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Study sets matching "medical biochemistry clinical"

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Study sets matching "medical biochemistry clinical"

16 terms
Medical Biochemistry: Lecture 55: Clinical Problems
SAM dependent reactions
B12 for odd chain fatty acid oxidation
B12 for met synthesis
Methyl trapping
1. Norepinephrine to Epinephrine... 2. PE to PC
5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin
methyl cobalamin
- caused by B-12 deficiency... - methyl-THF is stuck and cannot…
SAM dependent reactions
1. Norepinephrine to Epinephrine... 2. PE to PC
B12 for odd chain fatty acid oxidation
5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin
22 terms
Medical Biochemistry and Clinical Genetics: 20 AA
Glycine Gly, G
LIV (Leucine, Isoleucine, Valine)
Methionine
Aromatic Side Chain
Non-Polar Aliphatic; Precursor of heme and creatine, smallest…
Branched-chain AA Preferred by muscles; when degradation is b…
Sulfur reactivity blocked by a methyl group; precursor of SAM…
PI close to 6; absorbs at 280 nm
Glycine Gly, G
Non-Polar Aliphatic; Precursor of heme and creatine, smallest…
LIV (Leucine, Isoleucine, Valine)
Branched-chain AA Preferred by muscles; when degradation is b…
949 terms
Clinical biochemistry
Basic steps of exogenous lipid metabol…
How can lipids be obtained in the body?
Chylomicron
Basic steps of endogenous lipid metabo…
Diet: Hydrophobic fat globules are converted to smaller fat g…
Exogenous: diet... Endogenous
Lymph- Cholesterol, Triglycerides, Apolipoprotein B48... Blood-…
Liver 1: Produces fat particles called VLDL with *triglycer…
Basic steps of exogenous lipid metabol…
Diet: Hydrophobic fat globules are converted to smaller fat g…
How can lipids be obtained in the body?
Exogenous: diet... Endogenous
40 terms
Clinical Biochemistry
Explain the concept of haemostasis and…
Explain the primary homeostasis compon…
What are the 5 functions of a platelet
Explain the components of secondary ho…
=maintenance of vascular integrity and blood fluidity... Involve…
=Formation of primary plug due to vascular endothelial damage…
Adhesion- GP1 receptor binds VWF/collagen... Aggregation- GP1 re…
Large defect= fibrin stabilisation to 2o H and coagulation... =F…
Explain the concept of haemostasis and…
=maintenance of vascular integrity and blood fluidity... Involve…
Explain the primary homeostasis compon…
=Formation of primary plug due to vascular endothelial damage…
33 terms
Clinical Biochemistry
What is the importance of biochem inve…
What types of biochem tests do biochem…
What is mean by ICF and ECF fluids?
What electrolyte is a major extracellu…
Make diagnosis... Monitor treatment... Screen for a disease... Asse…
Core biochemical tests (liver function, kidney function, diab…
ICF: intracellular 40%... Potassium, phosphate, protein... ECF: ex…
Na+ (sodium)... maintains blood volume and pressure by osmotica…
What is the importance of biochem inve…
Make diagnosis... Monitor treatment... Screen for a disease... Asse…
What types of biochem tests do biochem…
Core biochemical tests (liver function, kidney function, diab…
51 terms
Biochemistry Clinical
Ethlers- Danos
Osteogenesis Imperfecta
Alport Syndrome
Scurvy
Classic Type:... 1. Mutation in Type V Collagen (fibril associa…
- 7 different types... - associated with TYPE 1 Collagen... -Symp…
- due to mutations in TYPE IV Collagen genes... -casues affects…
- Due to Vitamin C deficiency ... -causes Prolyl and Lysyl Hydr…
Ethlers- Danos
Classic Type:... 1. Mutation in Type V Collagen (fibril associa…
Osteogenesis Imperfecta
- 7 different types... - associated with TYPE 1 Collagen... -Symp…
48 terms
Clinical Biochemistry
Fluids
What to look at when analyzing hydrati…
Electrolytes
Sodium
2/3: ICF 1/3: ECF (interstit & plasma)... Water loss spread acro…
pulse, blood pressure, skin turgor, eyeballs, urine output, m…
water and electrolytes are in constant flux - do not change a…
principal extracellular cation - plays critical role in *main…
Fluids
2/3: ICF 1/3: ECF (interstit & plasma)... Water loss spread acro…
What to look at when analyzing hydrati…
pulse, blood pressure, skin turgor, eyeballs, urine output, m…
23 terms
Clinical biochemistry
What is the importance of the biochemi…
What is meant by intracellular (ICF) a…
What is the major function of sodium i…
Hypernatremia
Provides an extra level of analytical for diagnoses... Hematolo…
ICF = fluids inside cells... ECF = fluids outside of cells, inte…
Maintains blood volume and pressure by osmotically regulating…
High sodium... **Poor water intake... **Osmotic diuresis due to dia…
What is the importance of the biochemi…
Provides an extra level of analytical for diagnoses... Hematolo…
What is meant by intracellular (ICF) a…
ICF = fluids inside cells... ECF = fluids outside of cells, inte…
145 terms
Clinical Biochemistry
What may happen to the blood sample if…
What is haematology?
What do you use for a clotting study?
What is the difference between serum a…
Neutrophilia due to increased BP... Inc PCV due to splenic contr…
a blood cell count using EDTA which is an anticoagulant meani…
sodium citrate (violet or blue top)
Serum - plain tube with no anticoagulant so takes time to clo…
What may happen to the blood sample if…
Neutrophilia due to increased BP... Inc PCV due to splenic contr…
What is haematology?
a blood cell count using EDTA which is an anticoagulant meani…
30 terms
Clinical Biochemistry
What are the 3 different levels of tes…
Explain a Core lab facility
Explain Special Chemistry testing
Explain Point of Care testing (POCT).…
Core lab, special chemistry, point of care testing
It is found in all hospitals, operates 24/7, does routine, im…
Does rarer tests (non-stat ones), found @ regional enters, of…
Done at the bedside, if it helps turnaround time for tests th…
What are the 3 different levels of tes…
Core lab, special chemistry, point of care testing
Explain a Core lab facility
It is found in all hospitals, operates 24/7, does routine, im…
48 terms
Clinical Biochemistry
Biochemistry Tests
Fluids
Extracellular
Sodium (NA+)
used for diagnosis, there are core tests and spcialized
Intracellular and Extracellular
HCO3- Na+ and Cl-... 1/3 of water in body... ECF is divided into pl…
major extracellular cation, maintains the blood volume and pr…
Biochemistry Tests
used for diagnosis, there are core tests and spcialized
Fluids
Intracellular and Extracellular
10 terms
clinical biochemistry
C-reactive proteins
hypokalemia
hyponatremia
hypernatremia
secreted by the liver in response to injury or inflammation
vomiting, diarrhea, insulin administration
water retention, sodium loss
water loss, sodium gain
C-reactive proteins
secreted by the liver in response to injury or inflammation
hypokalemia
vomiting, diarrhea, insulin administration
47 terms
Clinical Biochemistry
What percentage of the body is water?
What percentage is ICF?
What percentage is ECF?
What are the components of ECF?
60%
40% (2/3 of total body water)
20% (1/3 of total body water)
Plasma: 5%... Interstitial Fluid: 15%
What percentage of the body is water?
60%
What percentage is ICF?
40% (2/3 of total body water)
51 terms
Clinical Biochemistry
Which are the Intracellular ions/anions?
Which is the major extracellular cation?
What is hypernatremia?
What is hyponatremia?
KIPS: K, intra, phsophate, sodium
Na, helps to main osmotic balance
High sodium levels. this is caused by poor water intake, dehy…
low sodium usually caused by dilution of Na by post op IV flu…
Which are the Intracellular ions/anions?
KIPS: K, intra, phsophate, sodium
Which is the major extracellular cation?
Na, helps to main osmotic balance
44 terms
Clinical Biochemistry
Three classes of factors affecting res…
What pre-analytical factors affect res…
What is added to the sample tube for a…
What do you add instead of EDTA if per…
Pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical
Time of day, patient preparation, sampling for the right test
EDTA - anticoagulant
Sodium citrate
Three classes of factors affecting res…
Pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical
What pre-analytical factors affect res…
Time of day, patient preparation, sampling for the right test
81 terms
Clinical Biochemistry
normal range for glucose
normal range for calcium
normal range for sodium
normal range for Potassium
70-99 mg/dL
8.6-10.2 mg/dL OR... 2.1-2.6 mmol/L
136-145 mEq/L
3.5-5.1 mEq/L
normal range for glucose
70-99 mg/dL
normal range for calcium
8.6-10.2 mg/dL OR... 2.1-2.6 mmol/L
36 terms
Clinical Biochemistry
Collecting blood samples`
Plasma
Serum
EDTA
Should be collected from patient with minimal excitement, app…
Blood - cellular components. Largely water, metabolic product…
Plasma - clotting proteins and less platelets. What remains a…
commonly used anticoagulant, interfers with many biochemical…
Collecting blood samples`
Should be collected from patient with minimal excitement, app…
Plasma
Blood - cellular components. Largely water, metabolic product…
34 terms
Clinical Biochemistry
Core biochemistry
Specialized tests
Fluid imbalance
Dehydration
'Core analysis' is provided in almost every hospital to respo…
less commonly asked for, usually require specialized centers.…
ICF = 2/3... ECF = 1/3 (IF 15%, Plasma 5%)... Fluid imbalances not…
Increased pulse... Decreased BP... Decreased skin turgor... Soft/sunke…
Core biochemistry
'Core analysis' is provided in almost every hospital to respo…
Specialized tests
less commonly asked for, usually require specialized centers.…
14 terms
clinical biochemistry
definition of laboratory medicine
Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Organiza…
Core Lab
Special Chemistry Laboratory
A discipline of medicine that functions to provide diagnostic…
- Core Lab Facility... - special chemistry... - Point of Care Testi…
- High volume tests (many per day). Often require quick turn-…
- Generally lower volume tests ... - not automated--manual labou…
definition of laboratory medicine
A discipline of medicine that functions to provide diagnostic…
Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Organiza…
- Core Lab Facility... - special chemistry... - Point of Care Testi…
Clinical Biochemistry
Sensitivity
Specificity
Positive predictive value
Negative predictive value
TP / (TP + FN)
TN / (TN + FP)
TP / (TP + FP)
TN / (TN + FN)
Sensitivity
TP / (TP + FN)
Specificity
TN / (TN + FP)
74 terms
Clinical Biochemistry
Fluids account for ______ of our body.
Intracellular fluid is found...
extracellular fluid is found...
Extracellular fluid comprises...
60%
inside the cells
outside of the cell
the blood plasma and interstitial fluid
Fluids account for ______ of our body.
60%
Intracellular fluid is found...
inside the cells
18 terms
Clinical Biochemistry
sodium role in body
potassium role in body
hyponatremia
hyperkalaemia
major extracellular cation
major intracellular cation
decrease in sodium ions
increase in potassium
sodium role in body
major extracellular cation
potassium role in body
major intracellular cation
28 terms
Clinical Biochemistry
Niacin
Statins (Lovastatin, Simvastatin)
Cholestyramine
Combination Therapy
Inhibits HSL (dec. lipolysis), decreasing VLDL/LDL - also dec…
Treats Hypercholesterolemia, Inhibits HMG-CoA Reductase --> D…
Bile Acid Sequestrant (Resin). Binds bile acids in intestine…
Ex. Statins and Cholestyramine to reduce increase in de novo…
Niacin
Inhibits HSL (dec. lipolysis), decreasing VLDL/LDL - also dec…
Statins (Lovastatin, Simvastatin)
Treats Hypercholesterolemia, Inhibits HMG-CoA Reductase --> D…
14 terms
Clinical Biochemistry
Define ICF and ECF and be able to dist…
Identify the major electrolytes and un…
Explain the possible reasons for and c…
Identify major serum metabolites teste…
...
Intracellular: K+, PO43-... Plasma: Na+, HCO3-
Na+... Hyponatremia: water retention (edema), dilution of ECF; c…
Glucose levels: normal 4-6.2 mmol/L... hypoglycemia: insufficien…
Define ICF and ECF and be able to dist…
...
Identify the major electrolytes and un…
Intracellular: K+, PO43-... Plasma: Na+, HCO3-
219 terms
Clinical Biochemistry
In the human body which fuel store can…
In the human body which fuel store is…
Which cells secrete glucagon and insul…
What hormone is secreted to reduce the…
Adipose Fat
Muscle Protein
Glucagon - Alpha cells... Insulin - Beta cells
Insulin
In the human body which fuel store can…
Adipose Fat
In the human body which fuel store is…
Muscle Protein
84 terms
Clinical Biochemistry
Name the 3 types of factors that affec…
where does most of the bilirubin in th…
what does total bilirubin consist of?
what is bilirubin conjugated with and…
pre-analytical, analytical and post analytical
phagocytosis of aged RBCs
conjugated and unconjugated
with albumin in the liver
Name the 3 types of factors that affec…
pre-analytical, analytical and post analytical
where does most of the bilirubin in th…
phagocytosis of aged RBCs
117 terms
Clinical Biochemistry
What is the likely clinical outcome of…
What is the likely cause of only incre…
What is the outcome of bile duct obstr…
What is the outcome of defective hepat…
Increased serum UB and later increased CB due to decreased ex…
Extra hepatic obstruction
UB does not increased. CB increased in serum and urine
Increased UB, increased CB due to defective excretion
What is the likely clinical outcome of…
Increased serum UB and later increased CB due to decreased ex…
What is the likely cause of only incre…
Extra hepatic obstruction
21 terms
Clinical Biochemistry
What types of biochemistry tests do th…
What is meant by ICF and ECF fluids?
What is the major electrolyte of ECF a…
What is the major electrolyte of the I…
Core biochemistry - general markers, common... (e.g. Urea, creat…
ICF is inside cell fluid, makes up 40% of total 60% fluid... EC…
ECF - Sodium, Na+... Maintains blood volume and pressure
Potassium
What types of biochemistry tests do th…
Core biochemistry - general markers, common... (e.g. Urea, creat…
What is meant by ICF and ECF fluids?
ICF is inside cell fluid, makes up 40% of total 60% fluid... EC…
40 terms
Clinical Biochemistry
in galactosemia what is the toxin
what does FA oxidation disorder usuall…
What kind of issue is GSD1
where do Glucogenic AA's go
galaticol
gluconeogenisis (No Acetyl CoA)
gluconeogensis (G-6 cant be convereted to Gluecsose)
into the TCA cycle
in galactosemia what is the toxin
galaticol
what does FA oxidation disorder usuall…
gluconeogenisis (No Acetyl CoA)
30 terms
Clinical biochemistry
Where does most bilirubin derive from?
What two components make up the total…
What is the solubility of conjugated b…
What is the solubility of unconjugated…
the phagocytosis of aged RBCs by the mononuclear phagocyte sy…
conjugated and unconjugated bilirubin
soluble
insoluble
Where does most bilirubin derive from?
the phagocytosis of aged RBCs by the mononuclear phagocyte sy…
What two components make up the total…
conjugated and unconjugated bilirubin
30 terms
Clinical - Biochemistry
What is azotaemia and what does it com…
List and describe the four categories…
What does urine specific gravity measu…
What USG values would indicate azotaem…
An increase in the concentrations of urea and creatinine in t…
1) Non-renal: the result of increased urea production. Possib…
The ability of the kidneys to concentrate and dilute urine.
Dog: >1.030... Cat: >1.035... Horse: >1.025
What is azotaemia and what does it com…
An increase in the concentrations of urea and creatinine in t…
List and describe the four categories…
1) Non-renal: the result of increased urea production. Possib…
30 terms
Clinical biochemistry
body weight % of ECF and ICF?
Composition of ECF?
hyponatremia ... hypernatremia
hypokalemia ... hyperkalemia
60% total body weight fluid. 40% = ICF ... 20%= ECF. -> 5% blood…
(cation) Na+ maintains blood volume.... (anion)Cl- ... (anion)HCO3-
low Na+.=water retention/ cause= dilute ECF(too much fluid)... h…
low K+ (ICF). symp=cardiac arrhythmia/muscle weakness/ cause=…
body weight % of ECF and ICF?
60% total body weight fluid. 40% = ICF ... 20%= ECF. -> 5% blood…
Composition of ECF?
(cation) Na+ maintains blood volume.... (anion)Cl- ... (anion)HCO3-
Clinical Biochemistry
When you are ordering a lab test you n…
What are some of the factors which can…
What does the term specific mean when…
What does the term sensitive mean when…
- Confirm a diagnosis... - Monitor response to treatment... - Indic…
- Manner of collection... - Patient preparation... - Equipment used…
When a test is specific this means that it will not give you…
When a test is sensitive this means that it will not give you…
When you are ordering a lab test you n…
- Confirm a diagnosis... - Monitor response to treatment... - Indic…
What are some of the factors which can…
- Manner of collection... - Patient preparation... - Equipment used…
51 terms
Biochemistry Clinical Disorders
Monomeric Beta Subunit
no heme-heme interactions... hyperbolic o…
Gene Expression which blotting technique
Detect Body Fluid... Insulin Levels
Myoglobin... Found in Bloodstream... Post Injury
HyperBolic Curve: Myoglobin... Sigmoid Curve: Hemoglobin... Myoglo…
Northern Blots... Gene=mRNA
ELISA
Monomeric Beta Subunit
Myoglobin... Found in Bloodstream... Post Injury
no heme-heme interactions... hyperbolic o…
HyperBolic Curve: Myoglobin... Sigmoid Curve: Hemoglobin... Myoglo…
21 terms
Clinical Biochemistry: Enzymes
Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT)
the enzyme is limiting
To determine whether an increased alkaline phosphatase result…
in a zero order enzyme reaction
Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT)
To determine whether an increased alkaline phosphatase result…
the enzyme is limiting
in a zero order enzyme reaction
45 terms
Medical Biochemistry
What is a protein
peptide bond
What group is the amino group
What group is the carboxyl group
Biomolecules comprised of amino acids linked together by pept…
NH2
COOH
What is a protein
Biomolecules comprised of amino acids linked together by pept…
peptide bond
63 terms
Clinical Biochemistry: missed questions
a protective cytokine exclusively secr…
low concentrations of urinary albumin,…
A type 1 diabetic with an elevated blo…
Adiponectin
Microalbuminuria
type 1 diabetic patient in crisis will have these two paramet…
a protective cytokine exclusively secr…
Adiponectin
low concentrations of urinary albumin,…
Microalbuminuria
177 terms
Medical Biochemistry
Hydrophobic
What is the difference between α-D-glu…
Which of the following is branched?... a.…
Sucrose can be hydrolyzed to which of…
Which of the following refers to a molecule which is insolubl…
They differ in the configuration of substituents C-2
Glycogen
Glucose and Fructose
Hydrophobic
Which of the following refers to a molecule which is insolubl…
What is the difference between α-D-glu…
They differ in the configuration of substituents C-2
19 terms
Clinical Biochemistry- Chapter 7
Catabolism
Catabolic Pathway
Ultimate Goal Catabolic Pathway
Anabolism
Involves the utilization of fuels and nutrients; Breaking Down
NAD+ and FAD reduced to NADH and FADH2
Production of ATP
Encompasses the pathways that form the biological macromolecu…
Catabolism
Involves the utilization of fuels and nutrients; Breaking Down
Catabolic Pathway
NAD+ and FAD reduced to NADH and FADH2
50 terms
Clinical Biochemistry Lecture 10 - Clinical Biochemistry and Clinically important Proteins MCQs
Where are proteins measured?
What is plasma?
What is serum?
How much protein is usually found in p…
In plasma, serum or urine.
Plasma is the fluid component in the blood.
Serum is the fluid obtained from blood that has clotted.
60-80 g/L of protein in normal plasma.... 55% is Albumin.
Where are proteins measured?
In plasma, serum or urine.
What is plasma?
Plasma is the fluid component in the blood.
34 terms
Medical Biochemistry
The primary electrolytes in blood are
the primary intracellular electrolytes…
the primary extracellular electrolytes…
Active transport
Sodium, Potassium, Chloride, and CO2
potassium, phosphate, and magnesium
Sodium, Chloride, and Bicarbonate
The movement of materials through a cell membrane using energ…
The primary electrolytes in blood are
Sodium, Potassium, Chloride, and CO2
the primary intracellular electrolytes…
potassium, phosphate, and magnesium
87 terms
Biochemistry: Clinical Correlation
Glycoside digitalis
Glucose oxidase
Gray Baby syndrome
Benedict test
inhibit the Na+-K+ ATPase on cell membranes. Such drugs are u…
glucose oxidase (a highly specific test for glucose)... is used…
Infants have a decreased ability to conjugate glucuronic acid…
for reducing sugars, which also will detect the presence of s…
Glycoside digitalis
inhibit the Na+-K+ ATPase on cell membranes. Such drugs are u…
Glucose oxidase
glucose oxidase (a highly specific test for glucose)... is used…
18 terms
Chap 1- Clinical Biochemistry
Blood analysis choice depends on
plasma
serum
choice of anticoagulants
-analyte to be measured (serum or plasma)... -instrumentation us…
fluid portion of blood after cells have been excluded; via ce…
fluid portion of blood after cells AND coagulation proteins h…
-Heparin (inhibits action of thrombin)... -EDTA... -Oxalate/ Fluori…
Blood analysis choice depends on
-analyte to be measured (serum or plasma)... -instrumentation us…
plasma
fluid portion of blood after cells have been excluded; via ce…
38 terms
Clinical Biochemistry: Immunochemical Methods
the rate depends on the concentration…
antigen concentration in the original…
the height of the cone
wavelength
antigen-antibody association is a second order reaction because
in single radial immunodiffusion, the radius of the precipiti…
The precipitin line in electroimmunodiffusion has a cone shap…
Scattering occurs when the dimensions of a particle are simil…
the rate depends on the concentration…
antigen-antibody association is a second order reaction because
antigen concentration in the original…
in single radial immunodiffusion, the radius of the precipiti…
43 terms
Clinical correlations- Biochemistry & Molecular
Irreversible inhibitor of prostaglandi…
Competitive inhibitor of HMG-CoA Reduc…
Forms an enzyme that catalyzes the tra…
Stimulates metabolism by inhibiting no…
Aspirin
Statins
Cholera Toxin
Caffeine
Irreversible inhibitor of prostaglandi…
Aspirin
Competitive inhibitor of HMG-CoA Reduc…
Statins
46 terms
Medical Biochemistry
Thiamine (V. B1)
Pyruvate dehydrogenase
a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase
Transketolase
cofactor for 3 rxns of glucose metabolism:... 1. pyruvate dehydr…
converts pyruvate (the end-product of glycolysis) into acetyl…
enzyme of citric acid cycle
enzyme of the hexose monophosphate pathway. ... converts pentose…
Thiamine (V. B1)
cofactor for 3 rxns of glucose metabolism:... 1. pyruvate dehydr…
Pyruvate dehydrogenase
converts pyruvate (the end-product of glycolysis) into acetyl…
188 terms
Clinical Pathology and Biochemistry
What types of factors can affect resul…
Give an example of species affecting r…
Give an example of breed affecting res…
Give an example of how age can affect…
Pre analytical, analytical and post analytical
Cats PCV is lower than dog PCV
CKCS have fewer, larger platelets (macrothrombocytopenia), wh…
Growing dogs have a lower PCV and total protein conc than adu…
What types of factors can affect resul…
Pre analytical, analytical and post analytical
Give an example of species affecting r…
Cats PCV is lower than dog PCV
129 terms
Medical Biochemistry
Oncotic Pressure
Major metabolic source of acid
Buffer system in ECF
Buffer system in red blood cells
A form of osmotic pressure that only depends on plasma protei…
Carbon dioxide
Bicarbonate-carbonic acid
Hemoglobin
Oncotic Pressure
A form of osmotic pressure that only depends on plasma protei…
Major metabolic source of acid
Carbon dioxide
69 terms
Clinical Biochemistry Final
First order kinetics reaction
11 factors that affect enzyme activity
How does substrate concentration affec…
How does enzymatic concentration affec…
Reaction rate is directly proportional to substrate concentra…
Substrate concentration... Enzymatic concentration... pH... Temperatur…
Reaction rate steadily increases as more substrate is added u…
The higher the enzyme level the faster the reaction will proc…
First order kinetics reaction
Reaction rate is directly proportional to substrate concentra…
11 factors that affect enzyme activity
Substrate concentration... Enzymatic concentration... pH... Temperatur…
15 terms
Clinical biochemistry enzymes
Five fractions separated by plasma pro…
Causes of increased immunoglobulins
Albumin levels increased
Albumin levels decreased
1.Serum Albumin... 2.Alpha 1 globulins... 3.Alpha 2 globulins... 4.Bet…
Chronic infection... Autoimmune... Malignant conditions (Plasma cel…
Dehydration... Anabolic steroids ... Growth hormones... Insulin
When liver is damaged... When kidney diseased with nephrotic syn…
Five fractions separated by plasma pro…
1.Serum Albumin... 2.Alpha 1 globulins... 3.Alpha 2 globulins... 4.Bet…
Causes of increased immunoglobulins
Chronic infection... Autoimmune... Malignant conditions (Plasma cel…
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