the argument they adv…
Circular Reasoning
Author assumes as true what is supposed to be proved. When th…
19 terms
LSAT Flaws
This occurs when the author uses a ter…
When a persons character, and not the…
When the author assumes as true what i…
The flaw would either be a Mistaken Re…
Uncertian Use of a Term or Concept
Ad Hominem
Circular Reasoning
Errors of Conditional Reasoning
This occurs when the author uses a ter…
Uncertian Use of a Term or Concept
When a persons character, and not the…
Ad Hominem
14 terms
LSAT--Flaws
Casual
Bait + Switch
Ascriptive [A version of Bait+Switch]
Prescriptive
"The argument treats one of several plausible explanations fo…
Look for very text-specific answer choices: "Presumes without…
Like the above: Look for very text-specific answer choices: "…
Again, look for very text-specific answer choices: "Presumes…
Casual
"The argument treats one of several plausible explanations fo…
Bait + Switch
Look for very text-specific answer choices: "Presumes without…
80 terms
LSAT: Flawed Methods of Reasoning
Circular Reasoning
Ambiguous Word Usage
Misinterpreting a Key Term
Unfairly Redefining a Key Term
Circular Reasoning
Ambiguous Word Usage
62 terms
LSAT: More Flaws
False Dilemma
from ignorance
slippery slope
appeal to force
two choices are given when in fact there are three options
because something is not known to be true, it is assumed to b…
a series of increasingly unacceptable consequences is drawn
the reader is persuaded to agree by force
False Dilemma
two choices are given when in fact there are three options
from ignorance
because something is not known to be true, it is assumed to b…
9 terms
LSAT Argument Flaws
Causal Flaw
Necessary vs Sufficient Flaw
Surveys & Samples Flaw
Comparison Flaw
Assumes... - correlation = causation... - NO other causes... - causali…
Assumes... - something required to get a result is enough by its…
Assumes... - survey/sample is representative of a larger populat…
Assumes... - 2 things or time periods are comparable in ALL rele…
Causal Flaw
Assumes... - correlation = causation... - NO other causes... - causali…
Necessary vs Sufficient Flaw
Assumes... - something required to get a result is enough by its…
22 terms
LSAT Common Argument Flaws
Uncertain Use of a Term or Concept
A piece ≠ the Puzzle
Apples ≠ Orange
1 + 1 ≠ 3
This occurs when the author uses a term in two different ways…
Overconcludes from limited support.... Overreach in trying to ju…
Falsely Equates. When author treats two things as if they are…
Author brings two ideas or two pieces of information to concl…
Uncertain Use of a Term or Concept
This occurs when the author uses a term in two different ways…
A piece ≠ the Puzzle
Overconcludes from limited support.... Overreach in trying to ju…
94 terms
LSAT: Argument Flaws
False Dilemma
from ignorance
slippery slope
appeal to force
two choices are given when in fact there are three options
because something is not known to be true, it is assumed to b…
a series of increasingly unacceptable consequences is drawn
the reader is persuaded to agree by force
False Dilemma
two choices are given when in fact there are three options
from ignorance
because something is not known to be true, it is assumed to b…
24 terms
LSAT Flaws 2
Appeal to emotion
Argument against the person
False Analogy
Red Herring
Ronald fought tooth and nail for our country's independence.…
Marissa just published a study on our town's water purificati…
Observatory director: Some say that funding the megatelescope…
Office manager: I will not order recycled paper for this offi…
Appeal to emotion
Ronald fought tooth and nail for our country's independence.…
Argument against the person
Marissa just published a study on our town's water purificati…
288 terms
LSAT flawed methods of reasoning
The argument uses a key term ambiguously
The argument draws a conclusion based…
The argument proceeds by redefining a…
The argument unreasonably extends the…
Ambiguous word usage
Misinterpreting a Key Term
Unfairly redefining a key term
Unfairly redefining a key term
The argument uses a key term ambiguously
Ambiguous word usage
The argument draws a conclusion based…
Misinterpreting a Key Term
80 terms
LSAT flawed methods of reasoning
Circular reasoning
Ambiguous word usage
Misinterpreting a Key Term
Unfairly redefining a key term
-The argument conclusion is identical to one of its premises…
- the argument uses a key term ambiguously... - the argument dar…
- the argument draws a conclusion based on the misinterpretat…
- the argument proceeds by redefining a term in a way that is…
Circular reasoning
-The argument conclusion is identical to one of its premises…
Ambiguous word usage
- the argument uses a key term ambiguously... - the argument dar…
LSAT: Flawed Methods of Reasoning
Circular Reasoning
Ambiguous Word Usage
Misinterpreting a Key Term
Unfairly Redefining a Key Term
Circular Reasoning
Ambiguous Word Usage
10 terms
lsat recurring flaws
casual
comparison
survey and sample
absence of evidence
indicator: premise is that a and b happened. conclusion is th…
indicator: premises are an analogy or comparison (things, tim…
indicator: study, poll, survey... assumption: sample is represen…
indicator: premise is lack of proof... assumption: lack of proof…
casual
indicator: premise is that a and b happened. conclusion is th…
comparison
indicator: premises are an analogy or comparison (things, tim…
17 terms
LSAT LR Flaws
Backward argument
Circular reference
Ambiguous word use
Over generalization
Taking evidence that is sufficient to qualify as required to…
Conclusion paraphrases or restates piece of evidence
Uses term multiple times w/ different meanings
Conclusion is broader than evidence suggests
Backward argument
Taking evidence that is sufficient to qualify as required to…
Circular reference
Conclusion paraphrases or restates piece of evidence
9 terms
LSAT: Common Logical Flaws
Correlation v. Causation
Overlooked Possibility
Necessity v. Sufficiency
Inappropriate Analogy
The author assumes that a mere correlation between two events…
The author overlooks an alternative explanation or justificat…
The author confuses sufficient and necessary conditions (a ne…
The author compares unlike objects, terms, etc.
Correlation v. Causation
The author assumes that a mere correlation between two events…
Overlooked Possibility
The author overlooks an alternative explanation or justificat…
24 terms
LSAT Common Flaws in Logic
Strawman
False Cause
Appeal to Emotion
Fallacy Fallacy
misrepresent someone's argument to make it easier to attack…
Presuming a real or perceived relationship btwn things = that…
attempt to manipulate using an emotional response instead of…
Assuming that because an argument is poorly argued, that it i…
Strawman
misrepresent someone's argument to make it easier to attack…
False Cause
Presuming a real or perceived relationship btwn things = that…
292 terms
LSAT flawed methods of reasoning
Circular reasoning
Circular reasoning
Circular reasoning
Circular reasoning
-The argument conclusion is identical to one of its premises
- the argument attempts to support its conclusion solely by r…
-the argument rephrases its conclusion without offering any s…
-the argument draws a conclusion that simply restates a claim…
Circular reasoning
-The argument conclusion is identical to one of its premises
Circular reasoning
- the argument attempts to support its conclusion solely by r…
14 terms
LSAT Flaw Question Types
Exclusivity
Sampling
Composition
Sufficiency/Necessity
1) an argument will fail to prove that no other options are a…
1) sample group is not an accurate representation of group... 2)…
1) generalizing a statement about certain parts of a group to…
fallacy of converse or inverse, where, in a conditional state…
Exclusivity
1) an argument will fail to prove that no other options are a…
Sampling
1) sample group is not an accurate representation of group... 2)…
24 terms
LSAT Flawed Methods of Reasoning
False Cause (Correlation / Causation)
Appeal to Emotion
The Fallacy Fallacy
Ad Hominem (Personal Attack)
presuming that a real or perceived relationship between thing…
attempting to manipulate an emotional response in place of a…
presuming that because a claim has been poorly argued, or a f…
attacking the opponent's character or personal traits instead…
False Cause (Correlation / Causation)
presuming that a real or perceived relationship between thing…
Appeal to Emotion
attempting to manipulate an emotional response in place of a…
8 terms
LSAT Flaw Questions
Overlooked Possibilities - General
Overlooked Possibilities - Causation
Overlooked Possibilities - Necessary v…
Mismatched Concepts - General
"overlooks the possibility that"/"ignores the possibility tha…
"mistake a correlation for causation"... "Presumes that because…
"confuses a result with a condition that is required to bring…
"relies on irrelevant evidence"... "facts that are not directly…
Overlooked Possibilities - General
"overlooks the possibility that"/"ignores the possibility tha…
Overlooked Possibilities - Causation
"mistake a correlation for causation"... "Presumes that because…
25 terms
Flawed Methods LSAT Testmasters
Circular Reasoning
Ambiguous Word Usage
Misinterpreting A Key Term
Unfairly Redefining a Key Term
Its conclusion is among its premises, if it assumes (either e…
Has two or more distinct meanings.... Really exciting novels ar…
An argument draws a conclusion based on the misinterpretation…
The argument proceeds by redefining a term in a way that is f…
Circular Reasoning
Its conclusion is among its premises, if it assumes (either e…
Ambiguous Word Usage
Has two or more distinct meanings.... Really exciting novels ar…
15 terms
LSAT Flaw Types
You pay $2500 a year for auto insuranc…
Jon bombed his LSAT after taking the S…
I'm going to survey political attitude…
I'm going to take another poll of poli…
Bad assumption
False cause fallacy
Bad generalization, sample size
Not Representable Sample
You pay $2500 a year for auto insuranc…
Bad assumption
Jon bombed his LSAT after taking the S…
False cause fallacy
23 terms
LSAT: Common Logical Flaws (Kaplan)
Correlation v. Causation
Overlooked Possibility
Necessity v. Sufficiency
Inappropriate Analogy
The author assumes that a mere correlation between two events…
The author overlooks an alternative explanation or justificat…
The author confuses sufficient and necessary conditions (a ne…
The author compares unlike objects, terms, etc.
Correlation v. Causation
The author assumes that a mere correlation between two events…
Overlooked Possibility
The author overlooks an alternative explanation or justificat…
80 terms
LSAT - Flawed Methods of Reasoning
Circular Reasoning
Ambiguous Word Usage
Misinterpreting a Key Term
Unfairly Redefining a Key Term
-The argument conclusion is identical to one of its premises…
- the argument uses a key term ambiguously... - the argument dar…
- the argument draws a conclusion based on the misinterpretat…
- the argument proceeds by redefining a term in a way that is…
Circular Reasoning
-The argument conclusion is identical to one of its premises…
Ambiguous Word Usage
- the argument uses a key term ambiguously... - the argument dar…
36 terms
LSAT FLAW EXAMPLES
"Budget forecasters project a revenue…
"Anthropologist: All music is based on…
"Several legislators claim that the pu…
"A study found that patients referred…
exclusivity
Exclusivity
Sampling
Sampling
"Budget forecasters project a revenue…
exclusivity
"Anthropologist: All music is based on…
Exclusivity
70 terms
LSAT Methods of Flawed Reasoning
Circular Reasoning
Circular Reasoning
Circular Reasoning
Circular Reasoning
The argument's conclusion is identical to one of its premises
The argument attempts to support its conclusion solely by res…
The argument rephrases its conclusion without offering any su…
The argument draws a conclusion that simply restates a claim…
Circular Reasoning
The argument's conclusion is identical to one of its premises
Circular Reasoning
The argument attempts to support its conclusion solely by res…
261 terms
LSAT: Flawed Method of Reasoning
Circular Reasoning
Circular Reasoning
Circular Reasoning
Circular Reasoning
The argument's conclusion is identical to one of its premises.
The argument attempts to supports its conclusion solely be re…
The argument rephrases its conclusion without offering any su…
The argument draws a conclusion that simply restates a claim…
Circular Reasoning
The argument's conclusion is identical to one of its premises.
Circular Reasoning
The argument attempts to supports its conclusion solely be re…
80 terms
LSAT Flawed Methods of Reasoning
Circular reasoning
Ambiguous word usage
Misinterpreting a Key Term
Unfairly redefining a key term
-The argument conclusion is identical to one of its premises…
- the argument uses a key term ambiguously... - the argument dar…
- the argument draws a conclusion based on the misinterpretat…
- the argument proceeds by redefining a term in a way that is…
Circular reasoning
-The argument conclusion is identical to one of its premises…
Ambiguous word usage
- the argument uses a key term ambiguously... - the argument dar…
21 terms
LSAT Flaw In Reasoning
Uncertain Use of a Term or Concept... -A…
Source Argument (Ad Hominem) ... Also kn…
Circular Reasoning... In this example th…
Mistaken Negation
"depending on the ambiguous use of a key term"... "it confuses…
"makes an attack on the character of opponents"... "it is direc…
"it assumes what it seeks to establish"... "argues circularly b…
"taking the nonexistence of something as evidence that a nece…
Uncertain Use of a Term or Concept... -A…
"depending on the ambiguous use of a key term"... "it confuses…
Source Argument (Ad Hominem) ... Also kn…
"makes an attack on the character of opponents"... "it is direc…
80 terms
LSAT flawed methods of reasoning
Circular reasoning
Ambiguous word usage
Misinterpreting a Key Term
Unfairly redefining a key term
-The argument conclusion is identical to one of its premises…
- the argument uses a key term ambiguously... - the argument dar…
- the argument draws a conclusion based on the misinterpretat…
- the argument proceeds by redefining a term in a way that is…
Circular reasoning
-The argument conclusion is identical to one of its premises…
Ambiguous word usage
- the argument uses a key term ambiguously... - the argument dar…
44 terms
LSAT Flawed Arguments
Confusing Necessary and Sufficient Con…
Inferring That What Is True of the Par…
False Cause... (In some cases the fact o…
Ambiguity... (Martha and Ed are using th…
eg. I took the LSAT. Why didn't I get accepted into law schoo…
eg. None of the berries on this plant would make me sick, so…
eg. People with lung cancer often have discolored teeth. Ther…
eg. Martha claims to have a lot of energy. she runs, plays te…
Confusing Necessary and Sufficient Con…
eg. I took the LSAT. Why didn't I get accepted into law schoo…
Inferring That What Is True of the Par…
eg. None of the berries on this plant would make me sick, so…
15 terms
LSAT- FLAW QUESTIONS
Exclusivity
Sampling
Composition
Sufficiency and Necessity- The fallacy…
When an argument fails to establish the list of options is ex…
The group must be an accurate representation of the group it…
Two very common flaws of this type- ... 1. From the fact that a…
A-> B therefore B -> A ... NOOOOOOO... A-> B... B therefore ... A
Exclusivity
When an argument fails to establish the list of options is ex…
Sampling
The group must be an accurate representation of the group it…
36 terms
LSAT FLAW EXAMPLES
"Budget forecasters project a revenue…
"Anthropologist: All music is based on…
"Several legislators claim that the pu…
"A study found that patients referred…
exclusivity
Exclusivity
Sampling
Sampling
"Budget forecasters project a revenue…
exclusivity
"Anthropologist: All music is based on…
Exclusivity
14 terms
LSAT Flaw Questions
Exclusivity
Sampling
Composition
Sufficiency and Necessity
1. An argument will fail to establish that the list of option…
To be a credible sample: ... 1. The sample group must be an acc…
1. From the fact that a whole has a certain property, it is c…
Diagrammable flaw questions that conclude with these fallacie…
Exclusivity
1. An argument will fail to establish that the list of option…
Sampling
To be a credible sample: ... 1. The sample group must be an acc…
261 terms
LSAT: Flawed Method of Reasoning
The argument's conclusion is identical…
The argument attempts to supports its…
The argument rephrases its conclusion…
The argument draws a conclusion that s…
Circular Reasoning
Circular Reasoning
Circular Reasoning
Circular Reasoning
The argument's conclusion is identical…
Circular Reasoning
The argument attempts to supports its…
Circular Reasoning
42 terms
LSAT LR Flaw Questions
Ex. of general lack of evidence for th…
Ex. of internal contradiction answer c…
Ex. of exceptional case/ overgeneraliz…
Ex. of error in assessing the force of…
1. The author cites irrelevant data ... 2. Draws a conclusion th…
1. Bases a conclusion on inconsistent claims... 2. The author ma…
1. Supports general claim on the basis of a specific example…
1. Treats failure to prove a claim as denial of that claim... 2.…
Ex. of general lack of evidence for th…
1. The author cites irrelevant data ... 2. Draws a conclusion th…
Ex. of internal contradiction answer c…
1. Bases a conclusion on inconsistent claims... 2. The author ma…
261 terms
LSAT: Flawed Method of Reasoning
The argument's conclusion is identical…
The argument attempts to supports its…
The argument rephrases its conclusion…
The argument draws a conclusion that s…
Circular Reasoning
Circular Reasoning
Circular Reasoning
Circular Reasoning
The argument's conclusion is identical…
Circular Reasoning
The argument attempts to supports its…
Circular Reasoning
16 terms
lsat argumentative tactics & common flaws
general to specific
specific to general
argument by analogy
Bad information from Experts, studies,…
...
...
...
...
general to specific
...
specific to general
...
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