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if data are discrete and have relative…

If data are discrete, but are many dif…

Classes

Lower Class limit

categories of data; observations (qualitative data)

Categories created with intervals of numbers

Categories of data

Small value within the class

if data are discrete and have relative…

categories of data; observations (qualitative data)

If data are discrete, but are many dif…

Categories created with intervals of numbers

Bar Graph

Histogram

Frequency Histogram

Circle Graph (Pie Chart)

a graph with bars that are of uniform width and are evenly sp…

a graph with bars that represent a range of values on the hor…

a histogram that shows the ratio between class frequency and…

shows the total quantity divided into component parts using p…

Bar Graph

a graph with bars that are of uniform width and are evenly sp…

Histogram

a graph with bars that represent a range of values on the hor…

Raw data

Frequency distibution

Relative frequency

frequency / sum of all frequencies

Data obtained through observational studies or designed exper…

Distribution that lists each category of data and the number…

The proportion (or percent) of observations within a category

Formula of relative frequency

Raw data

Data obtained through observational studies or designed exper…

Frequency distibution

Distribution that lists each category of data and the number…

bar graph

categorical frequency distribution

class

class boundaries

represents the data by using vertical or horizontal bars whos…

a frequency distribution used when the data are categorical (…

quantitative or qualitative category

the upper and lower values of a class for a grouped frequency…

bar graph

represents the data by using vertical or horizontal bars whos…

categorical frequency distribution

a frequency distribution used when the data are categorical (…

Classes

Frequency Distribution

Frequency

Lower Class Limit

Categories of data using intervals of numbers.

Table that shows the classes with a count of the number of en…

The number of data entries in the class.

Smallest value within the class.

Classes

Categories of data using intervals of numbers.

Frequency Distribution

Table that shows the classes with a count of the number of en…

Variable

Data

Univariate Data Set

Categorical/Qualitative Data

Any characteristics whose value may change from one individua…

Results from making observations either on a single variable…

Data set consisting of observations on a single attribute.

Individual observations are categorical responses (brown, blu…

Variable

Any characteristics whose value may change from one individua…

Data

Results from making observations either on a single variable…

Percentile

Frequency Graph

Relative Frequency Graph

Cumulative Relative Frequency Graph

the value in a data set with p percent of values lower than i…

A graph showing the counts (or frequency) of each class in a…

A graph showing the percent values of each class from the who…

The cumulative relative frequency of successive class is the…

Percentile

the value in a data set with p percent of values lower than i…

Frequency Graph

A graph showing the counts (or frequency) of each class in a…

frequency distribution

raw data

class

frequency

the organization of raw data in table form, using classes and…

when the data are in original form

each raw data value is placed into a quantitative or qualitat…

the number of data values contained in a specific class

frequency distribution

the organization of raw data in table form, using classes and…

raw data

when the data are in original form

bar graph

stacked bar graph

clustered bar graph

crosstabulation

graphical display of the categorical data where frequencies o…

bars divided into subparts of data and stacked on top of one…

each set of bars represents a single category of one variable…

tabular method for simultaneously summarizing the data for tw…

bar graph

graphical display of the categorical data where frequencies o…

stacked bar graph

bars divided into subparts of data and stacked on top of one…

Raw Data

Variable

Observational Unit

Observation

Term used for numbers and category labels that have been coll…

A characteristic that can differ from one individual to the n…

A single individual who participates in a study.

Used to describe the value of a single measurement.

Raw Data

Term used for numbers and category labels that have been coll…

Variable

A characteristic that can differ from one individual to the n…

Class frequency (f)

Relative Frequency (rF)...

Percent frequency (%f)

Bar Graphs

the number of population members in that class...

the fraction of population members in that class... rf = f/n...

the percentage of population members in that class... %f = 100(…

Class frequency (f)

the number of population members in that class...

Relative Frequency (rF)...

the fraction of population members in that class... rf = f/n...

Percentile

Frequency Graph

Relative Frequency Graph

Cumulative Relative Frequency Graph

the value in a data set with p percent of values lower than i…

A graph showing the counts (or frequency) of each class in a…

A graph showing the percent values of each class from the who…

The cumulative relative frequency of successive class is the…

Percentile

the value in a data set with p percent of values lower than i…

Frequency Graph

A graph showing the counts (or frequency) of each class in a…

Mean

Median

Mode

Outlier

value that represents a typical, or central, entry of a data…

value in the data set that lies

data entry that occurs with the greatest frequency

a data entry that is far removed from the other entries in th…

Mean

value that represents a typical, or central, entry of a data…

Median

value in the data set that lies

row of spreadsheets of SPSS data files

column of spreadsheets of SPSS data fi…

frequency distribution

frequency of tables in SPSS output

shows individual record

shows characteristic of the subjects in the study (constant o…

tabulation indicating the number of times a given score occur…

used also to identify data entry errors

row of spreadsheets of SPSS data files

shows individual record

column of spreadsheets of SPSS data fi…

shows characteristic of the subjects in the study (constant o…

Count

class

Class Limits

Class width

Frequency distribution is a table that shows classes or inter…

A group in a frequency distribution is also called a _____.

The lowest and the greatest number that can belong in a class…

The distance between the lower (or the upper) limits of conse…

Count

Frequency distribution is a table that shows classes or inter…

class

A group in a frequency distribution is also called a _____.

Frequency Distribution

Lower Class Limit

Upper Class Limit

Class Width

Table that shows classes or intervals of data entries with a…

Least number that can belong to a class

Greatest number that can belong to a class

Distance between lower and upper limits of a consecutive clas…

Frequency Distribution

Table that shows classes or intervals of data entries with a…

Lower Class Limit

Least number that can belong to a class

pth percentile

Cumulative relative frequency graph

Standardized value (z-score)

Density Curve

the value with p percent of the observations less than it

helps to examine location within a distribution

In a distribution with known mean and standard deviation, thi…

Often used to describe the overall pattern of a distribution.…

pth percentile

the value with p percent of the observations less than it

Cumulative relative frequency graph

helps to examine location within a distribution

Bar Graph

Class

Class Frequency

Class Midpoint

A graph made of bars whose heights represent the frequencies…

An interval that includes all the values in a data set that f…

The number of values in a data set that belong to a certain c…

This is obtained by dividing the sum of the lower and upper l…

Bar Graph

A graph made of bars whose heights represent the frequencies…

Class

An interval that includes all the values in a data set that f…

distribution

histogram

bar chart

relative frequency

the list of values observed and the frequency they occur

-numerical data... -no gaps; all values possible... -bin width matt…

-categorical data... -gaps; no intermediate data possible... -bin w…

a proportion (# out of #)

distribution

the list of values observed and the frequency they occur

histogram

-numerical data... -no gaps; all values possible... -bin width matt…

Raw Data

Frequency Distribution

Relative Frequency

Bar Graph

Original data obtained from observational studies and designe…

Lists each category of data and the number of occurrences for…

The proportion (or percent) of observations within a category…

Constructed by labeling each category of data on either the h…

Raw Data

Original data obtained from observational studies and designe…

Frequency Distribution

Lists each category of data and the number of occurrences for…

Rules for a good graph

Bar graphs

Pie graph

Histogram

1) Show the data... 2) Make the patterns in data easy to see... 3)…

Good for comparing differences among groups. ... 1) Y-Axis must…

Used to display frequencies of categorical variables.... 1) Wor…

Used to display frequency distributions of a numerical variab…

Rules for a good graph

1) Show the data... 2) Make the patterns in data easy to see... 3)…

Bar graphs

Good for comparing differences among groups. ... 1) Y-Axis must…

Frequency Distribution

Lower Class Limit

Upper Class Limit

Class Width

Table that shows classes or intervals of data entries with a…

Least number that can belong to a class

Greatest number that can belong to a class

Distance between lower and upper limits of a consecutive clas…

Frequency Distribution

Table that shows classes or intervals of data entries with a…

Lower Class Limit

Least number that can belong to a class

Frequency distribution

Descriptive - -to organize and simply…

table or graph

Frequency Distribution

__________ is a organized tabulation presenting how the indiv…

What type of statistic if frequency distribution?

How can you construct/show frequency distribution?

_______: counts for each individual score or group of scores.

Frequency distribution

__________ is a organized tabulation presenting how the indiv…

Descriptive - -to organize and simply…

What type of statistic if frequency distribution?

characteristics to look for when organ…

organize data sets by grouping the dat…

frequency distribution

frequency distribution (guidelines for…

its center, its variable (or spread), and its shape

intervals called classes and forming a frequency distribution

is a table that shows classes or intervals of data entries wi…

1. decide on the number of classes. this will be given in eac…

characteristics to look for when organ…

its center, its variable (or spread), and its shape

organize data sets by grouping the dat…

intervals called classes and forming a frequency distribution

Percentile

relative frequency

Cumulative frequency

Cumulative relative frequency

of the a distribution is the value with p percent of the obse…

divide the count in each class by the total number there were…

add the counts in the frequency column for the current class…

divide cumulative frequency by total number overall and then…

Percentile

of the a distribution is the value with p percent of the obse…

relative frequency

divide the count in each class by the total number there were…

The 68-95-99.7 Rule

Cumulative relative frequency graph

Density curve

Mean of a density curve

Also known as the "empirical rule." In the Normal distributio…

Used to examine location within a distribution. Cumulative re…

A curve that (a) is always on or above the horizontal axis, a…

The point at which the curve would balance if made of solid m…

The 68-95-99.7 Rule

Also known as the "empirical rule." In the Normal distributio…

Cumulative relative frequency graph

Used to examine location within a distribution. Cumulative re…

Frequency Distribution

Class Width

Midpoint

Relative Frequency

Table that shows classes or intervals of data with a count of…

The vertical subtraction highest to lowest of lower class num…

Is the lower class + upper class divided by 2

Frequency divided by the Sample Size

Frequency Distribution

Table that shows classes or intervals of data with a count of…

Class Width

The vertical subtraction highest to lowest of lower class num…

Organizing Qualitative Data

Frequency Distribution (frequency table)

Relative Frequency

Relative Frequency Distribution

Frequency Distribution/Relative Frequency/Relative Frequency…

- A list of each category of data and the number of occurrenc…

- the proportion of observations within a category. ... Round t…

Lists each category of data with the relative frequency.... ... **…

Organizing Qualitative Data

Frequency Distribution/Relative Frequency/Relative Frequency…

Frequency Distribution (frequency table)

- A list of each category of data and the number of occurrenc…

Bar graph

Pie chart

Line graph

Histogram

a graphical display of data using bars of different heights.

special chart that uses "pie slices" to show relative sizes o…

a graph that shows information is connected in someway (usual…

a bar graph with the width of the bar represents a quantitati…

Bar graph

a graphical display of data using bars of different heights.

Pie chart

special chart that uses "pie slices" to show relative sizes o…

Density Curve

Median of density curve

Quartiles

Mean of density curve

A curve that is always above the horizontal axis and has an a…

The "equal areas" part, the part with half the curve to it's…

Area under the curve is divided into quarters

The "balance" part

Density Curve

A curve that is always above the horizontal axis and has an a…

Median of density curve

The "equal areas" part, the part with half the curve to it's…

Patterns are easier to identify

It might otherwise be difficult to det…

Determines which numbers can belong to…

The numbers that separate classes w/o…

What are some of the benefits of representing data sets using…

Why should the number of classes in a frequency distribution…

Class limits

Class boundaries

Patterns are easier to identify

What are some of the benefits of representing data sets using…

It might otherwise be difficult to det…

Why should the number of classes in a frequency distribution…

Percentile

relative frequency

Cumulative frequency

Cumulative relative frequency

of the a distribution is the value with p percent of the obse…

divide the count in each class by the total number there were…

add the counts in the frequency column for the current class…

divide cumulative frequency by total number overall and then…

Percentile

of the a distribution is the value with p percent of the obse…

relative frequency

divide the count in each class by the total number there were…

Frequency distribution

Frequency

Class width

Range

a table that shows classes or intervals of data entries with…

the number of data entries in the class

the distance between lower (or upper) limits of consecutive c…

the difference between the maximum and minimum data entries

Frequency distribution

a table that shows classes or intervals of data entries with…

Frequency

the number of data entries in the class

Frequency Table

Class Lower Limit

Class Upper Limit

Class Width

A table that shows the total for each category or group of da…

Lowest data value that can fit in a class.

Highest data value that can fit in a class.

Lower Limit of Class #2 - Lower Limit of Class #1... HIGH - LO…

Frequency Table

A table that shows the total for each category or group of da…

Class Lower Limit

Lowest data value that can fit in a class.

Percentile

Frequency Graph

Relative Frequency Graph

Cumulative Relative Frequency Graph

The pth percentile of a distribution is the value with p perc…

A graph showing the counts of each class in a distribution.

A graph showing the percent values of each class from the who…

The cumulative relative frequency of successive class is the…

Percentile

The pth percentile of a distribution is the value with p perc…

Frequency Graph

A graph showing the counts of each class in a distribution.

diagrams

tables

frequency distribution

percentiles (quartiles)

illustrates trends/patterns

numerical data (means/frequencies)

relative occurrence of observations in a data set ... -continuou…

25%: lower quartile... 50%: inner quartile range... 75%: upper quar…

diagrams

illustrates trends/patterns

tables

numerical data (means/frequencies)

categorical frequency distribution

class

class boundaries

class midpoint

a frequency distribution used when the data are categorical (…

quantitative or qualitative category

the upper and lower values of a class for a grouped frequency…

value for a class in a grouped frequency distribution obtaine…

categorical frequency distribution

a frequency distribution used when the data are categorical (…

class

quantitative or qualitative category

Descriptive Statistics

Inferential Statistics

Mode

Median

Numbers that summarize a set of research data.

A set of mathematical procedures that help psychologists make…

A measure of central tendency that is the value or score that…

A measure of central tendency that is the halfway point in a…

Descriptive Statistics

Numbers that summarize a set of research data.

Inferential Statistics

A set of mathematical procedures that help psychologists make…

interpreting a normal probability plot

determining shape from a normal probab…

evidence that a distribution is not no…

normal probability plot

straight line: approximately normally distributed... systematic…

1) draw a line from the left most points to the right... 2) if m…

if there are systematic deviations from the plot or distinct…

assesses whether a data set follows a normal distribution or…

interpreting a normal probability plot

straight line: approximately normally distributed... systematic…

determining shape from a normal probab…

1) draw a line from the left most points to the right... 2) if m…

Frequency DISTRIBUTION

RELATIVE frequency

PRECENT frequency

CUMULATIVE frequency

tabular summary of data showing the frequency (or number) of…

the FRACTION or PROPORTION of the total number of data items…

RELATIVE frequency multiplied by 100

shows the NUMBER of items with values less than or equal to t…

Frequency DISTRIBUTION

tabular summary of data showing the frequency (or number) of…

RELATIVE frequency

the FRACTION or PROPORTION of the total number of data items…

A list of college wresting champions f…

In a magazine study, researchers repor…

Dot Plots, Stem-and-Leaf Display, and…

Consider the following stem-and-leaf d…

9/25 = 0.36... B. 0.36

A. Histogram

Quantitative

B. The stem is 3 and the leaves are 4, 6, 6. The numbers in t…

A list of college wresting champions f…

9/25 = 0.36... B. 0.36

In a magazine study, researchers repor…

A. Histogram

Objectives

Frequency distributions ... -

Raw data

Frequency ... - how many people pick 1 qu…

Organize Qualitative Data in Tables... Construct Bar Graphs... Cons…

lists each category of data and the number of occurrences for…

when data are collected in original form

number of data values that fall into a specific class

Objectives

Organize Qualitative Data in Tables... Construct Bar Graphs... Cons…

Frequency distributions ... -

lists each category of data and the number of occurrences for…

array

area

square units

factor

an orderly arrangement

The number of square units required to cover a surface.

a unit used in measuring area

The numbers multiplied together in a multiplication problem

array

an orderly arrangement

area

The number of square units required to cover a surface.

Statistics

Descriptive Statistics

Percentiles

Frequency Distributions

The process of representing or analyzing numerical data.

1) Organizing data from a sample in a meaningful way. 2) Conc…

Most commonly used on standardized tests. If you score 750 on…

1) Explain how data in a study looked. 2) Might show how ofte…

Statistics

The process of representing or analyzing numerical data.

Descriptive Statistics

1) Organizing data from a sample in a meaningful way. 2) Conc…

Distribution

Symmetric distributions

skewed distribution (left, right)

Overall Pattern

distribution of a variable tells us what values the variable…

Data that are evenly distributed.... The left and right halves o…

a representation of scores that lack symmetry around their av…

In any graph of data, look for the overall pattern and for st…

Distribution

distribution of a variable tells us what values the variable…

Symmetric distributions

Data that are evenly distributed.... The left and right halves o…

Frequency table

Class Width

Lower Class Limit

Upper Class Limit

a.) Lists all of the classes. (class: interval or range of va…

Measure of how large a class may be. (figured by taking the d…

Simply, the smallest number in a class.

Largest number in a class.

Frequency table

a.) Lists all of the classes. (class: interval or range of va…

Class Width

Measure of how large a class may be. (figured by taking the d…

Raw Data

Class

Frequency

Frequency distribution

Data that is original form

Each raw data that is placed into a quantitative or qualitati…

the number of data values contained in a specific class.

Is the organization of raw data in table form, using classes…

Raw Data

Data that is original form

Class

Each raw data that is placed into a quantitative or qualitati…