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"SPACES BEHIND/SPACES AFTER" indicates…

"SPACES BETWEEN/SPACES SEPARATED BY" i…

"SPACES/AHEAD/SPACES BEFORE" indicates…

IF introduces what condition?

To count the number of spaces from one variable to another

The exact number of spaces between two variables

To count the number of spaces from one variable to another

SUFFICIENT

"SPACES BEHIND/SPACES AFTER" indicates…

To count the number of spaces from one variable to another

"SPACES BETWEEN/SPACES SEPARATED BY" i…

The exact number of spaces between two variables

Sufficient Condition

Necessary Condition

If a necessary condition occurs, does…

If a sufficient condition occur, does…

A sufficient condition is an event or circumstance whose occu…

A necessary condition can is an event or circumstance whose o…

No. sufficient condition does not necessarily have to happen

Yes. If sufficient condition occur you automatically know tha…

Sufficient Condition

A sufficient condition is an event or circumstance whose occu…

Necessary Condition

A necessary condition can is an event or circumstance whose o…

"SPACES BEHIND/SPACES AFTER" indicates…

"SPACES BETWEEN/SPACES SEPARATED BY" i…

"SPACES/AHEAD/SPACES BEFORE" indicates…

IF introduces what condition?

To count the number of spaces from one variable to another

The exact number of spaces between two variables

To count the number of spaces from one variable to another

SUFFICIENT

"SPACES BEHIND/SPACES AFTER" indicates…

To count the number of spaces from one variable to another

"SPACES BETWEEN/SPACES SEPARATED BY" i…

The exact number of spaces between two variables

Logic Games - overview (opening paragr…

Logic Games - rules in sequencing games

Logic Games -selection rules tell one…

Logic Games - distribution rules tell…

Situation - what is the real word scenario being described? w…

rules tell you one or more of the following things... 1) the ord…

1) at least one of two entities must be rejected... 2) at least…

1)entities that must or cannot be assigned to the same groups…

Logic Games - overview (opening paragr…

Situation - what is the real word scenario being described? w…

Logic Games - rules in sequencing games

rules tell you one or more of the following things... 1) the ord…

Reading Comprehension Method

Topic

Scope

Purpose

1: Read the passage strategically (prioritize)... 2: Identify th…

the overall subject of the passage

the aspect of the topic that the author is focusing on

WHY is the author writing the passage (ex: to refute, to eval…

Reading Comprehension Method

1: Read the passage strategically (prioritize)... 2: Identify th…

Topic

the overall subject of the passage

"Takes for granted"

3 LR families

2 types of propositions

Argument must have at least a ...

"Assumes without evidence"

1.implication family... 2. Operation family... 3. Characterization…

1. Premises: evidence... 2. Conclusions

Premise & conclusion

"Takes for granted"

"Assumes without evidence"

3 LR families

1.implication family... 2. Operation family... 3. Characterization…

shoplift

abominable

decompose

engender

steal in the store... Nobody's jailed for 12 months for ~ing.

unequivocally detestable... War is an abominable sin.... Slavery i…

separate into constituent elements or parts, break down or de…

make happen [team spirit / cooperation]... The government has ~…

shoplift

steal in the store... Nobody's jailed for 12 months for ~ing.

abominable

unequivocally detestable... War is an abominable sin.... Slavery i…

Conclusion Questions

Resolve Questions

Strengthen Questions

Weaken Questions

Steps to solve:... 1. Determine whether the question is asking y…

Steps to solve:... 1. Identify the 2 conflicting pieces of infor…

Steps to solve:... 1. Identify the main conclusion of the squib.…

Steps to solve:... 1. Identify the main conclusion of the squib.…

Conclusion Questions

Steps to solve:... 1. Determine whether the question is asking y…

Resolve Questions

Steps to solve:... 1. Identify the 2 conflicting pieces of infor…

Conclusion key words

premise key words

question type 2s

must be true (equivalent)

1. Therefore... 2. Thus... 3. So... 4. In conclusion... 5. Consequently... 6…

1. since... 2. because... 3. for... 4. after all... 5. proven by the fact…

1. answers that restate premise are always wrong.... 2. the conc…

cannot be false

Conclusion key words

1. Therefore... 2. Thus... 3. So... 4. In conclusion... 5. Consequently... 6…

premise key words

1. since... 2. because... 3. for... 4. after all... 5. proven by the fact…

Logical Reasoning

Logical Reasoning (assumption fam)

Logical reasoning (method of argument)

Logical reasoning (wrong answer types)

Read all answers, skip and go back if time trap

If (answer choice) then conclusion

If it doesn't make sense eliminate, see what firs

Outside scope... irrelevant... 180... half right half wrong... restating…

Logical Reasoning

Read all answers, skip and go back if time trap

Logical Reasoning (assumption fam)

If (answer choice) then conclusion

Deeds

Requirements of a Deed

Covenants that Convey Quality in Deeds

o General Warranty Deed

the primary means of conveying interests in real property ... A…

o Grantor & Grantee must be listed... o Recital of Consideration…

Covenant of Seizin: a promise that the Grantor truly has good…

(Highest Quality)... • Includes the Covenant of Seizin... • Include…

Deeds

the primary means of conveying interests in real property ... A…

Requirements of a Deed

o Grantor & Grantee must be listed... o Recital of Consideration…

Sufficient Condition Indicators

Necessary Condition Indicators

Premise Indicator Keywords

Conclusion Indicator Keywords

If... When... Whenever... All... Any ... Every... Each... Enough

Then... Only ... Only if... Only when ... Needs... Requires... Must... Depends... Ess…

Since... Because ... For... As... After All... Moreover... In addition... Given that

Therefore... Thus... Hence... So... As a result... Consequently... It follows t…

Sufficient Condition Indicators

If... When... Whenever... All... Any ... Every... Each... Enough

Necessary Condition Indicators

Then... Only ... Only if... Only when ... Needs... Requires... Must... Depends... Ess…

LSAT Structure

article

flashcards

Contrapositive

Logical Reasoning 35 min 24-26 questions ... Logical Reasoning 3…

http://www.usnews.com/education/best-graduate-schools/top-law…

http://www.cram.com/tag/lsat

The one correct logical deduction you can make with a single…

LSAT Structure

Logical Reasoning 35 min 24-26 questions ... Logical Reasoning 3…

article

http://www.usnews.com/education/best-graduate-schools/top-law…

Logic Games Method

LG Q types

if x --> y

nor

1.) overview (SituationEntitiesActionLimitation)... 2.) sketch... 3…

acceptability- rules to eliminate violaters... must be/could be-…

x= sufficient, evidence, y= necessary, conclusion

and

Logic Games Method

1.) overview (SituationEntitiesActionLimitation)... 2.) sketch... 3…

LG Q types

acceptability- rules to eliminate violaters... must be/could be-…

SID

Solve

Interpret

Disagree

Solve -Interpret-Disagree

P: Description of a problem ... C: Proposed a solution or reject…

P: Fact or facts ... C: Broad conclusion(extreme and unwarranted…

P: Opinion is presented ... C: I disagree ... A: Additional facts e…

SID

Solve -Interpret-Disagree

Solve

P: Description of a problem ... C: Proposed a solution or reject…

Main point

Necessary Assumption

Sufficient Assumption

Weaken

Why test, extreme langugage eliminated

Gap between different ideas in the argument; negate the answe…

Gap in premises and conclusions; eliminate answers with new i…

Gap in logic, look for choice which lost negatively impacts gap

Main point

Why test, extreme langugage eliminated

Necessary Assumption

Gap between different ideas in the argument; negate the answe…

Kaplan Method for logical reasoning

Arguments with Mismatched Concepts

Arguments with overlooked possibilities

Assumption Question Strategies

1. Identify the question type... 2. Untangle the stimulus... 3. Mak…

Common types:... -alike/equivalent ... -mutually exclusive... -one te…

1. assumes there is no other explanation, reason, or outcome…

Identify: ... "assumed" "assumption" ... "Presupposes" "if added to…

Kaplan Method for logical reasoning

1. Identify the question type... 2. Untangle the stimulus... 3. Mak…

Arguments with Mismatched Concepts

Common types:... -alike/equivalent ... -mutually exclusive... -one te…

Assumption Strategy: Unstated premise

Assumption Strategy: Shift in the Lang…

Assumption Strategy: Logical Negation…

Assumption Answer Categories

Put your answer with the other premises and see if it matches…

Identify shifts in the language: If the author provides evide…

If cannot find answer, turn it into a weaken question and fin…

• Eliminates an alternate cause for the effect... Shows that whe…

Assumption Strategy: Unstated premise

Put your answer with the other premises and see if it matches…

Assumption Strategy: Shift in the Lang…

Identify shifts in the language: If the author provides evide…

Group 1

Group 2

Group 3

Inclusive vs Exclusive "Or"

Sufficient Conditions:... If, When, Where, All, The only, every…

Necessary Conditions:... Only, Only if, Only when, Only where,…

UNLESS, UNTIL, OR, WITHOUT... You can negate either one because…

Assume inclusive unless otherwise stated.... Inclusive is and/o…

Group 1

Sufficient Conditions:... If, When, Where, All, The only, every…

Group 2

Necessary Conditions:... Only, Only if, Only when, Only where,…

wrong logical reasoning answer types

Logical reasoning method

Logic games method

Conclusion key words

outside scope, irrelevant comparison, extreme, distortion, 18…

1. ID question type 2. Read stimulus 3. Predict answers 4. Re…

1. Overview (SEAL info) 2. Sketch 3. Draw rules 4. Deductions…

Thus, Therefore, So, Obviously, It follows that, Clearly, etc

wrong logical reasoning answer types

outside scope, irrelevant comparison, extreme, distortion, 18…

Logical reasoning method

1. ID question type 2. Read stimulus 3. Predict answers 4. Re…

Action

affirm

A Fortiori

Amicus Curiae

case, cause, suit or controversy disputed or contested before…

to declare a judgement, decree, or order is valid and must st…

literally, with stronger reason. A logic term used to label a…

literally, a friend of the court. A person with strong intere…

Action

case, cause, suit or controversy disputed or contested before…

affirm

to declare a judgement, decree, or order is valid and must st…

Premise Indicators I

Premise Indicators II

Conclusion Indicators I

Conclusion indicators II

Because... since... for... for example... for the reason that... in that

Given that... as indicated by... due to... owing to... this can be seen f…

thus... therefore... hence... consequently... as a result... so

accordingly... clearly... must be that ... shows that... conclude that... fo…

Premise Indicators I

Because... since... for... for example... for the reason that... in that

Premise Indicators II

Given that... as indicated by... due to... owing to... this can be seen f…

What is the order of difficulty for th…

When asked to count to a number, for e…

Can the questions be ambiguous? Are th…

What is the meaning of "or" on the LSAT?

Ordering games (easiest), grouping games (harder), and assign…

You dont count through the number. You count up to it. For ex…

Nope, so baby dont you worry.

It's inclusive in that, both options are possible.

What is the order of difficulty for th…

Ordering games (easiest), grouping games (harder), and assign…

When asked to count to a number, for e…

You dont count through the number. You count up to it. For ex…