Study sets matching "lsat log reasoning"

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Study sets matching "lsat log reasoning"

7 terms
LSAT Reasoning
Levels of Truth (3)
Conditional Statement
Sufficient Term
Necessary Term
(1) What must be true (2) What is possible (3) What must be f…
Statements that can be expressed in "If...then..."
The "trigger" or "if" term in a conditional statement.
The "result" or "then" term in a conditional statement.
Levels of Truth (3)
(1) What must be true (2) What is possible (3) What must be f…
Conditional Statement
Statements that can be expressed in "If...then..."
80 terms
LSAT: Flawed Methods of Reasoning
Circular Reasoning
Ambiguous Word Usage
Misinterpreting a Key Term
Unfairly Redefining a Key Term
Circular Reasoning
Ambiguous Word Usage
LSAT Reasoning
Levels of Truth
Formal Logic: Conditional Statements
Formal Logic: And conditional statements
Formal Logic: Or conditional statements
Determine what must be true, could be true or false and what…
ID what is and is not a conditional statement, understand con…
and means you need both terms for the conditional to be relev…
you need at least one of the terms (the first or second or bo…
Levels of Truth
Determine what must be true, could be true or false and what…
Formal Logic: Conditional Statements
ID what is and is not a conditional statement, understand con…
21 terms
LSAT Logical Reasoning vocab
If
When
Whenever
Every
Introduce a sufficient condition
Introduce a sufficient condition
Introduce a sufficient condition
Introduce a sufficient condition
If
Introduce a sufficient condition
When
Introduce a sufficient condition
LSAT Reasoning
Which of the following could be true?
Which of the following could be false?
Which of the following must be false?
Each of the following must be false EX…
Correct answer = true... Wrong answers = "must be false" stateme…
Correct answer = either false or merely possible... Wrong Answer…
Correct answer = must be false... Wrong Answers = true or possib…
Correct answer = true or possible... Wrong Answers = "must be fa…
Which of the following could be true?
Correct answer = true... Wrong answers = "must be false" stateme…
Which of the following could be false?
Correct answer = either false or merely possible... Wrong Answer…
72 terms
LSAT: Logical Reasoning
an argument vs. a set of facts
TIP: Always read each of the five answ…
What is a premise?
What is a conclusion?
An argument:... " All professors are ethical (premise). Mason i…
TIP: On average, you have 1 minute and 25 seconds to complete…
A fact, proposition, or statement from which a conclusion is…
A statement or judgement that follows from one or more reason…
an argument vs. a set of facts
An argument:... " All professors are ethical (premise). Mason i…
TIP: Always read each of the five answ…
TIP: On average, you have 1 minute and 25 seconds to complete…
64 terms
LSAT Logical Reasoning
A ________ assumption is enough, on it…
A ________ assumption is required for…
assumption family wrong answer charact…
premise booster
sufficient
necessary
Premise booster... Conclusion redundancy... Opposite... Out of scope... R…
repeat/support what the premise states
A ________ assumption is enough, on it…
sufficient
A ________ assumption is required for…
necessary
LSAT Logical Reasoning Memorization
________- part of the logical reasonin…
Chapter 2: Argument Section
3 Parts of a Logical Reasoning Question
ALWAYS read the ___________ FIRST
Stimulus
FYI
1) Stimulus... 2) Question Stem... 3) Answer Choices
Stimulus
________- part of the logical reasonin…
Stimulus
Chapter 2: Argument Section
FYI
LSAT flawed methods of reasoning
The argument uses a key term ambiguously
The argument draws a conclusion based…
The argument proceeds by redefining a…
The argument unreasonably extends the…
Ambiguous word usage
Misinterpreting a Key Term
Unfairly redefining a key term
Unfairly redefining a key term
The argument uses a key term ambiguously
Ambiguous word usage
The argument draws a conclusion based…
Misinterpreting a Key Term
21 terms
LSAT Reasoning
Question Stem: Which of the following…
Question Stem: Which of the following…
Question Stem: Which of the following…
Question Stem: Each of the following m…
Analysis: ... Right: Could be true. In this question, a "must be…
Analysis: ... Right: Could be false. In this question, a "must b…
Analysis: ... Right: The correct answer must be false (keyword:…
Analysis: ... Right: True, or possible statements.... Wrong: "Must…
Question Stem: Which of the following…
Analysis: ... Right: Could be true. In this question, a "must be…
Question Stem: Which of the following…
Analysis: ... Right: Could be false. In this question, a "must b…
75 terms
LSAT (Logical reasoning/Logic)
Implication family
Characterization family
Operation family
Premises
"Must be true" ... "Is most strongly supported" ... "Must be false"…
"Main point"... "Method of argumentation" ... "Flaw" ... "Role of a pa…
"Strengthen" ... "Weaken" ... "Prove Explain"... Answers are taken as…
FACTS that SUPPORT the conclusion
Implication family
"Must be true" ... "Is most strongly supported" ... "Must be false"…
Characterization family
"Main point"... "Method of argumentation" ... "Flaw" ... "Role of a pa…
80 terms
LSAT flawed methods of reasoning
Circular reasoning
Ambiguous word usage
Misinterpreting a Key Term
Unfairly redefining a key term
-The argument conclusion is identical to one of its premises…
- the argument uses a key term ambiguously... - the argument dar…
- the argument draws a conclusion based on the misinterpretat…
- the argument proceeds by redefining a term in a way that is…
Circular reasoning
-The argument conclusion is identical to one of its premises…
Ambiguous word usage
- the argument uses a key term ambiguously... - the argument dar…
LSAT: Flawed Methods of Reasoning
Circular Reasoning
Ambiguous Word Usage
Misinterpreting a Key Term
Unfairly Redefining a Key Term
Circular Reasoning
Ambiguous Word Usage
LSAT Logical Reasoning Vocabulary Words
Antecedent
Assertion
Assumption
Claim
anything that precedes another thing
the act of declaring with assurance or plainly or strongly
the act of supposing to be true
a new statement of truth made about something
Antecedent
anything that precedes another thing
Assertion
the act of declaring with assurance or plainly or strongly
224 terms
LSAT: Logical Reasoning Bible
Argument
Fact Sets
What is this?: All professors are ethi…
What is this?: The Jacksonville area h…
a set of statements wherein one statement is claimed to follo…
are a collection of statements without a conclusion
Argument
Fact Set
Argument
a set of statements wherein one statement is claimed to follo…
Fact Sets
are a collection of statements without a conclusion
64 terms
Logical Reasoning General-LSAT
what is prephrase?
Prove Family question types (6)
what are the rules of Prove Family?
Question types of the Help Family (4)
take a mental moment to generate a possible answer after read…
must be true... main point ... point at issue/point of agreement ... m…
1. accept stimulus information use to prove answer choice ... 2…
Assumption... Justify the conclusion... Strengthen/support ... Resolve…
what is prephrase?
take a mental moment to generate a possible answer after read…
Prove Family question types (6)
must be true... main point ... point at issue/point of agreement ... m…
113 terms
LSAT (Powerscore): Logical Reasoning
Furthermore
Moreover
Besides
In addition
Additional Premise Indicator
Additional Premise Indicator
Additional Premise Indicator
Additional Premise Indicator
Furthermore
Additional Premise Indicator
Moreover
Additional Premise Indicator
LSAT flawed methods of reasoning
Circular reasoning
Circular reasoning
Circular reasoning
Circular reasoning
-The argument conclusion is identical to one of its premises
- the argument attempts to support its conclusion solely by r…
-the argument rephrases its conclusion without offering any s…
-the argument draws a conclusion that simply restates a claim…
Circular reasoning
-The argument conclusion is identical to one of its premises
Circular reasoning
- the argument attempts to support its conclusion solely by r…
68 terms
LSAT Errors of Reasoning
"...it treats something that is necess…
"...from the assertion that something…
"...confuses a sufficient condition wi…
"...mistakes the observation that one…
Confuses necessary for sufficient condition
Confuses necessary for sufficient condition
Confuses sufficient for necessary condition
Mistaken c and e
"...it treats something that is necess…
Confuses necessary for sufficient condition
"...from the assertion that something…
Confuses necessary for sufficient condition
53 terms
LSAT Logical Reasoning Question Types
The 12 Argument Types
Question says... The main point is the…
Question says... the main point at iss…
Question says... the argument proceeds…
Assumption, Flaw, Inference, Main Point, Method of Argument,…
Main point or conclusion
Point at Issue or Agree/Disagree
ID Reasoning
The 12 Argument Types
Assumption, Flaw, Inference, Main Point, Method of Argument,…
Question says... The main point is the…
Main point or conclusion
32 terms
LSAT - logical reasoning
Key concepts
What is logical thinking?
What is logical deductions
What are necessary terms?
1 right -4 wrong... True, false or possible
TAKE THE PREMISE AND MAKE DEDUCTIONS... Premise = conditional st…
Navel oranges never have seeds... This orange is a navel orange…
If you are in NY then you are in US:... Being in NY necessitates…
Key concepts
1 right -4 wrong... True, false or possible
What is logical thinking?
TAKE THE PREMISE AND MAKE DEDUCTIONS... Premise = conditional st…
24 terms
LSAT - Logical Reasoning Premises and Conclusions
Because
Since
For
For example
Premise
Premise
Premise
Premise
Because
Premise
Since
Premise
LSAT Conditional Reasoning
if
every
any
all
introduces sufficient condition
introduces sufficient condition
introduces sufficient condition
introduces sufficient condition
if
introduces sufficient condition
every
introduces sufficient condition
53 terms
Conditional Reasoning-LSAT
what must a conditional reasoning stam…
what is the sufficient condition?
what is the Necessary Condition?
what order must the conditions occur in?
Sufficient and necessary conditions
event or circumstance whose occurrence is a signal or indicat…
event or circumstance whose occurrence is required in order f…
TRICK QUESTION! no specific order could even occur at the sam…
what must a conditional reasoning stam…
Sufficient and necessary conditions
what is the sufficient condition?
event or circumstance whose occurrence is a signal or indicat…
23 terms
LSAT - Logical Reasoning
Main Point
Role of a Statement
Method of Argument
Point at Issue
T: Identify the argument's main conclusion... S: Use keywords a…
T: Identify how a specific statement functions within the arg…
T: Identify the author's argumentative strategy... S: Determine…
T: Identify the specific statement about which two speakers d…
Main Point
T: Identify the argument's main conclusion... S: Use keywords a…
Role of a Statement
T: Identify how a specific statement functions within the arg…
110 terms
LSAT Logical Reasoning
Premise
premise
premise
premise
because
since
for
for example
Premise
because
premise
since
LSAT: Logical Reasoning
an argument vs. a set of facts
TIP: Always read each of the five answ…
What is a premise?
What is a conclusion?
An argument:... " All professors are ethical (premise). Mason i…
TIP: On average, you have 1 minute and 25 seconds to complete…
A fact, proposition, or statement from which a conclusion is…
A statement or judgement that follows from one or more reason…
an argument vs. a set of facts
An argument:... " All professors are ethical (premise). Mason i…
TIP: Always read each of the five answ…
TIP: On average, you have 1 minute and 25 seconds to complete…
22 terms
LSAT - Conditional Reasoning
If
only
only if
only when
sufficient
necessary
necessary
necessary
If
sufficient
only
necessary
14 terms
LSAT - Logical Reasoning
intermediate/subsidiary conclusion
since and hence
Main Point/Conclusion (Type 7)
Words that introduce conclusions
conclusion that acts as a premise to support the main conclus…
conclusion since premise... premise hence conclusion
- if you're down to 2 options, which one supports the other?…
therefore... thus... ergo... so... it follows that... hence... consequently... acc…
intermediate/subsidiary conclusion
conclusion that acts as a premise to support the main conclus…
since and hence
conclusion since premise... premise hence conclusion
36 terms
LSAT Logical Reasoning
Step 1 of LR Method
Step 2 of LR Method
Step 3 of LR Method
Step 4 of LR Method
Identify the question type
Untangle the stimulus
Predict the correct answer
Evaluate the answer choices
Step 1 of LR Method
Identify the question type
Step 2 of LR Method
Untangle the stimulus
17 terms
LSAT Errors of Reasoning Definitions
Mistaken cause and effect
Source argument/ Ad hominem
Circular reasoning
Error in the use of evidence
- assuming a causal relationship on the basis on the sequence…
- argument attacks the person or source instead of the argume…
- author assumes as true what is supposed to be proved
- lack of evidence = false... - lack of evidence = true... - some e…
Mistaken cause and effect
- assuming a causal relationship on the basis on the sequence…
Source argument/ Ad hominem
- argument attacks the person or source instead of the argume…
85 terms
LSAT: Flawed Methods of Reasoning
Circular Reasoning
Ambiguous Word Usage
Misinterpreting a Key Term
Equivocation
Circular Reasoning
Ambiguous Word Usage
LSAT Logical Reasoning Terms
Assumption Sufficient
Assumption Necessary
Strengthen
Weaken
SUF... AC's will prove the assumption to be true thereby proving…
NEC... AC's will provide information that is "needed" for the as…
STN... AC's will make the assumption more likely to be true.
WKN... AC's will make the assumption less likely to be true.
Assumption Sufficient
SUF... AC's will prove the assumption to be true thereby proving…
Assumption Necessary
NEC... AC's will provide information that is "needed" for the as…
LSAT: Logical Reasoning
an argument vs. a set of facts
TIP: Always read each of the five answ…
What is a premise?
What is a conclusion?
An argument:... " All professors are ethical (premise). Mason i…
TIP: On average, you have 1 minute and 25 seconds to complete…
A fact, proposition, or statement from which a conclusion is…
A statement or judgement that follows from one or more reason…
an argument vs. a set of facts
An argument:... " All professors are ethical (premise). Mason i…
TIP: Always read each of the five answ…
TIP: On average, you have 1 minute and 25 seconds to complete…
54 terms
LSAT Logical Reasoning
premise indicators
conclusion indicators
additional premise indicators
counter premise indicators
because, since, for, for example, for the reason that, in tha…
thus, therefore, hence, consequently, as a result, so, accord…
furthermore, moreover, besides, in addition, whats more, afte…
but, yet, however, on the other hand, admittedly, in contrast…
premise indicators
because, since, for, for example, for the reason that, in tha…
conclusion indicators
thus, therefore, hence, consequently, as a result, so, accord…
51 terms
LSAT Logic Reasoning
Kaplan's 4 Step Method
Step #1 Identify
Step #2 Untangle
Step #3 Predict
1. Identify ... 2. Untangle... 3. Predict ... 4. Evaluate
Read the question stem to identify the question type.
Take apart the stimulus based on the question type to its cor…
After identifying the conclusion and evidence. Critically thi…
Kaplan's 4 Step Method
1. Identify ... 2. Untangle... 3. Predict ... 4. Evaluate
Step #1 Identify
Read the question stem to identify the question type.
LSAT Logical Reasoning Stimuli Indicators
because
since
for
for example
Premise
Premise
Premise
Premise
because
Premise
since
Premise
14 terms
LSAT Logic Reasoning Question Types
Seven logic reason questions type
conclusion key words
Resolve key words
Strengthen key words
1. conclusion... 2. resolve... 3. strengthen... 4. weaken... 5. reasoning…
conclusion, concludes, concluded... main point... deduced, deductio…
resolve... explain, explanation... reconcile... questions frequently…
strengthen, support, justify... assumptions, presupposes... principle
Seven logic reason questions type
1. conclusion... 2. resolve... 3. strengthen... 4. weaken... 5. reasoning…
conclusion key words
conclusion, concludes, concluded... main point... deduced, deductio…
49 terms
LSAT Logical Reasoning Question Stems
X and Y disagree over...
X and Y's statements provide the most…
X and Y disagree about whether (which…
Their statements commit X and Y to dis…
Identify the Disagreement
Identify the Disagreement
Identify the Disagreement
Identify the Disagreement
X and Y disagree over...
Identify the Disagreement
X and Y's statements provide the most…
Identify the Disagreement
LSAT: Logic Reasoning Shortcuts
All Xs are Ys
Xs are all Ys
Every X is a Y
Any X must also be a Y
X -> Y
X -> Y
X -> Y
X -> Y
All Xs are Ys
X -> Y
Xs are all Ys
X -> Y
82 terms
LSAT Logic Reasoning
Kaplan's 4 Step Method
Step #1 Identify
Step #2 Untangle
Step #3 Predict
1. Identify ... 2. Untangle... 3. Predict ... 4. Evaluate
Read the question stem to identify the question type.
Take apart the stimulus based on the question type to its cor…
After identifying the conclusion and evidence. Critically thi…
Kaplan's 4 Step Method
1. Identify ... 2. Untangle... 3. Predict ... 4. Evaluate
Step #1 Identify
Read the question stem to identify the question type.
18 terms
LSAT Logic Reasoning
Common Argument Patterns: (6)
Conclusion Types: (6)
All A are B
No C are D
Analogy,... Use of Example /or/ Counterexample,... Appeal to Author…
Value Judgment, ... If/then,... Prediction,... Comparison,... Assertion o…
if A --> B... if ~B --> ~A
C --> ~D... D --> ~C
Common Argument Patterns: (6)
Analogy,... Use of Example /or/ Counterexample,... Appeal to Author…
Conclusion Types: (6)
Value Judgment, ... If/then,... Prediction,... Comparison,... Assertion o…
24 terms
LSAT Flawed Methods of Reasoning
False Cause (Correlation / Causation)
Appeal to Emotion
The Fallacy Fallacy
Ad Hominem (Personal Attack)
presuming that a real or perceived relationship between thing…
attempting to manipulate an emotional response in place of a…
presuming that because a claim has been poorly argued, or a f…
attacking the opponent's character or personal traits instead…
False Cause (Correlation / Causation)
presuming that a real or perceived relationship between thing…
Appeal to Emotion
attempting to manipulate an emotional response in place of a…
LSAT Logic Reasoning 1
Kaplan's 4 Step Method
Step #1 Identify
Step #2 Untangle
Step #3 Predict
1. Identify ... 2. Untangle... 3. Predict ... 4. Evaluate
Read the question stem to identify the question type.
Take apart the stimulus based on the question type to its cor…
After identifying the conclusion and evidence. Critically thi…
Kaplan's 4 Step Method
1. Identify ... 2. Untangle... 3. Predict ... 4. Evaluate
Step #1 Identify
Read the question stem to identify the question type.
LSAT Logic Reasoning
Kaplan's 4 Step Method
Step #1 Identify
Step #2 Untangle
Step #3 Predict
1. Identify ... 2. Untangle... 3. Predict ... 4. Evaluate
Read the question stem to identify the question type.
Take apart the stimulus based on the question type to its cor…
After identifying the conclusion and evidence. Critically thi…
Kaplan's 4 Step Method
1. Identify ... 2. Untangle... 3. Predict ... 4. Evaluate
Step #1 Identify
Read the question stem to identify the question type.
LSAT: Logical Reasoning
What is an argument?
Premises
Conclusion
Determining how the argument goes..
sets of statements that present evidence and draw a conclusio…
put forward as true without support- there is no attempt with…
not simply asserted... being justified by certain premises... ope…
discerning how the premises are supposed to support the overa…
What is an argument?
sets of statements that present evidence and draw a conclusio…
Premises
put forward as true without support- there is no attempt with…
LSAT logic reasoning
Conclusion Types
Necessary Variable
Sufficient Variable
Contrapositive
comparison, assertion of fact, prediction, recommendation, if…
Y/right side
X/left side
Flip and negate
Conclusion Types
comparison, assertion of fact, prediction, recommendation, if…
Necessary Variable
Y/right side
LSAT Logical Reasoning Algorithm
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Stimulus contain an argument?
Identify Conclusion
Strong or Weak?
Read Closely and do not generalize!
Step 1
Stimulus contain an argument?
Step 2
Identify Conclusion
LSAT-Logical Reasoning
Premise
Conclusion
Inference
Assumptions
A fact, proposition, or statement from which a conclusion is…
A statement or judgement that follows from one or more reasons.
Something that must be true; must be truss based on informati…
The same as an unstated premise, what must be true for the ar…
Premise
A fact, proposition, or statement from which a conclusion is…
Conclusion
A statement or judgement that follows from one or more reasons.
LSAT Logical Reasoning
A ________ assumption is enough, on it…
A ________ assumption is required for…
assumption family wrong answer charact…
premise booster
sufficient
necessary
Premise booster... Conclusion redundancy... Opposite... Out of scope... R…
repeat/support what the premise states
A ________ assumption is enough, on it…
sufficient
A ________ assumption is required for…
necessary
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