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Study sets matching "metabolic processes biology"

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Study sets matching "metabolic processes biology"

12 terms
General Biology - Cell Metabolic Processes
autotroph
heterotroph
producer
consumer
An organism that makes its own food
An organism that cannot make its own food.
An organism that can make its own food.
An organism that eats other organisms
autotroph
An organism that makes its own food
heterotroph
An organism that cannot make its own food.
29 terms
Biology Metabolic processes Review
What is Lactic Acid fermentation?
What is Alcohol fermentation?
What are the 4 major steps of cellular…
Label a mitochondria
A body cell's glucose that is broken down into 2 pyruvates th…
A yeast cell's glucose that is broken down into 2 pyruvates t…
Glycolysis... Pyruvate Oxidation... Krebs Cycle... Electron transport…
What is Lactic Acid fermentation?
A body cell's glucose that is broken down into 2 pyruvates th…
What is Alcohol fermentation?
A yeast cell's glucose that is broken down into 2 pyruvates t…
19 terms
Biology 12: Metabolic Processes
energy
metabolism
catabolic reaction
Anabolic reaction
the strength and vitality required for sustained physical or…
the sum of all chemical reactions in a cell or organism
usually release energy that is used to drive chemical reactions
refers to chemical reaction in which simpler substances are c…
energy
the strength and vitality required for sustained physical or…
metabolism
the sum of all chemical reactions in a cell or organism
9 terms
Biology; Metabolic Processes
Respiration
Absorption
Digestion
Biosynthesis
Burning glucose for energy
Taking in useful substances
Breaking down of larger substances
Making useful products
Respiration
Burning glucose for energy
Absorption
Taking in useful substances
19 terms
Biology-Metabolic Processes
Glycolysis
Pyruvate Oxidation
Krebs Cycle
Electron Transport Chain
-series of reactions in which a glucose molecule is broken do…
-the 2 molecules of pyruvate produced in glycolysis are trans…
-goes through TWICE because 2 acetyl-CoA are produced during…
-reduced co enzymes are oxidized ... -the terminal electron acce…
Glycolysis
-series of reactions in which a glucose molecule is broken do…
Pyruvate Oxidation
-the 2 molecules of pyruvate produced in glycolysis are trans…
25 terms
Biology: Metabolism and Cellular Processes
Energy
Metabolism
Metabolic Pathway
Catabolic Pathways
Living things depend on
Organisms chemical reaction as a whole
A molecule gets altered in certain steps and then a product i…
Breaking down. Energy is released.
Energy
Living things depend on
Metabolism
Organisms chemical reaction as a whole
21 terms
Branches of Biology & Cellular Metabolic Processes
Botany
Anatomy
Microbiology
Evolution
study of plants
study of the human body and its parts
the study of bacteria and viruses
the change of living organisms over time
Botany
study of plants
Anatomy
study of the human body and its parts
38 terms
Biology Midterm 1: Metabolic Processes
metabolism
metabolic pathway
catabolic pathways
anabolic pathways
totality of an organisms chemical reactions ... manages material…
begins with a specific molecule which is then altered in a se…
metabolic pathways that release energy by breaking down compl…
consume energy to build complicated molecule from simpler one…
metabolism
totality of an organisms chemical reactions ... manages material…
metabolic pathway
begins with a specific molecule which is then altered in a se…
18 terms
Metabolic Processes Cell Unit
Cell Respiration
Mitochondria
Glycolysis
NADH
Three step process to break down glucose and make ATP. 1. gly…
The organelle where the last two steps (krebs cycle, electron…
Splitting glucose. First step in cell respiration, takes plac…
A molecule that carries electrons from one chemical reaction…
Cell Respiration
Three step process to break down glucose and make ATP. 1. gly…
Mitochondria
The organelle where the last two steps (krebs cycle, electron…
48 terms
Metabolic Processes
Mitchondrion
C4 Plants
CAM Plants
Carbon Fixation
sugarcane, corn, annuals... 1 layer of mesophyll cells
cacti, bromeliads, orchids
Process to avoid photorespiration by increasing the concentra…
Mitchondrion
C4 Plants
sugarcane, corn, annuals... 1 layer of mesophyll cells
75 terms
Biology Unit 2 Metabolic Processes Test
Chemical potential energy
ATP cycle
Amylase
CO₂
What is the most important form of stored energy for organisms?
What is the name of the process that involves the continuous…
Which enzyme catalyzes the breakdown of amylose and maltose?
What is a product of the complete oxidation of an organic mol…
Chemical potential energy
What is the most important form of stored energy for organisms?
ATP cycle
What is the name of the process that involves the continuous…
26 terms
Biology Grade 12: Metabolic Processes 1
exergonic
free energy
transition state
glucose
releases any kind of energy; cellular respiration is this typ…
usable energy stored in the bonds of molecules
unstable intermediate where the old bonds have already been b…
contains the energy to be released in cellular respiration
exergonic
releases any kind of energy; cellular respiration is this typ…
free energy
usable energy stored in the bonds of molecules
19 terms
Biology Grade 12: Metabolic Processes 2
carbohydrate
fats
fat oxidation 1
fat oxidation 2
preferred feul due to a high ATP yield since it its easyto br…
high ATP yield but it broken down slowly and therefore become…
triglycerides are hydrolyzed into glycerol (3C) and three fat…
glycerol is phosphorylated and then converted into glyceralde…
carbohydrate
preferred feul due to a high ATP yield since it its easyto br…
fats
high ATP yield but it broken down slowly and therefore become…
13 terms
Metabolic Processes
coupled reactions
adenosine triphosphate
adenosine diphosphate
electron carriers
when the liberation of energy in an exergonic reaction drives…
special molecules will gain electrons only to lose them to an…
coupled reactions
when the liberation of energy in an exergonic reaction drives…
adenosine triphosphate
29 terms
12U Biology Exam Review: Metabolic Processes
define endergonic
define exergonic
where is the energy in ATP?
ATP and ADP rxn
reactions that require the input of energy, in order to raise…
reactions that release energy from the higher-level reactants…
in between the 2nd and 3rd phosphate groups because of the hi…
ATP + H2O --> ADP + Pi + H-
define endergonic
reactions that require the input of energy, in order to raise…
define exergonic
reactions that release energy from the higher-level reactants…
49 terms
Metabolic Processes
amino
monosaccharide
amino acid
peptide
functional group containing nitrogen
single sugar subunit
protein subunit
bond seen in protein
amino
functional group containing nitrogen
monosaccharide
single sugar subunit
72 terms
Metabolic Processes
What is metabolism?
What is ATP?
What kind of reaction is photosynthesis?
What kind of reaction is cell respirat…
The sum of all catabolic and anabolic reactions in a cell
(adenosine triphosphate) transports chemical energy within ce…
Anabolic - uses energy to build a larger molecule (glucose) f…
Catabolic - releases energy in the process of breaking down a…
What is metabolism?
The sum of all catabolic and anabolic reactions in a cell
What is ATP?
(adenosine triphosphate) transports chemical energy within ce…
18 terms
Metabolic Processes
coupled reactions
adenosine triphosphate
adenosine diphosphate
electron carriers
when the liberation of energy in an exergonic reaction drives…
special molecules will gain electrons only to lose them to an…
coupled reactions
when the liberation of energy in an exergonic reaction drives…
adenosine triphosphate
9 terms
Metabolic Processes
Autotrophs
Heterotrophs
Photosynthesis
Cellular respiration
Auto= self, trophs= feeders
Hetero= different, trophs= feeders.
process produce glucose and oxygen from carbon dioxide and wa…
release energy from the chemical bonds of food molecules and…
Autotrophs
Auto= self, trophs= feeders
Heterotrophs
Hetero= different, trophs= feeders.
15 terms
metabolic processes
aerobic respiration
substrate level phosphorylation
glycolysis
krebs cycle
catabolic pathways that require oxygen
ATP formation from transferring a phosphate group to ADP
metabolic pathway that breaks glucose down to pyruvate
the cyclic metabolic pathway that acquires acetyl-CoA and oxi…
aerobic respiration
catabolic pathways that require oxygen
substrate level phosphorylation
ATP formation from transferring a phosphate group to ADP
55 terms
Metabolic Processes
Metabolism
Kinetic Energy
Potential Energy
First Law of Thermodynamics
The sum of all chemical reactions in a cell or organism.
The energy of motion.
The stored energy that an object possesses as a result of its…
Principle that states that energy can be transferred or trans…
Metabolism
The sum of all chemical reactions in a cell or organism.
Kinetic Energy
The energy of motion.
95 terms
Metabolic Processes
Activation Energy (Ea)
Q
Laws of Thermodynamics
Bond Energy
the minimum energy which must be available to a chemical syst…
Thermal energy
1. Energy can neither be created or destroyed... 2. Whenever ene…
the stability of the bond (energy required to break/released…
Activation Energy (Ea)
the minimum energy which must be available to a chemical syst…
Q
Thermal energy
56 terms
Metabolic Processes
Energy
Potential Energy
Example of transformed potential energy
Kinetic energy
The capacity to do work, there are two types.
Stored energy that in living systems is tranformed into kinet…
Electrochemical gradient and concentration gradient
Energy of motions that in living systems is often in the form…
Energy
The capacity to do work, there are two types.
Potential Energy
Stored energy that in living systems is tranformed into kinet…
57 terms
Metabolic Processes
Inner Membrane
Outer Membrane
Cristae
Matrix
Membrane in the interior of the mitochondria, surrounding the…
Membrane on the exterior of the mitochondria, touching the cy…
The folds in the inner membrane of the mitochondria
The space in the interior of the mitochondria
Inner Membrane
Membrane in the interior of the mitochondria, surrounding the…
Outer Membrane
Membrane on the exterior of the mitochondria, touching the cy…
18 terms
Metabolic processes
Metabolism
Metabolic pathway
Catabolism
Anabolism
the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in the cell.
a sequential series of chemical reactions in living cells; ea…
the process of breaking down into smaller molecules. AB=A+B (…
the process of using energy to build larger molecules from sm…
Metabolism
the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in the cell.
Metabolic pathway
a sequential series of chemical reactions in living cells; ea…
28 terms
Metabolic Processes
Metabolism is
In metabolic reactions, the product of…
This chapter explores how metabolic pa…
Two types of metabolic reactions and p…
the sum total of chemical reactions within cells.
starting materials for another metabolic reaction.
supply energy to a cell and how other biochemical processes e…
anabolism and catabolism.
Metabolism is
the sum total of chemical reactions within cells.
In metabolic reactions, the product of…
starting materials for another metabolic reaction.
22 terms
IB Bio - Metabolic Processes
The Mitochondrion
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
Phosphorylation
Redox Reactions
The mitochondrion has 2 membranes - an outer smooth membrane,…
Known as the chemical currency of the cell... Provides energy to…
Adding a phosphate to a molecule... Many biological molecules ha…
Chemical reactions that transfer electrons from one substance…
The Mitochondrion
The mitochondrion has 2 membranes - an outer smooth membrane,…
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
Known as the chemical currency of the cell... Provides energy to…
56 terms
Metabolic Processes
Photosynthesis
Cellular Respiration
Laws of Thermodynamics
Bond Energy
Example of Endergonic Reaction
Example of Exergonic reaction
1. Energy can neither be created nor destroyed ... 2. Whenever e…
Stability of the bond (required to break or released when for…
Photosynthesis
Example of Endergonic Reaction
Cellular Respiration
Example of Exergonic reaction
109 terms
Metabolic Processes
Gibbs Free Energy
Exergonic Reaction... Gibbs Free Energy
Endergonic Reaction ... Gibbs Free Energy
ATP ... Gibbs Free Energy
- Energy transformation is not 100% efficient ... - Gibbs Free E…
- (-^G) products have less energy than the reactants (cell re…
- (+G) products have more free energy than the reactants (Pho…
- has high energy because of 3 phosphates ... (making ATP = end…
Gibbs Free Energy
- Energy transformation is not 100% efficient ... - Gibbs Free E…
Exergonic Reaction... Gibbs Free Energy
- (-^G) products have less energy than the reactants (cell re…
22 terms
Unit 2 Metabolic processes
glycolysis
4
oxygen
NADH
This is a diagram of what process?
How many ATP TOTAL are made in this process?
The terminal electron acceptor in the Electron Transport Chai…
This substance is OXIDIZED in the ETC?
glycolysis
This is a diagram of what process?
4
How many ATP TOTAL are made in this process?
22 terms
Unit 2 Metabolic processes
glycolysis
4
oxygen
NADH
This is a diagram of what process?
How many ATP TOTAL are made in this process?
The terminal electron acceptor in the Electron Transport Chai…
This substance is OXIDIZED in the ETC?
glycolysis
This is a diagram of what process?
4
How many ATP TOTAL are made in this process?
15 terms
Metabolic Processes
Autotrophs
Heterotrophs
Photosynthesis
Cellular respiration
An organism that is able to form nutritional organic substanc…
An organism deriving its nutritional requirements from comple…
The process by which green plants and some other organisms us…
Set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in t…
Autotrophs
An organism that is able to form nutritional organic substanc…
Heterotrophs
An organism deriving its nutritional requirements from comple…
31 terms
metabolic processes
Activation energy
exothermic
endothermic
entropy
amount of energy needed to break bonds and is equal to the di…
if a products bonds are more stable than reactant bonds more…
more energy is needed to break the bonds than is released, ne…
randomness. in order to see if a reaction will spontaneously…
Activation energy
amount of energy needed to break bonds and is equal to the di…
exothermic
if a products bonds are more stable than reactant bonds more…
44 terms
Metabolic Processes
Metabolism
Energy
Catabolism
Anabolism
- all of the chemical reactions that change/transform matter…
- capacity to do work... - potential energy (stored energy not y…
- breaking down compounds into smaller molecules to release e…
- using energy to build large molecules
Metabolism
- all of the chemical reactions that change/transform matter…
Energy
- capacity to do work... - potential energy (stored energy not y…
17 terms
Metabolic processes
Anabolic
Catabolic
Example of anabolism
Example of catabolism
larger molecules from smaller ones. Requires energy
larger molecules are broken down. Releases energy
dehydration synthesis
hydrolisis
Anabolic
larger molecules from smaller ones. Requires energy
Catabolic
larger molecules are broken down. Releases energy
9 terms
Metabolic Processes
glycogenesis
aerobic respiration
lipogenesis
glycogenolysis
making glycogen to store glucose molecules; absorptive state
oxidizing glucose for energy; absorptive state
making lipids to store energy; absorptive state
breaking down stored glycogen to get glucose; post-absorptive…
glycogenesis
making glycogen to store glucose molecules; absorptive state
aerobic respiration
oxidizing glucose for energy; absorptive state
metabolic processes
glycogenesis
glycogenolysis
gluconeogenesis
protein synthesis
glucose--> glycogen
glycogen--> glucose
glycerol+lactate+pyruvate+amino acids--> glucose
amino acids--> protein
glycogenesis
glucose--> glycogen
glycogenolysis
glycogen--> glucose
11 terms
Metabolic Processes
substrate level phosphorylation
oxidative phosphorylation
location of glycolysis process
location of pyruvate oxidation
the direct production of ATP in cell
indirect production of ATP (electron transport chain)
cytosol
mitochondrial matrix
substrate level phosphorylation
the direct production of ATP in cell
oxidative phosphorylation
indirect production of ATP (electron transport chain)
21 terms
Metabolic Processes
Metabolism
Metabolic pathway
Catabolism
Anabolism
The sum of all chemical reactions that occur in the cell
A sequential series of chemical reactions in living cells
The breaking down of compounds into smaller molecules to rele…
Using energy to build large molecules
Metabolism
The sum of all chemical reactions that occur in the cell
Metabolic pathway
A sequential series of chemical reactions in living cells
17 terms
Metabolic Processes
Endergonic reaction
Exergonic reactions
Substrate level phosphorylation
Oxidative phosphorylation
energy of products is more than reactants, e.g. photosynthesis
energy of reactants is more than products, e.g. cellular resp…
forming ATP directly in an enzyme catalyzed reaction
Atp is formed indirectly
Endergonic reaction
energy of products is more than reactants, e.g. photosynthesis
Exergonic reactions
energy of reactants is more than products, e.g. cellular resp…
12 terms
Metabolic Processes
alcohol fermentation
lactate fermentation
aerobic cellular respiration
glycolysis occurs in
glucose from food is comverted into carbon dioxide, ethanol a…
glucose from food is converted into lactate and atp
oxygen and glucose react to form carbon dioxide water and atp
the cytoplasm and is anaerobic
alcohol fermentation
glucose from food is comverted into carbon dioxide, ethanol a…
lactate fermentation
glucose from food is converted into lactate and atp
Metabolic processes
Nutrition
Transport
Respiration
Excretion
organisms require some type of nutrients to be used to power…
the ability to circulate & distribute materials within the body
refers to the activities that allow organisms to use organic…
removal of wastes made by cells as they perform their metabol…
Nutrition
organisms require some type of nutrients to be used to power…
Transport
the ability to circulate & distribute materials within the body
43 terms
Metabolic Processes
In what ways are cells like the biolog…
Why do cells need energy?
Metabolism
metabolic pathways
susceptible to physical and chemical attack ... organization ... st…
to maintain order... maintain organization ... for repair, growth a…
refers to all the chemical reactions that changes or transfor…
reactions occur in step- by - step sequences
In what ways are cells like the biolog…
susceptible to physical and chemical attack ... organization ... st…
Why do cells need energy?
to maintain order... maintain organization ... for repair, growth a…
49 terms
Metabolic Processes
amino
monosaccharide
amino acid
peptide
functional group containing nitrogen
single sugar subunit
protein subunit
bond seen in protein
amino
functional group containing nitrogen
monosaccharide
single sugar subunit
21 terms
Metabolic Processes
Glycolysis (in)
Glycolysis (out)
Glycolysis (where)
Transition Step (in)
glocose... ATP... ADP... inorganic phosphate... NAD
pyruvate... ATP... ADP... NADH... H2O... H
cytoplasm... anaerobic or aerobic
pyruvate... CoA... NAD+
Glycolysis (in)
glocose... ATP... ADP... inorganic phosphate... NAD
Glycolysis (out)
pyruvate... ATP... ADP... NADH... H2O... H
29 terms
Metabolic Processes
Work
Entropy
First law of thermodynamics
Second law of thermodynamics
Transfer of energy from one body or place to another
Measure of randomness and disorder in collection of objects o…
Total amount of energy is constant. ... Energy can't be destroy…
The entropy of universe increased with any change ... Eg when cl…
Work
Transfer of energy from one body or place to another
Entropy
Measure of randomness and disorder in collection of objects o…
32 terms
Metabolic Processes
Cellular Metabolism
Anabolism
Catabolism
Dehydration synthesis
sum of all chemical reactions occurring in a cell... Metabolic r…
**small molecules are built into larger ones; requires energy…
larger molecules are broken down into smaller ones, ATP is pr…
- Smaller molecules are bound together to form larger ones -…
Cellular Metabolism
sum of all chemical reactions occurring in a cell... Metabolic r…
Anabolism
**small molecules are built into larger ones; requires energy…
9 terms
Metabolic Processes
Absorption
Reproducion
Respiration
Growth
Taking in useful substances
Dividing to create new cells
"Burning" glucose to make energy
Adding cells to become larger
Absorption
Taking in useful substances
Reproducion
Dividing to create new cells
57 terms
metabolic processes
Enthalpy
entropy
first law of thermodynamics
second law of thermodynamics
heat content
measure of disorder
-energy cannot be created/destroyed... -only converted from one…
heat energy is lost during energy conversions
Enthalpy
heat content
entropy
measure of disorder
38 terms
Metabolic Processes
Substrate-level phosphorylation
Oxidative phosphorylation
Anaerobic lactid acid fermentation
Ethanol fermentation
Forms ATP directly in an enzyme-catalyzed reaction through th…
Forms ATP indirectly through a series of redox reactions invo…
NADH transfers its electrons directly to pyruvate, generating…
A carboxyl group is removed from pyruvate and released as CO2…
Substrate-level phosphorylation
Forms ATP directly in an enzyme-catalyzed reaction through th…
Oxidative phosphorylation
Forms ATP indirectly through a series of redox reactions invo…
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