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Study sets matching "mcat chapter 3"

MCAT Biochemistry: Chapter 3
Structural Proteins
Collagen
Elastin
Keratins
Proteins that are anchored to the cell membrane by embedded p…
Has a characteristic trihelical fiber of three alpha helices…
Important part of extracellular matrix of connective tissue.…
Intermediate filament proteins found in epithelial cells. The…
Structural Proteins
Proteins that are anchored to the cell membrane by embedded p…
Collagen
Has a characteristic trihelical fiber of three alpha helices…
38 terms
Kaplan MCAT Physics Chapter 3: Thermodynamics
Zeroth law of thermodynamics
Exchange of heat at equilibrium?
Temperature
Relevant temperature points ... (Three sc…
States that objects are in thermal equilibrium when they are…
No. Objects in thermal equilibrium experience no net exchange…
A qualitative measure of how hot or cold an object is; quanti…
Zeroth law of thermodynamics
States that objects are in thermal equilibrium when they are…
Exchange of heat at equilibrium?
No. Objects in thermal equilibrium experience no net exchange…
27 terms
MCAT Biochemistry Chapter 3
What are the primary structural protei…
Collagen
Elastin
Keratins
collagen, elastin, keratin, actin, and tubulin.
makes up most of the extracellular matrix of connective tissu…
role is to stretch and then recoil, to restore the original s…
intermediate filament proteins found in epithelial cells. Fun…
What are the primary structural protei…
collagen, elastin, keratin, actin, and tubulin.
Collagen
makes up most of the extracellular matrix of connective tissu…
63 terms
Kaplan MCAT Biology: Chapter 3
Fertilization
Cortical reaction
Dizygotic Twins
Monozygotic Twins
Occurs in the widest part of the fallopian tube, the ampulla.…
Once sperm penetrates egg, this reaction occurs=Ca ion releas…
Fertilization of two different eggs released during one ovula…
Single zygote splits into two. Genome of the offspring are id…
Fertilization
Occurs in the widest part of the fallopian tube, the ampulla.…
Cortical reaction
Once sperm penetrates egg, this reaction occurs=Ca ion releas…
MCAT Biology: Chapter 3
Fertilization
Dizygotic Twins
Monozygotic Twins
Cleavage
Occurs in the widest part of the fallopian tube, the ampulla.…
Fertilization of two different eggs released during one ovula…
Single zygote splits into two. Genome of the offspring are id…
Rapid mitotic cell divisions that occur as a zygote moves to…
Fertilization
Occurs in the widest part of the fallopian tube, the ampulla.…
Dizygotic Twins
Fertilization of two different eggs released during one ovula…
89 terms
MCAT Kaplan Biology Chapter 3: Embryogenesis and Development
Fertilization
ampulla
cortical reaction and its effects
fertilization membrane
1) at day 14 of ovulation, secondary oocyte is released from…
widest part of fallopian tubes where fertilization usually oc…
release of calcium ions in newly formed zygotic cell after sp…
the depolarized/impenetrable membrane after release of calciu…
Fertilization
1) at day 14 of ovulation, secondary oocyte is released from…
ampulla
widest part of fallopian tubes where fertilization usually oc…
67 terms
MCAT Review Biochem Chapter 3
Motif
Collagen
Elastin
Keratins
A repetitive organization of secondary structural elements to…
A trihelical fiber and makes up most of ECM of connective tis…
A part of the ECM of connective tissue. Role is to stretch an…
Intermediate Filament proteins found in epithelial cells. Con…
Motif
A repetitive organization of secondary structural elements to…
Collagen
A trihelical fiber and makes up most of ECM of connective tis…
24 terms
MCAT bio chapter 3
Amino acid structure
Two main kinds of covalent bond betwee…
Peptide bonds
Polypeptide terminology
Alpha amino group (H2N), alpha carboxyl group, variable R gro…
Peptide bonds, disulphides bridges
Bond between the carbonyl group of one amino acid and the alp…
N-C-C-N-C-C pattern is the backbone... Individual amino acid is…
Amino acid structure
Alpha amino group (H2N), alpha carboxyl group, variable R gro…
Two main kinds of covalent bond betwee…
Peptide bonds, disulphides bridges
10 terms
MCAT Chem Chapter 3
Ionic bond
Covalent bond
Nonpolar bonds... (covalent)
Polar bonds... (covalent)
-metal and nonmetal... "isn't it Ionic that a metal and nonmeta…
-metal and metal ... -can be polar or nonpolar
-molecules in which both atoms have exactly the same electron…
-form when there is a significant difference in electronegati…
Ionic bond
-metal and nonmetal... "isn't it Ionic that a metal and nonmeta…
Covalent bond
-metal and metal ... -can be polar or nonpolar
7 terms
MCAT Chemistry Chapter 3
H (2), He (2), Li (2), Be (4), B (6)
P (10), S (12), Cl (14)
C, N, O, F, Na Mg
bonding orbital, antibonding orbital
elements that form incomplete octet
elements that form expanded octet
elements that abide by octet rule
signs of 2 atomic orbitals are the same, signs of 2 atomic or…
H (2), He (2), Li (2), Be (4), B (6)
elements that form incomplete octet
P (10), S (12), Cl (14)
elements that form expanded octet
MCAT Biochemistry: Chapter 3
Structural Proteins
Collagen
Elastin
Keratins
Proteins that are anchored to the cell membrane by embedded p…
Has a characteristic trihelical fiber of three alpha helices…
Important part of extracellular matrix of connective tissue.…
Intermediate filament proteins found in epithelial cells. The…
Structural Proteins
Proteins that are anchored to the cell membrane by embedded p…
Collagen
Has a characteristic trihelical fiber of three alpha helices…
13 terms
MCAT bio chapter 3
First law of thermodynamics
Second law of thermodynamics
Exergonic reaction
Endergonic reaction
Law of conservation of energy -- energy of the universe is co…
Disorder or entropy of the universe tends to increase. Symbol…
One where energy exits the system. 🔺G is negative
One where energy is added to the system.🔺G is positive.
First law of thermodynamics
Law of conservation of energy -- energy of the universe is co…
Second law of thermodynamics
Disorder or entropy of the universe tends to increase. Symbol…
MCAT Behavioral sciences chapter 3
habituation
associative learning
classical conditioning
operant conditioning
process of becoming used to a stimulus; dishabituation can oc…
way of pairing together stimuli and responses, or behaviors a…
an unconditioned stimulus that produces an unconditioned resp…
behavior is changed through the use of consequences
habituation
process of becoming used to a stimulus; dishabituation can oc…
associative learning
way of pairing together stimuli and responses, or behaviors a…
66 terms
MCAT Bio Chapter 3
Ampulla
Sperm penetration
Acrosomal apparatus
Cortical reaction
Widest section of the Fallopian Tube where fertilization usua…
Sperm encounters secondary oocyte, binds and releases acrosom…
Forms when sperm head contacts cell membrane of oocyte, is tu…
the release of calcium ions from the ovum depolarizing the me…
Ampulla
Widest section of the Fallopian Tube where fertilization usua…
Sperm penetration
Sperm encounters secondary oocyte, binds and releases acrosom…
48 terms
MCAT Biochem Chapter 3
purpose of cytoskeleton: (4)
structural proteins compose the (3):
5 most common structural proteins:
collagen ... properties and where it is f…
1) support and structure... 2) intracellular transport... 3) contra…
1) cytoskeleton ... 2) anchoring proteins ... 3) most of extracellu…
1) collagen ... 2) elastin ... 3) keratin ... 4) actin ... 5) tubulin... (CA…
strength and flexibility ... found in extracellular matrix of co…
purpose of cytoskeleton: (4)
1) support and structure... 2) intracellular transport... 3) contra…
structural proteins compose the (3):
1) cytoskeleton ... 2) anchoring proteins ... 3) most of extracellu…
46 terms
Physics MCAT - Chapter 3- Thermodynamics
Zeroth law of thermodynamics
Exchange of heat at equilibrium?
Temperature
Third law of thermodynamics
States that objects are in thermal equilibrium when they are…
No. Objects in thermal equilibrium experience no net exchange…
A qualitative measure of how hot or cold an object is; quanti…
Entropy of perfectly organized crystal at absolute zero is ze…
Zeroth law of thermodynamics
States that objects are in thermal equilibrium when they are…
Exchange of heat at equilibrium?
No. Objects in thermal equilibrium experience no net exchange…
36 terms
MCAT Psychology Chapter 3.1
Action Potential
Synaptic Transmission
Neuron
Soma
Electrochemical impulses that transmit and process informatio…
When action potentials cause the release of a neurotransmitte…
Structural unit of the nervous system
Central cell body of a neuron that contains the nucleus and c…
Action Potential
Electrochemical impulses that transmit and process informatio…
Synaptic Transmission
When action potentials cause the release of a neurotransmitte…
85 terms
MCAT Biology Chapter 3
Fertilization
Ampulla
Acrosomal enzymes
Acrosomal apparatus
The joining of a sperm and an ovum
Location in the fallopian tube where fertilization usually oc…
Enzymes used by sperm to penetrate the corona radiate and zon…
A tubelike structure that sperm forms when it comes into dire…
Fertilization
The joining of a sperm and an ovum
Ampulla
Location in the fallopian tube where fertilization usually oc…
77 terms
MCAT Psychology and Sociology Chapter 3
What are specialized cells that transm…
The info that is transmitted and proce…
When the action potential reaches the…
Describe synaptic transmission?
neurons
action potentials
its transformed into a chemical signal with the release of ne…
When the action potential reaches the end of an axon at a syn…
What are specialized cells that transm…
neurons
The info that is transmitted and proce…
action potentials
MCAT Biochem Chapter 3
What is the 1st Law of Thermodynamics?
What is the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics?
Gibbs Free Energy Equation
Enthalpy Equation
The law of conservation of energy, which states that the ener…
Entropy, the disorder of the universe tends to increase
deltaG = deltaH - TdeltaS
deltaH = deltaE + PdeltaV... E = energy... P = pressure... V = volume
What is the 1st Law of Thermodynamics?
The law of conservation of energy, which states that the ener…
What is the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics?
Entropy, the disorder of the universe tends to increase
73 terms
MCAT Biochemistry Chapter 3
structural proteins
motif
collagen
trihelical
help support the cytoskeleton of the cell; primary structural…
repetitive secondary structural elements
trihelical fiber that makes up most of the extracellular matr…
three alpha-helices woven together to form a secondary helix
structural proteins
help support the cytoskeleton of the cell; primary structural…
motif
repetitive secondary structural elements
39 terms
Physics MCAT - Chapter 3- Thermodynamics
Zeroth law of thermodynamics
Exchange of heat at equilibrium?
Temperature
Relevant temperature points ... (Three sc…
States that objects are in thermal equilibrium when they are…
No. Objects in thermal equilibrium experience no net exchange…
A qualitative measure of how hot or cold an object is; quanti…
Zeroth law of thermodynamics
States that objects are in thermal equilibrium when they are…
Exchange of heat at equilibrium?
No. Objects in thermal equilibrium experience no net exchange…
45 terms
MCAT Biochemistry Chapter 3
structural proteins
motif
collagen
elastin
primary = collagen, elastin, keratin, actin, tubulin - genera…
repetitive organization of secondary structural elements - re…
trihelical fiber (3 left helices to form secondary right heli…
also important component of EC matrix of connective tissue -…
structural proteins
primary = collagen, elastin, keratin, actin, tubulin - genera…
motif
repetitive organization of secondary structural elements - re…
93 terms
MCAT Kaplan Review Chapter 3
Types of structural proteins
Types of motor proteins
Binding proteins
Cell Adhesion molecules
Collagen, keratin, actin, tubullin, elastin. usually have rep…
ATPase activity. Myosin (binds to microfilaments actin), kine…
Bind to objects (sometimes for transport such as hemoglobin).…
Cadhedrins (Two cells bind using calcium), integrins (one cel…
Types of structural proteins
Collagen, keratin, actin, tubullin, elastin. usually have rep…
Types of motor proteins
ATPase activity. Myosin (binds to microfilaments actin), kine…
54 terms
MCAT Biology Chapter 3
ampulla
acrosomal apparatus
cortical reaction
fertilization membrane
widest part of fallopian tube where fertilization occurs
part of sperm that extends to and penetrates membrane of ovum…
a release of calcium ions that depolarize the membrane of the…
depolarized + impenetrable membrane
ampulla
widest part of fallopian tube where fertilization occurs
acrosomal apparatus
part of sperm that extends to and penetrates membrane of ovum…
MCAT biology chapter 3
cortical reaction
cleavage
morula
blastula
once one sperm penetrates the ovum, calcium ions depolarize t…
rapid division of cells without increasing size
solid ball of 8?cells
a hollow ball of cells
cortical reaction
once one sperm penetrates the ovum, calcium ions depolarize t…
cleavage
rapid division of cells without increasing size
20 terms
Biochemistry MCAT Chapter 3
Structural Proteins
Motor proteins
Binding proteins
Cell adhesion molecules
compose the cytoskeleton, anchoring proteins, and much of the…
Have one or more heads capable of force generation through a…
Bind a specific substrate, either to sequester it in the body…
allow cells to bind to other cells or surfaces
Structural Proteins
compose the cytoskeleton, anchoring proteins, and much of the…
Motor proteins
Have one or more heads capable of force generation through a…
50 terms
MCAT biology chapter 3
Fertilization
Ampulla
Acrosomal Apparatus
Cortical Reaction
joining of sperm and ovum
where fertilization occurs
injects nucleus
sperm relases Ca+ to prevent additional fertilization and inc…
Fertilization
joining of sperm and ovum
Ampulla
where fertilization occurs
27 terms
MCAT Chemistry Chapter 3
Bonding Concepts
Octet Rule
Octet Rule Exceptions
Ionic Bond
1) Chemical Bonds will be Ionic or Covalent... 2) Elements will…
elements will be MOST STABLE with 8 valence electrons
1) Elements with an INCOMPLETE OCTET are STABLE with FEWER th…
formed by the transfer of one or more electrons from an eleme…
Bonding Concepts
1) Chemical Bonds will be Ionic or Covalent... 2) Elements will…
Octet Rule
elements will be MOST STABLE with 8 valence electrons
85 terms
MCAT: Biology - Chapter 3
Ampulla
F (Secondary)
Penetrates the cell membrane
After meiosis II is completed
Where in the fallopian tube does fertilization occur?
T/F: Sperm penetrates the primary oocyte
What do acrosomal enzymes do?
When does the pronucleus of the sperm cell enter the oocyte?
Ampulla
Where in the fallopian tube does fertilization occur?
F (Secondary)
T/F: Sperm penetrates the primary oocyte
MCAT Chapter 3
Describe how a kinesin walks.
What are the 3 types of CAMs (cell adh…
Cadherins
Selectins
ATP - swivles; T->D lets go; nothing binds
Adherins, Selectins, Integrins
hold similar cells together
cell-cell/ cell-extracell matrix signaling; 2 transmembrane d…
Describe how a kinesin walks.
ATP - swivles; T->D lets go; nothing binds
What are the 3 types of CAMs (cell adh…
Adherins, Selectins, Integrins
64 terms
MCAT Biochemistry Chapter 3
structural proteins
motif
collagen
trihelical
help support the cytoskeleton of the cell; primary structural…
repetitive secondary structural elements
trihelical fiber that makes up most of the extracellular matr…
three alpha-helices woven together to form a secondary helix
structural proteins
help support the cytoskeleton of the cell; primary structural…
motif
repetitive secondary structural elements
MCAT Biochemistry Chapter 3: Nonenzymatic Protein Function and Protein Analysis
Structural proteins
extracellular matrix
collagen
Elastin
compose of cytoskeleton, anchoring proteins, and much of the…
3D scaffolding system for the cell. Comprised of proteins tha…
secondary helix (three helices woven together). Makes up most…
ECM of connective tissue. Primary role is to stretch and then…
Structural proteins
compose of cytoskeleton, anchoring proteins, and much of the…
extracellular matrix
3D scaffolding system for the cell. Comprised of proteins tha…
MCAT Biochem Chapter 3:
motif
collagen
Elastin
karatins
a repetitive organization of secondary structural elements to…
has a characteristic trihelical fiber and makes up most of th…
primary role is the stretch and then recoil like a spring, an…
intermediate filament proteins found in epithelial cells. The…
motif
a repetitive organization of secondary structural elements to…
collagen
has a characteristic trihelical fiber and makes up most of th…
18 terms
MCAT - BIOCHEM CHAPTER 3
structural proteins have _ structural…
elastin is important for _ tissue
keratin is important for maintaining t…
actin makes up _ and _ in myofibrils
secondary
connective
structure/integrity
filaments, microfilaments
structural proteins have _ structural…
secondary
elastin is important for _ tissue
connective
Physics MCAT - Chapter 3- Thermodynamics
Zeroth law of thermodynamics
Exchange of heat at equilibrium?
Temperature
Relevant temperature points ... (Three sc…
When one object is in thermal equilibrium with another object…
No. Objects in thermal equilibrium experience no net exchange…
A qualitative measure of how hot or cold an object is; quanti…
Zeroth law of thermodynamics
When one object is in thermal equilibrium with another object…
Exchange of heat at equilibrium?
No. Objects in thermal equilibrium experience no net exchange…
MCAT Biochemistry Chapter 3
motif
collagen
elastin
keratins
highly repetitive secondary structure in structural proteins
1) has a characteristic trihelical fiber... 2) makes up most of…
1) another component of the extracellular matrix of connectiv…
intermediate filament proteins found in epithelial cells; pri…
motif
highly repetitive secondary structure in structural proteins
collagen
1) has a characteristic trihelical fiber... 2) makes up most of…
51 terms
MCAT Bio Chapter 3
Amino Acid Structure
Zwitterion
Cationic Form
Anionic Form
Central chiral carbon attached to..... 1. Amine group... 2. Carboxy…
Main form of an amino acid at neutral pH (Have negatively cha…
Amino acid at low (acidic) pH. Carboxyl group is protonated
Amino acid at high (basic) pH. Amine group is deprotonated
Amino Acid Structure
Central chiral carbon attached to..... 1. Amine group... 2. Carboxy…
Zwitterion
Main form of an amino acid at neutral pH (Have negatively cha…
37 terms
General Chemistry MCAT- Chapter 3: Bonding + Chemical Interactions
Types of chemical bonds
Octet rule
Octet rule exceptions
Ionic bonds
Bond to achieve octet rule... 1) Ionic... 2) Covalent
States that atoms lose, gain or share electrons in order to a…
Incomplete octet exceptions: H, He, Li, Be, B.
Formed via the transfer of one or more electrons from an elem…
Types of chemical bonds
Bond to achieve octet rule... 1) Ionic... 2) Covalent
Octet rule
States that atoms lose, gain or share electrons in order to a…
32 terms
MCAT General Chemistry Chapter 3
Incomplete Octet Elements
Expanded Octet Elements
Odd number of electron Elements
Common Elements that follow the Octet…
stable with fewer than eight electrons in their valence shell…
any element in period 3 and greater can hold more than eight…
Nitric Oxide (11 electrons)
cabron, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, sodium, and magnesium.
Incomplete Octet Elements
stable with fewer than eight electrons in their valence shell…
Expanded Octet Elements
any element in period 3 and greater can hold more than eight…
46 terms
MCAT Review Chemistry Chapter 3
Chemical bonds
Octet rule
Incomplete octet
Expanded octet
These strong attractive forces hold atoms in molecules togeth…
States that atoms lose, gain or share electrons in order to a…
These elements are stable with few than 8 electrons in the va…
Any element in period 3 and greater can hold more than 8 elec…
Chemical bonds
These strong attractive forces hold atoms in molecules togeth…
Octet rule
States that atoms lose, gain or share electrons in order to a…
50 terms
MCAT Biology: Chapter 3
Fertilization
Dizygotic Twins
Monozygotic Twins
Cleavage
Occurs in the widest part of the fallopian tube, the ampulla.…
Fertilization of two different eggs released during one ovula…
Single zygote splits into two. Genome of the offspring are id…
Rapid mitotic cell divisions that occur as a zygote moves to…
Fertilization
Occurs in the widest part of the fallopian tube, the ampulla.…
Dizygotic Twins
Fertilization of two different eggs released during one ovula…
10 terms
Chapter 3 Biology (MCAT)
Protein functions
Building blocks of proteins
Amino acid structure
Side chain
• Proteins are biological macromolecules that act as... o Enzyme…
• Amino acids... • Linked together in polymers... • 20 different am…
• Variable "R" group... • Unique chemical and physical properties
Protein functions
• Proteins are biological macromolecules that act as... o Enzyme…
Building blocks of proteins
• Amino acids... • Linked together in polymers... • 20 different am…
15 terms
MCAT Organic Chemistry Chapter 3 - Bonding
p-orbitals
Molecular orbitals
Bonding & antibonding
Sigma (σ) Bonds
2 lobes. Contains a node. A node is an area where probability…
combining 2 atomic orbitals gives a molecular orbital
Depends on wave function... - If the signs of the wave function…
All single bonds... When a molecular orbital is formed head-to-h…
p-orbitals
2 lobes. Contains a node. A node is an area where probability…
Molecular orbitals
combining 2 atomic orbitals gives a molecular orbital
93 terms
Chapter 3 - MCAT Behavioral Sciences - Learning and Memory
Stimulus
Hibituation
Dishabituation
Associative learning
Anything to which an organism can respond, responses can chan…
Repeated exposure to the same stimulis which can cause a deac…
The restoration to full strength of a response to a stimulus…
creation of a pairing, or association, either between two... sti…
Stimulus
Anything to which an organism can respond, responses can chan…
Hibituation
Repeated exposure to the same stimulis which can cause a deac…
MCAT Bio Chapter 3
Difference between cysteine and cystine?
What is denaturation?
Which type of linkages, alpha or beta,…
The human body prefers L or D carbohyd…
- Cysteine is normal amino acid -SH... - Cystine is oxidized ami…
- Protein shape is disrupted without breaking peptide bonds (…
- Alpha linkages... - Glycogen (animals) and Starch (plants) use…
- D carbohydrates... - L amino acids
Difference between cysteine and cystine?
- Cysteine is normal amino acid -SH... - Cystine is oxidized ami…
What is denaturation?
- Protein shape is disrupted without breaking peptide bonds (…
MCAT Biology Chapter 3- Embryogenesis and Development
Fertilizaiton
Acrosomal enzymes
Acrosomal apparatus
Cortical reaction
-the joining of a sperm and an ovum... -usually occurs in the am…
-used by the sperm to penetrate the corona radiata and the zo…
-tubelike structure which extends to and penetrates the cell…
-after penetration through cell membrane, release of calcium…
Fertilizaiton
-the joining of a sperm and an ovum... -usually occurs in the am…
Acrosomal enzymes
-used by the sperm to penetrate the corona radiata and the zo…
MCAT Biology: Chapter 3
______________ is the joining of a spe…
Fertilization usually occurs in the __…
The sperm uses _________ enzymes to pe…
Once it contacts the oocyte's plasma m…
Fertilization
ampulla
acrosomal
acrosomal apparatus
______________ is the joining of a spe…
Fertilization
Fertilization usually occurs in the __…
ampulla
80 terms
MCAT Biology Chapter 3- Embryogenesis and Development
Fertilizaiton
Acrosomal enzymes
Acrosomal apparatus
Cortical reaction
-the joining of a sperm and an ovum... -usually occurs in the am…
-used by the sperm to penetrate the corona radiata and the zo…
-tubelike structure which extends to and penetrates the cell…
-after penetration through cell membrane, release of calcium…
Fertilizaiton
-the joining of a sperm and an ovum... -usually occurs in the am…
Acrosomal enzymes
-used by the sperm to penetrate the corona radiata and the zo…
Chapter 3 Biology (MCAT)- Embryogenesis and Development
Gas exchange for a fetus occurs at the…
_____allows the fetus to shung blook r…
_______ allows blood to be shunted fro…
_____ shunts blood from the right atri…
placenta... ***fetus does not depend on lungs or live (provided…
ductus venosus
ductus arteriosus
foramen ovale
Gas exchange for a fetus occurs at the…
placenta... ***fetus does not depend on lungs or live (provided…
_____allows the fetus to shung blook r…
ductus venosus
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