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110 terms
created on December 4, 2016
AAMC Official Content List for the MCAT 2015 Psych/Soc Topics: 6A
Sensation
threshold
absolute threshold
Weber's Law
conversion of physical, electromagnetic, auditory, and other…
min amount of a stimulus that renders a difference in percept…
min amount of stimulus energy that is needed to activate a se…
there is a constant ratio between the change in stimulus magn…
Sensation
conversion of physical, electromagnetic, auditory, and other…
threshold
min amount of a stimulus that renders a difference in percept…
52 termscreated on December 4, 2016
MCAT Adaptive Immune System
adaptive immunity
humoral
cell mediated
B-cell
humoral, cell mediated; can come from natural or artificial m…
antibodies moving through liquid tissues without the involvem…
T-cells
humoral, born & mature in bone marrow; PRODUCE ANTIBODIES (im…
adaptive immunity
humoral, cell mediated; can come from natural or artificial m…
humoral
antibodies moving through liquid tissues without the involvem…
773 termscreated on December 4, 2016
Biochemistry MCAT
Chapter 1
Amino acids
Other groups attached to the alpha car…
Do amino acids have to always have the…
Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins
molecules that contain two functional groups: an amino group…
hydrogen atom and a side chain, also known as a R group which…
No, for example neurotransmitter gama-aminobutyric. This amin…
Chapter 1
Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins
Amino acids
molecules that contain two functional groups: an amino group…
534 termscreated on December 4, 2016
MCAT: Biology
Domain
Species
Genotype
Phenotype
Three types: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya.
All organisms that can reproduce fertile offspring with one a…
Part of a trait, describes the chromosomes of an organism.
Part of a trait, describes the product of the genes that can…
Domain
Three types: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya.
Species
All organisms that can reproduce fertile offspring with one a…
70 termscreated on December 4, 2016
Biology Chp 5: The Endocrine System
glands
hormones
peptide hormones
common second messengers
organs that secrete hormones
signalling molecules that are secreted directly into the bloo…
- are composed of AAs and are derived from larger precursor p…
cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)... inositol triphosphate (…
glands
organs that secrete hormones
hormones
signalling molecules that are secreted directly into the bloo…
208 termscreated on December 4, 2016
MCAT - Sociology
Absolute poverty vs relative poverty
Socioeconomic status (of who, what fac…
What 3 P's define SES? what do they re…
Social stratification (systems - 3; de…
Absolute: inability to secure basic necessities of life... Relat…
social standing/class of individual or group... combines educati…
Prestige: reputation/standing in society... Power: ability to en…
Caste System: lower social mobility, less dependent on effort…
Absolute poverty vs relative poverty
Absolute: inability to secure basic necessities of life... Relat…
Socioeconomic status (of who, what fac…
social standing/class of individual or group... combines educati…
613 termscreated on December 4, 2016
Psychology MCAT
Vision
Sensory Receptors
Sensory Transduction
Receptor Potential
The Stimulus ... Anatomy of the Visual System ... Coding of Visual…
A specialized neuron that detects a particular category of ph…
The process by which sensory stimuli are transduced into slow…
A slow, graded electrical potential produced by a receptor ce…
Vision
The Stimulus ... Anatomy of the Visual System ... Coding of Visual…
Sensory Receptors
A specialized neuron that detects a particular category of ph…
347 termscreated on December 4, 2016
MCAT Chemistry
Mass number
Atomic Number
Alkali Metals
Alkaline Earth Metals
Protons + Neutrons
Protons
Group 1, Soft metallic solids, low density and low melting po…
Group 2, Harder more dense metals that melt at higher tempera…
Mass number
Protons + Neutrons
Atomic Number
Protons
86 termscreated on December 4, 2016
KAPLAN MCAT PHYSICS
Newton units
weight
static friction
kinetic friction
Newton units
weight
130 termscreated on December 4, 2016
MCAT Physics Equations/Concepts
Kinematics Equations
Force of Gravity Between Two Objects
Kinetic Friction
Static Friction
Units of G = N∗m²/kg²
Kinematics Equations
Force of Gravity Between Two Objects
Units of G = N∗m²/kg²
568 termscreated on December 4, 2016
Organic MCAT
Chapter 1
Substituents naming
T-butyl
Neopentyl
Nomenclature
Chapter 1
Nomenclature
Substituents naming
19 termscreated on December 4, 2016
Lab final GC1 Part 2
The physical basis for gas pressure
Ideal gas law equation
Boyle's Law
Determining absolute Zero for a gass
gas pressure is caused by gas molecules colliding with the wa…
PV= nRT
PV= P2v2
1.) Measure pressure of gas at three temps... - Ice ... - room temp…
The physical basis for gas pressure
gas pressure is caused by gas molecules colliding with the wa…
Ideal gas law equation
PV= nRT
17 termscreated on December 3, 2016
MCAT Lymphatic system
branches of the lymphatic system
lymphatic system
cisterna chyli
spleen
mammary gland, upper limb, lower limb
network regulated by unidirectional valves that connect the l…
empties lymph fro the lower half of the body to the thoracic…
has white blood cells, filters blood, removes old cells
branches of the lymphatic system
mammary gland, upper limb, lower limb
lymphatic system
network regulated by unidirectional valves that connect the l…
23 termscreated on December 3, 2016
Physics Ch. 7
Sinusoidal
Transverse
longitudinal
equilibrium position
Waves, which can be transverse or longitudinal, with individu…
Waves in which the direction of the particle oscillation is P…
Waves in which the particles of the wave oscillatePARALLEL to…
Central point of wave oscillation
Sinusoidal
Waves, which can be transverse or longitudinal, with individu…
Transverse
Waves in which the direction of the particle oscillation is P…
33 termscreated on December 3, 2016
Biology Lab Techniques
ELISA
Radioimmunoassay
Electrophoresis
Northern Blotting
-Determine presence of Antigens or antibodies... -when testing f…
-(RIA)... -Similar to ELISA, but use radiolabeled antigens and a…
-separate things by size or by charge... -gel made of acrylamide…
-Detect presence of specific sequences within a heterogeneous…
ELISA
-Determine presence of Antigens or antibodies... -when testing f…
Radioimmunoassay
-(RIA)... -Similar to ELISA, but use radiolabeled antigens and a…
91 termscreated on December 3, 2016
Orgo 2
IR Spectroscopy
IR absorbance of carbonyl
IR absorbance of nitrile
IR absorbance of saturated alkane
detects bonds w/ a dipole moment (dipolar bonds oscilate at a…
1700 cm^-1
2250 cm^-1
2800 cm^-1
IR Spectroscopy
detects bonds w/ a dipole moment (dipolar bonds oscilate at a…
IR absorbance of carbonyl
1700 cm^-1
80 termscreated on December 3, 2016
Biochemistry Ch. 5 - Lipids
What is a lipid?
What are 3 functions of lipids?
What is a fatty acid?
What's an interesting fact about the n…
A hydrocarbon-containing compound that is not soluble in pola…
Energy storage... Structural role... Signaling role
A carboxylic acid with a hydrocarbon chain
Usually an even number of carbons (16 and 18 are most common)…
What is a lipid?
A hydrocarbon-containing compound that is not soluble in pola…
What are 3 functions of lipids?
Energy storage... Structural role... Signaling role
52 termscreated on December 3, 2016
Biology Chp 1: The Cell
cell theory
eukaryotic cells
viruses, living?
prokaryotic cells
- all living thing are composed of cells... - the cell is the ba…
have membrane bound organelles, a nucleus, and may form multi…
they are not considered living things because they are acellu…
don't contain a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles; they or…
cell theory
- all living thing are composed of cells... - the cell is the ba…
eukaryotic cells
have membrane bound organelles, a nucleus, and may form multi…
37 termscreated on December 3, 2016
General Chemistry MCAT- Chapter 3: Bonding + Chemical Interactions
Types of chemical bonds
Octet rule
Octet rule exceptions
Ionic bonds
Bond to achieve octet rule... 1) Ionic... 2) Covalent
States that atoms lose, gain or share electrons in order to a…
Incomplete octet exceptions: H, He, Li, Be, B.
Formed via the transfer of one or more electrons from an elem…
Types of chemical bonds
Bond to achieve octet rule... 1) Ionic... 2) Covalent
Octet rule
States that atoms lose, gain or share electrons in order to a…
22 termscreated on December 3, 2016
Chapter 11 Spec
Spectroscopy general
MRI
IR spec
Fingerprint region
measuring energy differences in possible states by absorbed e…
HNMR of H2O in the body
Vibrations... -stretching ... -bonding ... Absorption of IR light ... u…
1500-400 cm^-1 ... this is not useful as varies greatly between…
Spectroscopy general
measuring energy differences in possible states by absorbed e…
MRI
HNMR of H2O in the body
7 termscreated on December 3, 2016
Chap. 11 Spectroscopy (Orgo)
Infrared spec
IR absorptions to remember
Ultra violet (UV) spec
NMR spec (H-NMR)
measures bond stretching, bending, and combinations of vibrat…
O-H: wide, 3300 cm^-1 (ROH) or 3000cm^-1 (COOH)... Carbonyl: sh…
Don't need to interpret spec on the MCAT... Pass UV light throu…
Based off alignment of molecules magnetic moment in a magneti…
Infrared spec
measures bond stretching, bending, and combinations of vibrat…
IR absorptions to remember
O-H: wide, 3300 cm^-1 (ROH) or 3000cm^-1 (COOH)... Carbonyl: sh…
20 termscreated on December 2, 2016
MCAT Physics: Atomic and Nuclear Phenomena
Threshold Frequency
Photon
Energy of ... Each Photon
Maximum Kinetic Energy ... of the Ejected…
- The minimum frequency of light that causes ejection of elec…
- light quanta in a light beam
E=hf... - Energy of each photon is proportional to light ... h= 6.…
KE = hf - W... h = Planck's constant... f = frequency... W = work fun…
Threshold Frequency
- The minimum frequency of light that causes ejection of elec…
Photon
- light quanta in a light beam
33 termscreated on December 2, 2016
MCAT Physics - Light and Optics
Electromagnetic Spectrum
Electromagnetic Waves
Speed of light
Visible spectrum
All of the frequencies or wavelengths of electromagnetic radi…
A form of energy that can move through the vacuum of space, i…
Speed of electromagnetic waves traveling through a vacuum.... c…
Electromagnetic waves that are visible to the human eye, from…
Electromagnetic Spectrum
All of the frequencies or wavelengths of electromagnetic radi…
Electromagnetic Waves
A form of energy that can move through the vacuum of space, i…
23 termscreated on December 2, 2016
MCAT - WAVES, SOUND, LIGHT
Frequency
Speed of light
Destructive interference
Period
= c/lambda
= f • lambda... 3 x 10^8 m/s
Half a wave difference in phase between two waves corresponds…
T = 1/f
Frequency
= c/lambda
Speed of light
= f • lambda... 3 x 10^8 m/s
25 termscreated on December 2, 2016
MCAT Physics Chapter 7- Waves and Sound
Transverse waves
Longitudinal waves
Displacement
Equilibrium position
have oscillations of wave particles perpendicular to the dire…
have oscillations of wave particles parallel to the direction…
how far a point is from the equilibrium position
the central point of a wave oscillation
Transverse waves
have oscillations of wave particles perpendicular to the dire…
Longitudinal waves
have oscillations of wave particles parallel to the direction…
18 termscreated on December 2, 2016
MCAT physics Circuits
Conductors
Insulators
Current (I)
Current Flow (I)
Materials in which Charge Flows... -Only Electrons Move... ex. Cop…
Materials in Which Charge does Not Flow... Ex. Glass, Wood, Pla…
-Flow of Charges... I = ∆Charge/∆time ... units: Amps (A)= 1C/s…
High Potential (+) → Low Potential (-) ... * Electrons Flow opp…
Conductors
Materials in which Charge Flows... -Only Electrons Move... ex. Cop…
Insulators
Materials in Which Charge does Not Flow... Ex. Glass, Wood, Pla…
23 termscreated on December 2, 2016
MCAT Fluids
Density of a fluid
Specific gravity
Pressure
Units of pressure
= mass / volume = kg / m³ = g/mL = g/cm³
The ratio of an objects density to water
P = F/A F is the magnitude of normal force, A is the area
1.013x10³ Pa = 760 mmHg = 760 Torr = 1 Atm
Density of a fluid
= mass / volume = kg / m³ = g/mL = g/cm³
Specific gravity
The ratio of an objects density to water
20 termscreated on December 2, 2016
MCAT - Physics - Work and Energy
Work
Work Equation
System Work
Kinetic Energy
Unit: J = N*m... Work = Force x Distance x cos(theta)
-Piston expands -> work is done by the system (W>0)... -Piston…
Unit = Joules... Energy associated with moving objects
Work
Work Equation
Unit: J = N*m... Work = Force x Distance x cos(theta)
13 termscreated on December 2, 2016
MCAT Energy and Work
kinetic energy
energy units
Gravitational Potential Energy
Elastic Potential Energy (spring)
J = (kg*m^2)/(s^2)
kinetic energy
energy units
J = (kg*m^2)/(s^2)
15 termscreated on December 2, 2016
MCAT Kinematics and Dynamics
vectors
scalar
component vectors
dot product
numbers that magnitude and direction
numbers that have only magnitude
X= Vcos(a)... Y= Vsin(a)
vectors
numbers that magnitude and direction
scalar
numbers that have only magnitude
22 termscreated on December 2, 2016
Physics Ch. 5
.
.
9e9
8.85e-12
k (Coulomb's constant)
E(0) =
.
.
783 termscreated on December 2, 2016
MCAT
capacitor
capicitancce
Purpose of capacitor
dielectric
pair of parallel plates with opposite but equal charges; form…
only depends on dielectric, area and distance between plates;…
1. Create a uniform field; always point from positive plate t…
material put in between capacitor to increase capacitance; KE…
capacitor
pair of parallel plates with opposite but equal charges; form…
capicitancce
only depends on dielectric, area and distance between plates;…
30 termscreated on December 2, 2016
MCAT Bio Ch. 7 Cardiovascular system
atrioventricular valves separate what…
mitral valve of the heart is also call…
the ventricles are separated from the…
what is the pathway of blood?
separate the atria from the ventricles
bicuspid valve and is located on the left
semilunar valves (pulmonary on the right, aortic on the left)
Right atrium --(tricuspid valve) --> right ventricle --(pulmo…
atrioventricular valves separate what…
separate the atria from the ventricles
mitral valve of the heart is also call…
bicuspid valve and is located on the left
26 termscreated on December 2, 2016
MCAT BIO The Respiratory System
What is the flow of air through the re…
Surfactant
Visceral pleura
parietal pleura
nares --> pharynx --> larnyx --> trachea --> divides into the…
located in the alveoli, reduces surface tension at the liquid…
lies adjacent to the lung itself
lines the chest wall
What is the flow of air through the re…
nares --> pharynx --> larnyx --> trachea --> divides into the…
Surfactant
located in the alveoli, reduces surface tension at the liquid…
18 termscreated on December 1, 2016
Kaplan Biological Systems Review - Ch. 1 - Biology and Behavior
Franz Gall
Pierre Flourens
William James
John Dewey
1758-1828... -Phrenology... -Form/function
1794-1867... -Extirpation/ablation: surgical removal of brain re…
1842-1910... -Father of American psychology... -Believed that it wa…
1859-1952... -Wrote the paper that is considered to have founded…
Franz Gall
1758-1828... -Phrenology... -Form/function
Pierre Flourens
1794-1867... -Extirpation/ablation: surgical removal of brain re…
9 termscreated on December 1, 2016
Respiratory System
basic pathway:... 1st, ___/___ the physi…
membranes known as ___ surround each l…
the surface adjacent to the lung is th…
the diaphragm is under ___ control, wh…
basic pathway:... 1st, mouth/nose the physical openings, wh…
membranes known as pleurae surround each lung
the surface adjacent to the lung is the visceral pleura, wh…
the diaphragm is under somatic control, while breathing is…
basic pathway:... 1st, ___/___ the physi…
basic pathway:... 1st, mouth/nose the physical openings, wh…
membranes known as ___ surround each l…
membranes known as pleurae surround each lung
37 termscreated on December 1, 2016
MCAT Chem Ch 4: Compounds and Stoichiometry
compounds
molecular weight
molar mass
gram equivalent weight
substances composed of two or more elements in a fixed propor…
the mass (amu) of the constituent atom in a compound as indic…
the mass of one mole (Avogadro's number 6.022 x 10^23 particl…
measure of the mass of a substance that can donate one equiva…
compounds
substances composed of two or more elements in a fixed propor…
molecular weight
the mass (amu) of the constituent atom in a compound as indic…
30 termscreated on December 1, 2016
MCAT Chem Ch3: Bonding and Chemical Interactions
What are the two types of chemical bonds
Elements will form bonds to obtain wha…
Octet Rule
Exceptions to the Octet Rule
ionic or covalent
noble-gas like configuration
elements will be most stable with eight valence electrons
-elements with an incomplete octet are stable with fewer than…
What are the two types of chemical bonds
ionic or covalent
Elements will form bonds to obtain wha…
noble-gas like configuration
9 termscreated on December 1, 2016
Chapter 2: Isomers
What are conformational isomers?
What are configurational isomers?
anti staggered
gauche (60 degrees)
differ in rotation around single (sigma) bonds
can be interconverted only by breaking bonds
What are conformational isomers?
differ in rotation around single (sigma) bonds
What are configurational isomers?
can be interconverted only by breaking bonds
14 termscreated on December 1, 2016
Chapter 1: Nomenclature
t-butyl
neopentyl
isopropyl
sec-butyl
t-butyl
neopentyl
36 termscreated on December 1, 2016
General Chemistry Chapter 9
Solutions
Mixtures
Solvent
Solvation
Homogeneous mixtures of two or more substances that combine t…
Solutions of gases, when gases are "dissolved" into other gases
The component of a solution that remains in the same phase af…
The electrostatic interaction between solute and solvent mole…
Solutions
Homogeneous mixtures of two or more substances that combine t…
Mixtures
Solutions of gases, when gases are "dissolved" into other gases
21 termscreated on December 1, 2016
Biochemistry- Carbohydrate Structure and Funciton
Trioses
Tetroses
how are carbohydrates classified?
Aldoses
3-carbon atoms
4 carbon atoms
Number of carbons and functional groups
sugars with aldehydes in their most oxidized groups
Trioses
3-carbon atoms
Tetroses
4 carbon atoms
23 termscreated on December 1, 2016
Chap 10. Acid-base
Arrhenius definition of acids and bases
Bronsted-Lowry acid and bases
Lewis acids and bases
Amphoteric
In aqueous solutions:... -acids will dissociate to form H+... -base…
-Acids donate H+... -Bases accept H+
-Acids accept electron pairs (electrophiles)... -bases donate el…
can act as an acid or base depending on the enivronment... -H2O…
Arrhenius definition of acids and bases
In aqueous solutions:... -acids will dissociate to form H+... -base…
Bronsted-Lowry acid and bases
-Acids donate H+... -Bases accept H+
29 termscreated on December 1, 2016
Chapter 10 Acid Base
Arrhenius definition
Bronsted-lowry
Lewis acid and base
Amphoteric species
acid is excess H+ ... base forms OH- ... ... limited to aq forms (mos…
acid donates H+ and base accepts H+... not limited to aq... forms…
acid accepts electrons... base donates electrons ... most open de…
can act as an acid or base ... -H2O... amino acids as zwitterion
Arrhenius definition
acid is excess H+ ... base forms OH- ... ... limited to aq forms (mos…
Bronsted-lowry
acid donates H+ and base accepts H+... not limited to aq... forms…
40 termscreated on December 1, 2016
Psychology Ch.7- Psychological Disorders
Biomedical approach
Biopsychological approach
Schizophrenia
Positive symptoms
Take psychological disorders takes into account only the phys…
Considers the relative contributions of biological, psycholog…
the protypical disorder with psychosis as a feature. W/ posit…
Adding something to behavior; cognition, affect, and include…
Biomedical approach
Take psychological disorders takes into account only the phys…
Biopsychological approach
Considers the relative contributions of biological, psycholog…
38 termscreated on November 30, 2016
Biology: Immune System
Innate immunity
Adaptive Immunity
Immune System Anatomy
B-cells
Always active but lack the ability to to target specific inva…
target a specific pathogen, slower to act but maintains memor…
Bone marrow produce all leukocytes (thru hematopoiesis)
Originate and mature in the bone marrow. Activated in the spl…
Innate immunity
Always active but lack the ability to to target specific inva…
Adaptive Immunity
target a specific pathogen, slower to act but maintains memor…
43 termscreated on November 30, 2016
MCAT OChem Ch 1 - Ochem Fundamentals
methane - # of carbons in chain? Formu…
ethane - # of carbons in chain? Formul…
propane - # of carbons in chain? Formu…
butane - # of carbons in chain? Formul…
1 carbon in chain. CH₄
2 carbons in chain. CH₃CH₃
3 carbons in chain. CH₃CH₂CH₃
4 carbons in chain. CH₃(CH₂)₂CH₃
methane - # of carbons in chain? Formu…
1 carbon in chain. CH₄
ethane - # of carbons in chain? Formul…
2 carbons in chain. CH₃CH₃
307 termscreated on November 30, 2016
MCAT consolidated
Commonly used oxidizing and reducing a…
Assigning oxidation numbers
Balancing redox reactions
Combustion reactions
Almost all oxidizing agents contain oxygen or another strongl…
1. The oxidation number of a free element is zero (N₂, P₄, S₈…
To balance a redox reaction, both the net charge and the numb…
Combustion reactions generally involve a fuel (hydrocarbon) m…
Commonly used oxidizing and reducing a…
Almost all oxidizing agents contain oxygen or another strongl…
Assigning oxidation numbers
1. The oxidation number of a free element is zero (N₂, P₄, S₈…
28 termscreated on November 30, 2016
MCAT General Chemistry Chapter 8
Phases
Pascal
Sphygmomanometers
Atmospheric pressure
Distinct, physical forms that matter can exist in. Including…
The SI unit for pressure
Medical devices that measure blood pressure, typically in mmHg
Pressure that creates a downward force on the pool of mercury…
Phases
Distinct, physical forms that matter can exist in. Including…
Pascal
The SI unit for pressure
24 termscreated on November 29, 2016
Work and energy Chp 2
Kinetic Energy Equation
Potential energy equation
Elastic potential energy equation
Total mechanical energy
Energy in motion ... Kinetic energy is related to speed not vel…
Datum means floor or ground(h); on mcat can be other things l…
k=spring constant; stiffness of spring ... when a spring is str…
Kinetic Energy Equation
Energy in motion ... Kinetic energy is related to speed not vel…
Potential energy equation
Datum means floor or ground(h); on mcat can be other things l…
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