#### Study sets matching "math statistics chapter 2"

#### Study sets matching "math statistics chapter 2"

if data are discrete and have relative…

If data are discrete, but are many dif…

Classes

Lower Class limit

categories of data; observations (qualitative data)

Categories created with intervals of numbers

Categories of data

Small value within the class

if data are discrete and have relative…

categories of data; observations (qualitative data)

If data are discrete, but are many dif…

Categories created with intervals of numbers

Bar Graph

Histogram

Frequency Histogram

Circle Graph (Pie Chart)

a graph with bars that are of uniform width and are evenly sp…

a graph with bars that represent a range of values on the hor…

a histogram that shows the ratio between class frequency and…

shows the total quantity divided into component parts using p…

Bar Graph

a graph with bars that are of uniform width and are evenly sp…

Histogram

a graph with bars that represent a range of values on the hor…

Classes

Frequency Distribution

Frequency

Lower Class Limit

Categories of data using intervals of numbers.

Table that shows the classes with a count of the number of en…

The number of data entries in the class.

Smallest value within the class.

Classes

Categories of data using intervals of numbers.

Frequency Distribution

Table that shows the classes with a count of the number of en…

Raw data

Frequency distibution

Relative frequency

frequency / sum of all frequencies

Data obtained through observational studies or designed exper…

Distribution that lists each category of data and the number…

The proportion (or percent) of observations within a category

Formula of relative frequency

Raw data

Data obtained through observational studies or designed exper…

Frequency distibution

Distribution that lists each category of data and the number…

bar graph

categorical frequency distribution

class

class boundaries

represents the data by using vertical or horizontal bars whos…

a frequency distribution used when the data are categorical (…

quantitative or qualitative category

the upper and lower values of a class for a grouped frequency…

bar graph

represents the data by using vertical or horizontal bars whos…

categorical frequency distribution

a frequency distribution used when the data are categorical (…

What is the data in it's original, uno…

What is frequency distribution?

What's the most convenient method of o…

What's the most useful method of prese…

Raw Data

The Organization of Raw Data in Table Form, Using Classes and…

Frequency Distribution

Using Statistical Charts and Graphs

What is the data in it's original, uno…

Raw Data

What is frequency distribution?

The Organization of Raw Data in Table Form, Using Classes and…

Variable

Data

Univariate Data Set

Categorical/Qualitative Data

Any characteristics whose value may change from one individua…

Results from making observations either on a single variable…

Data set consisting of observations on a single attribute.

Individual observations are categorical responses (brown, blu…

Variable

Any characteristics whose value may change from one individua…

Data

Results from making observations either on a single variable…

frequency distribution

raw data

class

frequency

the organization of raw data in table form, using classes and…

when the data are in original form

each raw data value is placed into a quantitative or qualitat…

the number of data values contained in a specific class

frequency distribution

the organization of raw data in table form, using classes and…

raw data

when the data are in original form

Raw Data

Variable

Observational Unit

Observation

Term used for numbers and category labels that have been coll…

A characteristic that can differ from one individual to the n…

A single individual who participates in a study.

Used to describe the value of a single measurement.

Raw Data

Term used for numbers and category labels that have been coll…

Variable

A characteristic that can differ from one individual to the n…

bar graph

stacked bar graph

clustered bar graph

crosstabulation

graphical display of the categorical data where frequencies o…

bars divided into subparts of data and stacked on top of one…

each set of bars represents a single category of one variable…

tabular method for simultaneously summarizing the data for tw…

bar graph

graphical display of the categorical data where frequencies o…

stacked bar graph

bars divided into subparts of data and stacked on top of one…

Class frequency (f)

Relative Frequency (rF)...

Percent frequency (%f)

Bar Graphs

the number of population members in that class...

the fraction of population members in that class... rf = f/n...

the percentage of population members in that class... %f = 100(…

Class frequency (f)

the number of population members in that class...

Relative Frequency (rF)...

the fraction of population members in that class... rf = f/n...

Frequency Distribution

Class Width

Midpoint

Relative Frequency

Table that shows classes or intervals of data with a count of…

The vertical subtraction highest to lowest of lower class num…

Is the lower class + upper class divided by 2

Frequency divided by the Sample Size

Frequency Distribution

Table that shows classes or intervals of data with a count of…

Class Width

The vertical subtraction highest to lowest of lower class num…

raw data

class

frequency

frequency distribution

when data is in its original form

when each raw data value is placed into a quantitative or qua…

the number of data values contained in a specific class

the organization of raw data in table form, using classes and…

raw data

when data is in its original form

class

when each raw data value is placed into a quantitative or qua…

row of spreadsheets of SPSS data files

column of spreadsheets of SPSS data fi…

frequency distribution

frequency of tables in SPSS output

shows individual record

shows characteristic of the subjects in the study (constant o…

tabulation indicating the number of times a given score occur…

used also to identify data entry errors

row of spreadsheets of SPSS data files

shows individual record

column of spreadsheets of SPSS data fi…

shows characteristic of the subjects in the study (constant o…

Bar Graph

Class

Class Frequency

Class Midpoint

A graph made of bars whose heights represent the frequencies…

An interval that includes all the values in a data set that f…

The number of values in a data set that belong to a certain c…

This is obtained by dividing the sum of the lower and upper l…

Bar Graph

A graph made of bars whose heights represent the frequencies…

Class

An interval that includes all the values in a data set that f…

characteristics to look for when organ…

organize data sets by grouping the dat…

frequency distribution

frequency distribution (guidelines for…

its center, its variable (or spread), and its shape

intervals called classes and forming a frequency distribution

is a table that shows classes or intervals of data entries wi…

1. decide on the number of classes. this will be given in eac…

characteristics to look for when organ…

its center, its variable (or spread), and its shape

organize data sets by grouping the dat…

intervals called classes and forming a frequency distribution

pth percentile

Cumulative relative frequency graph

Standardized value (z-score)

Density Curve

the value with p percent of the observations less than it

helps to examine location within a distribution

In a distribution with known mean and standard deviation, thi…

Often used to describe the overall pattern of a distribution.…

pth percentile

the value with p percent of the observations less than it

Cumulative relative frequency graph

helps to examine location within a distribution

Percentile

Frequency Graph

Relative Frequency Graph

Cumulative Relative Frequency Graph

the value in a data set with p percent of values lower than i…

A graph showing the counts (or frequency) of each class in a…

A graph showing the percent values of each class from the who…

The cumulative relative frequency of successive class is the…

Percentile

the value in a data set with p percent of values lower than i…

Frequency Graph

A graph showing the counts (or frequency) of each class in a…

Frequency distribution

Descriptive - -to organize and simply…

table or graph

Frequency Distribution

__________ is a organized tabulation presenting how the indiv…

What type of statistic if frequency distribution?

How can you construct/show frequency distribution?

_______: counts for each individual score or group of scores.

Frequency distribution

__________ is a organized tabulation presenting how the indiv…

Descriptive - -to organize and simply…

What type of statistic if frequency distribution?

Percentile

relative frequency

Cumulative frequency

Cumulative relative frequency

of the a distribution is the value with p percent of the obse…

divide the count in each class by the total number there were…

add the counts in the frequency column for the current class…

divide cumulative frequency by total number overall and then…

Percentile

of the a distribution is the value with p percent of the obse…

relative frequency

divide the count in each class by the total number there were…

Percentile

Frequency Graph

Relative Frequency Graph

Cumulative Relative Frequency Graph

the value in a data set with p percent of values lower than i…

A graph showing the counts (or frequency) of each class in a…

A graph showing the percent values of each class from the who…

The cumulative relative frequency of successive class is the…

Percentile

the value in a data set with p percent of values lower than i…

Frequency Graph

A graph showing the counts (or frequency) of each class in a…

Raw Data

Frequency Distribution

Relative Frequency

Bar Graph

Original data obtained from observational studies and designe…

Lists each category of data and the number of occurrences for…

The proportion (or percent) of observations within a category…

Constructed by labeling each category of data on either the h…

Raw Data

Original data obtained from observational studies and designe…

Frequency Distribution

Lists each category of data and the number of occurrences for…

Rules for a good graph

Bar graphs

Pie graph

Histogram

1) Show the data... 2) Make the patterns in data easy to see... 3)…

Good for comparing differences among groups. ... 1) Y-Axis must…

Used to display frequencies of categorical variables.... 1) Wor…

Used to display frequency distributions of a numerical variab…

Rules for a good graph

1) Show the data... 2) Make the patterns in data easy to see... 3)…

Bar graphs

Good for comparing differences among groups. ... 1) Y-Axis must…

The 68-95-99.7 Rule

Cumulative relative frequency graph

Density curve

Mean of a density curve

Also known as the "empirical rule." In the Normal distributio…

Used to examine location within a distribution. Cumulative re…

A curve that (a) is always on or above the horizontal axis, a…

The point at which the curve would balance if made of solid m…

The 68-95-99.7 Rule

Also known as the "empirical rule." In the Normal distributio…

Cumulative relative frequency graph

Used to examine location within a distribution. Cumulative re…

Bar graph

Pie chart

Line graph

Histogram

a graphical display of data using bars of different heights.

special chart that uses "pie slices" to show relative sizes o…

a graph that shows information is connected in someway (usual…

a bar graph with the width of the bar represents a quantitati…

Bar graph

a graphical display of data using bars of different heights.

Pie chart

special chart that uses "pie slices" to show relative sizes o…

Organizing Qualitative Data

Frequency Distribution (frequency table)

Relative Frequency

Relative Frequency Distribution

Frequency Distribution/Relative Frequency/Relative Frequency…

- A list of each category of data and the number of occurrenc…

- the proportion of observations within a category. ... Round t…

Lists each category of data with the relative frequency.... ... **…

Organizing Qualitative Data

Frequency Distribution/Relative Frequency/Relative Frequency…

Frequency Distribution (frequency table)

- A list of each category of data and the number of occurrenc…

Frequency Distribution

Lower Class Limit

Upper Class Limit

Class Width

Table that shows classes or intervals of data entries with a…

Least number that can belong to a class

Greatest number that can belong to a class

Distance between lower and upper limits of a consecutive clas…

Frequency Distribution

Table that shows classes or intervals of data entries with a…

Lower Class Limit

Least number that can belong to a class

Density Curve

Median of density curve

Quartiles

Mean of density curve

A curve that is always above the horizontal axis and has an a…

The "equal areas" part, the part with half the curve to it's…

Area under the curve is divided into quarters

The "balance" part

Density Curve

A curve that is always above the horizontal axis and has an a…

Median of density curve

The "equal areas" part, the part with half the curve to it's…

Frequency distribution

Frequency

Class width

Range

a table that shows classes or intervals of data entries with…

the number of data entries in the class

the distance between lower (or upper) limits of consecutive c…

the difference between the maximum and minimum data entries

Frequency distribution

a table that shows classes or intervals of data entries with…

Frequency

the number of data entries in the class

Frequency Table

Class Lower Limit

Class Upper Limit

Class Width

A table that shows the total for each category or group of da…

Lowest data value that can fit in a class.

Highest data value that can fit in a class.

Lower Limit of Class #2 - Lower Limit of Class #1... HIGH - LO…

Frequency Table

A table that shows the total for each category or group of da…

Class Lower Limit

Lowest data value that can fit in a class.

EXPERIMENT

EXPERIMENTAL UNIT

CONTROL GROUP

PLACEBO

a controlled study conducted to determine the effect varying…

a person, object, or some other well-defined item upon which…

serves as a baseline treatment that can be used to compare to…

an innocuous medication, such as a sugar tablet, that looks,…

EXPERIMENT

a controlled study conducted to determine the effect varying…

EXPERIMENTAL UNIT

a person, object, or some other well-defined item upon which…

Linear transformation--addition

Linear transformation--multiplication

Z-score

Z-score formula

Center: changes by +/- "a"... Spread: no change

Center: changes by x "a"... Spread: changes by x "a"

Tells us how many standard deviations away from the mean, and…

(x-mean)/standard deviation

Linear transformation--addition

Center: changes by +/- "a"... Spread: no change

Linear transformation--multiplication

Center: changes by x "a"... Spread: changes by x "a"

Frequency distribution

bar graph

Pareto Chart

side by side bar graph

A set of data organized by summarizing the number of times a…

a graphical representation of a frequency distribution

a bar graph with frequency in descending order

used to compare two bar graphs of the same categories

Frequency distribution

A set of data organized by summarizing the number of times a…

bar graph

a graphical representation of a frequency distribution

Percentile

Frequency Graph

Relative Frequency Graph

Cumulative Relative Frequency Graph

The pth percentile of a distribution is the value with p perc…

A graph showing the counts of each class in a distribution.

A graph showing the percent values of each class from the who…

The cumulative relative frequency of successive class is the…

Percentile

The pth percentile of a distribution is the value with p perc…

Frequency Graph

A graph showing the counts of each class in a distribution.

diagrams

tables

frequency distribution

percentiles (quartiles)

illustrates trends/patterns

numerical data (means/frequencies)

relative occurrence of observations in a data set ... -continuou…

25%: lower quartile... 50%: inner quartile range... 75%: upper quar…

diagrams

illustrates trends/patterns

tables

numerical data (means/frequencies)

categorical frequency distribution

class

class boundaries

class midpoint

a frequency distribution used when the data are categorical (…

quantitative or qualitative category

the upper and lower values of a class for a grouped frequency…

value for a class in a grouped frequency distribution obtaine…

categorical frequency distribution

a frequency distribution used when the data are categorical (…

class

quantitative or qualitative category

Frequency Tables

Distribution

Area Principle

Bar Chart

Lists categories in a categorical variable and gives the coun…

The distribution of variable gives: the possible values of th…

In a statistical display each data value should be represente…

Shows whose area represents the count (or percentage) of obse…

Frequency Tables

Lists categories in a categorical variable and gives the coun…

Distribution

The distribution of variable gives: the possible values of th…

A list of college wresting champions f…

In a magazine study, researchers repor…

Dot Plots, Stem-and-Leaf Display, and…

Consider the following stem-and-leaf d…

9/25 = 0.36... B. 0.36

A. Histogram

Quantitative

B. The stem is 3 and the leaves are 4, 6, 6. The numbers in t…

A list of college wresting champions f…

9/25 = 0.36... B. 0.36

In a magazine study, researchers repor…

A. Histogram

Frequency DISTRIBUTION

RELATIVE frequency

PRECENT frequency

CUMULATIVE frequency

tabular summary of data showing the frequency (or number) of…

the FRACTION or PROPORTION of the total number of data items…

RELATIVE frequency multiplied by 100

shows the NUMBER of items with values less than or equal to t…

Frequency DISTRIBUTION

tabular summary of data showing the frequency (or number) of…

RELATIVE frequency

the FRACTION or PROPORTION of the total number of data items…

Important Characteristics Of Data

Center

Variation

Distribution

-Center... -Variation... -Distribution... -Outliers... -Time

Indicated where the middle amount in a data set is located

A measure of the amount that data values vary between eachother

The shape of the data over the range of values (bell, uniform…

Important Characteristics Of Data

-Center... -Variation... -Distribution... -Outliers... -Time

Center

Indicated where the middle amount in a data set is located

Population

Sample

Random Sample

Biased Sample

the complete set of items being studied

the part of the population.A sample is often used to conduct…

A sample in which every member of the population has a chance…

A biased sample does not fairly represent the population

Population

the complete set of items being studied

Sample

the part of the population.A sample is often used to conduct…

Distribution

Rates

Median

Outlier

tells us what values the variable takes and how often it take…

Percents or proportions

the middle number, the midpoint of a distribution.

in a graph of data, it is an individual observation that fall…

Distribution

tells us what values the variable takes and how often it take…

Rates

Percents or proportions

Statistics

Descriptive Statistics

Percentiles

Frequency Distributions

The process of representing or analyzing numerical data.

1) Organizing data from a sample in a meaningful way. 2) Conc…

Most commonly used on standardized tests. If you score 750 on…

1) Explain how data in a study looked. 2) Might show how ofte…

Statistics

The process of representing or analyzing numerical data.

Descriptive Statistics

1) Organizing data from a sample in a meaningful way. 2) Conc…

Objectives

Frequency distributions ... -

Raw data

Frequency ... - how many people pick 1 qu…

Organize Qualitative Data in Tables... Construct Bar Graphs... Cons…

lists each category of data and the number of occurrences for…

when data are collected in original form

number of data values that fall into a specific class

Objectives

Organize Qualitative Data in Tables... Construct Bar Graphs... Cons…

Frequency distributions ... -

lists each category of data and the number of occurrences for…

Percentile

Frequency Graph

Relative Frequency Graph

Cumulative Relative Frequency Graph

the value in a data set with p percent of values lower than i…

A graph showing the counts (or frequency) of each class in a…

A graph showing the percent values of each class from the who…

The cumulative relative frequency of successive class is the…

Percentile

the value in a data set with p percent of values lower than i…

Frequency Graph

A graph showing the counts (or frequency) of each class in a…

Percentile

relative frequency

Cumulative relative frequency

Standardized value

of the a distribution is the value with p percent of the obse…

divide the count in each class by the total number there were…

divide cumulative frequency by total number overall and then…

if x is an observation from the distribution that has known m…

Percentile

of the a distribution is the value with p percent of the obse…

relative frequency

divide the count in each class by the total number there were…

Raw Data

Class

Frequency

Frequency distribution

Data that is original form

Each raw data that is placed into a quantitative or qualitati…

the number of data values contained in a specific class.

Is the organization of raw data in table form, using classes…

Raw Data

Data that is original form

Class

Each raw data that is placed into a quantitative or qualitati…

Variable

Quantitative Variable

Qualitative (Categorical) Variable

Discrete Variable

A characteristic that varies from one person or thing to anot…

A variable that you can count.

A variable that you cannot count.

A type of quantitative variable.... You can list all the possib…

Variable

A characteristic that varies from one person or thing to anot…

Quantitative Variable

A variable that you can count.