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Study sets matching "mcat microbiology"

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Study sets matching "mcat microbiology"

16 terms
MCAT microbiology
Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes: nucleus, or…
Gram + stains ___... Gram - stains ___ an…
Obligate derobe
Obligate anaerobe
Prokaryotes: no nucleus, no organelles, small circular singul…
dark purple... light red/pink; more
must have O2
O2 is toxic
Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes: nucleus, or…
Prokaryotes: no nucleus, no organelles, small circular singul…
Gram + stains ___... Gram - stains ___ an…
dark purple... light red/pink; more
72 terms
MCAT Microbiology
Virus
Virus Structure
Viral genome
Bacteriophage
-Infect all life forms on earth, including plants, animals, p…
In general, all viruses posses a nucleic acid genome packaged…
may consist of either DNA or RNA that is single stranded or d…
Virus that infects bacteria
Virus
-Infect all life forms on earth, including plants, animals, p…
Virus Structure
In general, all viruses posses a nucleic acid genome packaged…
82 terms
Microbiology MCAT
Viruses
Capsid
Envelope
Virion
Tiny infectious agents much smaller than bacteria
Protein coat on a virus. Can include enzymes.
Lipid-rich coating that surrounds the capsid that usually inc…
Mature virus outside of the host cell
Viruses
Tiny infectious agents much smaller than bacteria
Capsid
Protein coat on a virus. Can include enzymes.
72 terms
MCAT Microbiology
Viral growth factors bind
Productive infection
Abortive infection
Restrictive infection
axon terminal receptors
cell permissive and allows viral replication and vision release
Cells are non permissive
vision particles produced then ceases, genome integration per…
Viral growth factors bind
axon terminal receptors
Productive infection
cell permissive and allows viral replication and vision release
91 terms
MCAT: Microbiology
obligate intracellular parasite
Viral genome can be
bacteriophage
How do viruses work?
-is what a virus is... -they are obligated to reproduce within c…
double OR single stranded DNA/RNA
virus that infects a bacteria
use host machinery by injecting their own RNA
obligate intracellular parasite
-is what a virus is... -they are obligated to reproduce within c…
Viral genome can be
double OR single stranded DNA/RNA
91 terms
MCAT: Microbiology
obligate intracellular parasite
Viral genome can be
bacteriophage
How do viruses work?
-is what a virus is... -they are obligated to reproduce within c…
double OR single stranded DNA/RNA
virus that infects a bacteria
use host machinery by injecting their own RNA
obligate intracellular parasite
-is what a virus is... -they are obligated to reproduce within c…
Viral genome can be
double OR single stranded DNA/RNA
32 terms
MCAT: microbiology
virus anatomy
virus envelope
RNA +
RNA -
-capsid contains genome... -tail fibers... -base plate
only in animal cell invasion... the envelope forms around the…
Has a single strand RNA that acts like mRNA ready for transla…
Has a single strand RNA that acts like the complement of (+…
virus anatomy
-capsid contains genome... -tail fibers... -base plate
virus envelope
only in animal cell invasion... the envelope forms around the…
16 terms
MCAT Microbiology
Virus
Life Cycle of Virus (2 Steps)
(+) RNA
(-) RNA
Obligate intrascellular parasite
1) Attachment 2) Injection
Ready to be translated
Template mRNA for (+) RNA
Virus
Obligate intrascellular parasite
Life Cycle of Virus (2 Steps)
1) Attachment 2) Injection
32 terms
MCAT- Microbiology
spherical shaped
rod shaped
spiral shaped
Peptidoglycan
coccus
bacillus
spirillus
make up bacterial cell walls
spherical shaped
coccus
rod shaped
bacillus
37 terms
MCAT Microbiology
Eclipse period vs latent period
A virus following a lytic cycle is cal…
Describe lysogenic infection
Are all animal viruses enveloped? Expl…
eclipse- period before first fully formed virion appears... late…
virulent virus
viral dna is incorporated into the host genome (if it's an RN…
No. A virus w/ unenveloped plus-strand RNA is responsible for…
Eclipse period vs latent period
eclipse- period before first fully formed virion appears... late…
A virus following a lytic cycle is cal…
virulent virus
10 terms
MCAT - MICROBIOLOGY
Endotoxins
Conjugation
Plasmids
Bacteria
Lipopolysaccharide antigens on the surface of gram-negative b…
A form of "sexual" reproduction in bacteria... Conjugation occu…
Small, circular DNA molecules within the bacterial cell... Cont…
Lack membrane-enclosed organelles (such as lysosomes)... Lack a…
Endotoxins
Lipopolysaccharide antigens on the surface of gram-negative b…
Conjugation
A form of "sexual" reproduction in bacteria... Conjugation occu…
30 terms
MCAT: Microbiology
obligate intracellular parasite
Viral genome can be
bacteriophage
How do viruses work?
-is what a virus is... -they are obligated to reproduce within c…
double OR single stranded DNA/RNA
virus that infects a bacteria
use host machinery by injecting their own RNA
obligate intracellular parasite
-is what a virus is... -they are obligated to reproduce within c…
Viral genome can be
double OR single stranded DNA/RNA
23 terms
MCAT Microbiology
What is a term to explain a virus (hin…
If Cyanide poison is introduced to Vir…
What may a viral genome be composed of?
Where do Viruses store their genetic m…
Obligate intracellular parasite. Only able to reproduce withi…
Mammalian cells will die because they won't have sufficient A…
DNA OR RNA, Single OR Double stranded, Linear OR Circular. Vi…
1They store it in a capsid or protein shell and this is fixed…
What is a term to explain a virus (hin…
Obligate intracellular parasite. Only able to reproduce withi…
If Cyanide poison is introduced to Vir…
Mammalian cells will die because they won't have sufficient A…
8 terms
MCAT - Microbiology
retroviruses
- RNA viruses
+ RNA viruses
Lytic cycle of phages
Encode reverse transcriptase (not required to carry)... + RNA v…
must carry RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (also encodes)... acts…
encode RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (do not have to carry)... s…
1. attachment of phage to E. coli and injection of phage chro…
retroviruses
Encode reverse transcriptase (not required to carry)... + RNA v…
- RNA viruses
must carry RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (also encodes)... acts…
91 terms
MCAT: Microbiology
obligate intracellular parasite
Viral genome can be
bacteriophage
How do viruses work?
-is what a virus is... -they are obligated to reproduce within c…
double OR single stranded DNA/RNA
virus that infects a bacteria
use host machinery by injecting their own RNA
obligate intracellular parasite
-is what a virus is... -they are obligated to reproduce within c…
Viral genome can be
double OR single stranded DNA/RNA
69 terms
MCAT MICROBIOLOGY
obligate intracellular parasite
bacteriophage
capsid
envelope
parasite only capable of reproduction within cells (viruses)
virus that infects bacteria
protein that surrounds virus' nucleic acid genome
membrane on the exterior of the virus derived from the membra…
obligate intracellular parasite
parasite only capable of reproduction within cells (viruses)
bacteriophage
virus that infects bacteria
48 terms
MCAT Microbiology
auxotrophs
thick cell wall means
eukaryote flagella
projkaryote flagella
need supplemental AA
gram positive
9+2
flagellin and base, hook, filament
auxotrophs
need supplemental AA
thick cell wall means
gram positive
33 terms
MCAT Review: Microbiology
virus
lytic cycle of phages
lysogenic cycle of phages
transduction
obligate intracellular parasite; either DNA or RNA genome, si…
1. Attachment of phage to E. coli and injection of phage chro…
1. Phage binds to bacterium... 2. The phage DNA enters the host…
Transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from one bacterium to ano…
virus
obligate intracellular parasite; either DNA or RNA genome, si…
lytic cycle of phages
1. Attachment of phage to E. coli and injection of phage chro…
10 terms
MCAT: Microbiology
A researcher isolates a microbe from t…
There are many structural similarities…
During a Gram staining procedure, a ba…
Which of the following is NOT true abo…
it is an arg -, gram +, obligate anaerobe
plasma membrane ... There are many structural similarities and…
presence of a cell wall with a waxy composition.... During a Gr…
It increases the genetic diversity and the size of a bacteria…
A researcher isolates a microbe from t…
it is an arg -, gram +, obligate anaerobe
There are many structural similarities…
plasma membrane ... There are many structural similarities and…
30 terms
MCAT: Microbiology
obligate intracellular parasite
Viral genome can be
bacteriophage
How do viruses work?
-is what a virus is... -they are obligated to reproduce within c…
double OR single stranded DNA/RNA
virus that infects a bacteria
use host machinery by injecting their own RNA
obligate intracellular parasite
-is what a virus is... -they are obligated to reproduce within c…
Viral genome can be
double OR single stranded DNA/RNA
30 terms
MCAT: Microbiology
obligate intracellular parasite
Viral genome can be
bacteriophage
How do viruses work?
-is what a virus is... -they are obligated to reproduce within c…
double OR single stranded DNA/RNA
virus that infects a bacteria
use host machinery by injecting their own RNA
obligate intracellular parasite
-is what a virus is... -they are obligated to reproduce within c…
Viral genome can be
double OR single stranded DNA/RNA
34 terms
MCAT Biology - Microbiology
Parts of a virus and their functions
Virus adaptation to maintain their sma…
Lytic life cycle (Bacteria as a host)
Lysogenic life cycle (Bacteria as a ho…
capsid- surrounds the viral genome and its protein coat... capsi…
1. carry few genes and rely on host protein for central dogma…
1. Hydrolase- destroys the hosts genome and allows the usage…
1. Prophage- phage genome that is incorporated to hosts genom…
Parts of a virus and their functions
capsid- surrounds the viral genome and its protein coat... capsi…
Virus adaptation to maintain their sma…
1. carry few genes and rely on host protein for central dogma…
31 terms
MCAT Microbiology Set 1
Two domains including prokaryotes
Eubacteria
Archaea
Three shapes of prokaryotes
Eubacteria and Archaea
e. coli, strep, staph, photosynthetic cyanobacteria
entirely distinct from bacteria; differencesin DNA sequence,…
coccus (spherical), bacillus (rod), or spirillus (spiral)
Two domains including prokaryotes
Eubacteria and Archaea
Eubacteria
e. coli, strep, staph, photosynthetic cyanobacteria
TPR MCAT 2015: Microbiology
Define the term obligate intracellular…
Describe the structure of a virus.
How have viruses adapted to their smal…
What are envelopes?
Viruses are only able to reproduce within cells. They cannot…
Nucleic acid genome (DNA or RNA either single or double stran…
The viral genome is small, and carries few genes. It therefor…
Membranes that cover the exterior of a virus due to exocytosi…
Define the term obligate intracellular…
Viruses are only able to reproduce within cells. They cannot…
Describe the structure of a virus.
Nucleic acid genome (DNA or RNA either single or double stran…
48 terms
MCAT 2B: Microbiology
Five-Kingdom system
heterotrophs
autographs
what is not include in the 5-kingdom s…
1. monera (bacteria) prokaryotes (cells have no nucleus); sin…
feed of other organisms
rely of photosynthesis for food
viruses ... -although they are not considered to be alive, virus…
Five-Kingdom system
1. monera (bacteria) prokaryotes (cells have no nucleus); sin…
heterotrophs
feed of other organisms
11 terms
mcat microbiology info
fungi
fungi life aspects
virus structure
do virus have organelles
Made of hyphae filaments.... Parasitic hyphae = haustoria... A ma…
Can be sexual or asexual.... Reproduces via spores or mycelial f…
Nucleic acid can be DNA or RNA, single stranded or double str…
Lack organelles, nucleus: Viruses don't have any organelles o…
fungi
Made of hyphae filaments.... Parasitic hyphae = haustoria... A ma…
fungi life aspects
Can be sexual or asexual.... Reproduces via spores or mycelial f…
70 terms
MCAT Review Biology: Microbiology
inside capsid (protein coat), sometime…
no
proteins can be directly translated fr…
must be transcribed to plus-RNA before…
Where is genetic material located?
Knowing tha DNA and RNA can be single or double stranded, can…
What is a plus-strand RNA?
What is a minus-strand RNA?
inside capsid (protein coat), sometime…
Where is genetic material located?
no
Knowing tha DNA and RNA can be single or double stranded, can…
74 terms
DWW MCAT Microbiology & the Eukaryotic cell
Virus
Bacteriophage
Difference between a virus and living…
Lytic cycle of viral replication
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only insi…
A virus that infects bacteria; also called a phage.... Structur…
- Viruses require a host cell's machinery in order to reprodu…
1) Attachment: Virus connects with specific glycoprotein rece…
Virus
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only insi…
Bacteriophage
A virus that infects bacteria; also called a phage.... Structur…
70 terms
MCAT Review Biology: Microbiology
inside capsid (protein coat), sometime…
no
proteins can be directly translated fr…
must be transcribed to plus-RNA before…
Where is genetic material located?
Knowing tha DNA and RNA can be single or double stranded, can…
What is a plus-strand RNA?
What is a minus-strand RNA?
inside capsid (protein coat), sometime…
Where is genetic material located?
no
Knowing tha DNA and RNA can be single or double stranded, can…
32 terms
TPR MCAT 2015: Microbiology
Define the term obligate intracellular…
Describe the structure of a virus.
How have viruses adapted to their smal…
What are envelopes?
Viruses are only able to reproduce within cells. They cannot…
Nucleic acid genome (DNA or RNA either single or double stran…
The viral genome is small, and carries few genes. It therefor…
Membranes that cover the exterior of a virus due to exocytosi…
Define the term obligate intracellular…
Viruses are only able to reproduce within cells. They cannot…
Describe the structure of a virus.
Nucleic acid genome (DNA or RNA either single or double stran…
32 terms
TPR MCAT 2015: Microbiology
Define the term obligate intracellular…
Describe the structure of a virus.
How have viruses adapted to their smal…
What are envelopes?
Viruses are only able to reproduce within cells. They cannot…
Nucleic acid genome (DNA or RNA either single or double stran…
The viral genome is small, and carries few genes. It therefor…
Membranes that cover the exterior of a virus due to exocytosi…
Define the term obligate intracellular…
Viruses are only able to reproduce within cells. They cannot…
Describe the structure of a virus.
Nucleic acid genome (DNA or RNA either single or double stran…
81 terms
MCAT Review - Microbiology
Capsid
Envelope
Naked virus
Hydrolase
the protein shell surrounding viral genetic material. Can be…
a membrane derived from the host cell membrane on the exterio…
does not have an envelope
a hydrolytic enzyme viruses may use to degrade the host genom…
Capsid
the protein shell surrounding viral genetic material. Can be…
Envelope
a membrane derived from the host cell membrane on the exterio…
32 terms
TPR MCAT 2015: Microbiology
Define the term obligate intracellular…
Describe the structure of a virus.
How have viruses adapted to their smal…
What are envelopes?
Viruses are only able to reproduce within cells. They cannot…
Nucleic acid genome (DNA or RNA either single or double stran…
The viral genome is small, and carries few genes. It therefor…
Membranes that cover the exterior of a virus due to exocytosi…
Define the term obligate intracellular…
Viruses are only able to reproduce within cells. They cannot…
Describe the structure of a virus.
Nucleic acid genome (DNA or RNA either single or double stran…
32 terms
TPR MCAT 2015: Microbiology
Define the term obligate intracellular…
Describe the structure of a virus.
How have viruses adapted to their smal…
What are envelopes?
Viruses are only able to reproduce within cells. They cannot…
Nucleic acid genome (DNA or RNA either single or double stran…
The viral genome is small, and carries few genes. It therefor…
Membranes that cover the exterior of a virus due to exocytosi…
Define the term obligate intracellular…
Viruses are only able to reproduce within cells. They cannot…
Describe the structure of a virus.
Nucleic acid genome (DNA or RNA either single or double stran…
11 terms
MCAT BIO 6. MICROBIOLOGY
Types of Bacteria based upon temperature
Obligate Aerobes
Anaerobes
Facultative Anaerobes
Psychrophiles... Mesophiles... Thermophiles
bacteria which require oxygen
bacteria which do not require oxygen
use oxygen when it's around, but don't need it.
Types of Bacteria based upon temperature
Psychrophiles... Mesophiles... Thermophiles
Obligate Aerobes
bacteria which require oxygen
83 terms
MCAT Bio-6 Microbiology
obligate intracellular parasite
viruses
viral genome
bacteriophage
must be in a host to reproduce (virus)
are not living organisms or even cells
can be DNA or RNA, single or double stranded, linear or circu…
a virus that infects bacteria
obligate intracellular parasite
must be in a host to reproduce (virus)
viruses
are not living organisms or even cells
46 terms
MCAT extra (bio) microbiology
where do most viruses acquire envelopes
ganglion
can nerve cells divide
what is translocation
plasma membranes
collection of nervous cell bodies
no arrested in G0
polypeptide switch between ribosomal A and P sites during tra…
where do most viruses acquire envelopes
plasma membranes
ganglion
collection of nervous cell bodies
32 terms
TPR MCAT 2015: Microbiology
Define the term obligate intracellular…
Describe the structure of a virus.
How have viruses adapted to their smal…
What are envelopes?
Viruses are only able to reproduce within cells. They cannot…
Nucleic acid genome (DNA or RNA either single or double stran…
The viral genome is small, and carries few genes. It therefor…
Membranes that cover the exterior of a virus due to exocytosi…
Define the term obligate intracellular…
Viruses are only able to reproduce within cells. They cannot…
Describe the structure of a virus.
Nucleic acid genome (DNA or RNA either single or double stran…
51 terms
MCAT: taxonomy and microbiology
What are the hierarchial categories
What are the 6 kimgdoms?
What is differ met about viruses?
Why are viruses important?
Kingdom... Phylum... Class... Order... Family... Genus... Species
Archaebacteria... Eubacteria... Protista... Fungi... Plantae... Animalia
They are NOT alive
Give insight to evolution... Important for understanding molecul…
What are the hierarchial categories
Kingdom... Phylum... Class... Order... Family... Genus... Species
What are the 6 kimgdoms?
Archaebacteria... Eubacteria... Protista... Fungi... Plantae... Animalia
32 terms
TPR MCAT 2015: Microbiology
Define the term obligate intracellular…
Describe the structure of a virus.
How have viruses adapted to their smal…
What are envelopes?
Viruses are only able to reproduce within cells. They cannot…
Nucleic acid genome (DNA or RNA either single or double stran…
The viral genome is small, and carries few genes. It therefor…
Membranes that cover the exterior of a virus due to exocytosi…
Define the term obligate intracellular…
Viruses are only able to reproduce within cells. They cannot…
Describe the structure of a virus.
Nucleic acid genome (DNA or RNA either single or double stran…
32 terms
TPR MCAT 2015: Microbiology
Define the term obligate intracellular…
Describe the structure of a virus.
How have viruses adapted to their smal…
What are envelopes?
Viruses are only able to reproduce within cells. They cannot…
Nucleic acid genome (DNA or RNA either single or double stran…
The viral genome is small, and carries few genes. It therefor…
Membranes that cover the exterior of a virus due to exocytosi…
Define the term obligate intracellular…
Viruses are only able to reproduce within cells. They cannot…
Describe the structure of a virus.
Nucleic acid genome (DNA or RNA either single or double stran…
34 terms
Ultimate MCAT Biology 3 - Microbiology
What is the basic form of viruses/bact…
Are viruses living organisms?
How do viruses attach to a host cell?
Explain how viruses inject their nucle…
A virus has a capsid, or protein coat, and ... genes that are ei…
No because they do not reproduce on their own or metabolize o…
The viruses bind to specific receptors on the host cell's mem…
By the process of endocytosis where the tail uses enzymes to…
What is the basic form of viruses/bact…
A virus has a capsid, or protein coat, and ... genes that are ei…
Are viruses living organisms?
No because they do not reproduce on their own or metabolize o…
59 terms
Bio Mcat Chapter 3 Microbiology
Viruses
Capsid
Envelope
Host
are tiny infectious agents, much smaller than bacteria, which…
is the outer protein coat of a virus
is a virus which surrounds themselves with a lipid-rich _____…
is the cell that is being infected
Viruses
are tiny infectious agents, much smaller than bacteria, which…
Capsid
is the outer protein coat of a virus
93 terms
MCAT Biology (Princeton Review) Ch. 5 Microbiology
obligate intracellular parasites
bacteriophage
capsid
tail fibers and base plate
viruses; virtually without activity outside of a living cell
a virus that infects bacteria
protein coat that surrounds a nucleic acid genome, provides t…
attach to the surface of the host
obligate intracellular parasites
viruses; virtually without activity outside of a living cell
bacteriophage
a virus that infects bacteria
93 terms
MCAT Biology (Princeton Review) Ch. 5 Microbiology
obligate intracellular parasites
bacteriophage
capsid
tail fibers and base plate
viruses; virtually without activity outside of a living cell
a virus that infects bacteria
protein coat that surrounds a nucleic acid genome, provides t…
attach to the surface of the host
obligate intracellular parasites
viruses; virtually without activity outside of a living cell
bacteriophage
a virus that infects bacteria
15 terms
MCAT Bio Chapter 6: Microbiology
Obligate intracellular parasite
Are viruses living organisms?
Cyanide (an inhibitor of ETC) is added…
Bacteriophage
A virus. Viruses are only able (obligated) to reproduce withi…
No.
Mammalian cells are killed, and viral replication halted, but…
A virus that infects bacteria.
Obligate intracellular parasite
A virus. Viruses are only able (obligated) to reproduce withi…
Are viruses living organisms?
No.
93 terms
MCAT Biology (Princeton Review) Ch. 5 Microbiology
obligate intracellular parasites
bacteriophage
capsid
tail fibers and base plate
viruses; virtually without activity outside of a living cell
a virus that infects bacteria
protein coat that surrounds a nucleic acid genome, provides t…
attach to the surface of the host
obligate intracellular parasites
viruses; virtually without activity outside of a living cell
bacteriophage
a virus that infects bacteria
84 terms
MCAT Biology (EK, Lec 3, Microbiology)
Capsid
Virus Envelope (composition)
Virion
virus host
Virus protein coat
Lipid-rich membrane, either borrowed from host cell membrane…
Mature virus outside the host cell
The cell being infected
Capsid
Virus protein coat
Virus Envelope (composition)
Lipid-rich membrane, either borrowed from host cell membrane…
36 terms
MCAT Biology-Microbiology/Prokaryotes (Part 3)
Archaea... Bacteria... Eukaryota
Coccus (spherical)... Bacillus (rod shape…
Cell wall, plasma membrane, cytosol, n…
Gram-Positive
Three Domains of Life
Shapes of Prokayotes
Prokaryotic Cell Structure
Bacterial classification that has a thick layer of peptidogly…
Archaea... Bacteria... Eukaryota
Three Domains of Life
Coccus (spherical)... Bacillus (rod shape…
Shapes of Prokayotes
30 terms
MCAT Biology | Microbiology [Fungi/Viruses/Prok. Cells]
Lichens
Mycorrhizae
Fungi Gen. Char.
Fungi Reproduct'n Char.
Algae + Fungi... Algae provides food; Fungi provides water & pro…
Fungi + Plant Roots... Plant Roots provide food; Fungi provide m…
-Cell Wall: made of Chitin... -Heterotrophs: Parasitic or Saprob…
-Sexual or Asexual life cycle... -Reproduction via Spores or Myc…
Lichens
Algae + Fungi... Algae provides food; Fungi provides water & pro…
Mycorrhizae
Fungi + Plant Roots... Plant Roots provide food; Fungi provide m…
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