Study sets matching "metabolism 2"

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Study sets matching "metabolism 2"

98 terms
metabolism 2
EAR
RDA
UL
elemental iron
estimated average requirement... estimated amount to meet requir…
recommended dietary allowance... recommended amount to meet requ…
an amount of nutrient intake that is not expected to have a h…
iron from plant sources
EAR
estimated average requirement... estimated amount to meet requir…
RDA
recommended dietary allowance... recommended amount to meet requ…
27 terms
Metabolism 2
Periodic acid-Schiff stain
Von Gierke disease (Type 1 GSD)
Pompe disease (Type II GSD)... (PomPe tr…
Cori disease (Type III GSD)... (milder f…
What stain is useful in identifying the Glycogen storage dise…
Deficient enzyme: glucose-6-phosphatase... Autosomal recessive…
Deficient enzyme: *lysosomal acid alpha-1,4-glucosidase with…
Deficient enzyme: alpha-1,6-glucosidase (debranching enzyme…
Periodic acid-Schiff stain
What stain is useful in identifying the Glycogen storage dise…
Von Gierke disease (Type 1 GSD)
Deficient enzyme: glucose-6-phosphatase... Autosomal recessive…
Metabolism 2
Substrate Level Phosphorylation
Oxidative Phosphorylation
Photophosphorylation
GluT Transporters
transferring high energy phosphate group form an intermediate…
remove electrons and pass them through electron transport cha…
adding a phosphate... -only in chlorophyll containing plant cel…
inserted in cell membrane bring glucose into the cell via fac…
Substrate Level Phosphorylation
transferring high energy phosphate group form an intermediate…
Oxidative Phosphorylation
remove electrons and pass them through electron transport cha…
33 terms
metabolism 2
glycerol... propionate... aa... lactate
triglycerides... phospholipids... cholesterol
lipoprotein
chylomicrons
4 gluconegenic precursors that enter the krebs cycle
3 components of dietary fat
____________ is an aggregate of lipids surrounded by hydrophi…
lipoproteins that are formed by enterocytes
glycerol... propionate... aa... lactate
4 gluconegenic precursors that enter the krebs cycle
triglycerides... phospholipids... cholesterol
3 components of dietary fat
Metabolism 2
although glycolysis is ancient, it is…
the evolution of oxidative phosphoryla…
oxidative phosphorylation evolved in
some other bacterial species use
happens after that can differ, generates a lot of NADH
large amount of energy to be derived from these electron carr…
proteobacteria before endosymbiosis
acceptors other than oxygen (sulfur, iron, etc)
although glycolysis is ancient, it is…
happens after that can differ, generates a lot of NADH
the evolution of oxidative phosphoryla…
large amount of energy to be derived from these electron carr…
39 terms
metabolism 2
Define catabolic reactions
Define anabolic reactions
what is the catabolic product of carbo…
What is the catabolic product of lipids?
a reaction that breaks down
a reaction that builds up
monosaccharides
fatty acids and glycerol
Define catabolic reactions
a reaction that breaks down
Define anabolic reactions
a reaction that builds up
135 terms
Metabolism 2 Exam 2
What are functional foods?
What are some examples of functional f…
What are the four categories that the…
What are conventional foods?
foods that contain physiollogically active components and pro…
whole foods... fortified... enriched or enhanced
conventional... modified... medical... foods for special dietary use
the most basic functional food because they have not been mod…
What are functional foods?
foods that contain physiollogically active components and pro…
What are some examples of functional f…
whole foods... fortified... enriched or enhanced
Metabolism 2
WEIGHT
CALORIE
GENE
FAT CELLS
Energy in - Energy out
A unit of energy
Traits that are passed down from parents
Created when too many calories are eaten
WEIGHT
Energy in - Energy out
CALORIE
A unit of energy
29 terms
Metabolism 2
Glycogenesis
Glyconeogenesis
Fat metabolism
Lipoproteins
Formation of glycogen by linking of glucose molecules... ex: ins…
If body requires energy (ATP) glycogen can be converted back…
Most lipids are hydrophobic. This makes it difficult to trans…
forms a sphere, outer shell consist of proteins, phospholipid…
Glycogenesis
Formation of glycogen by linking of glucose molecules... ex: ins…
Glyconeogenesis
If body requires energy (ATP) glycogen can be converted back…
Metabolism 2
superoxide dismutase
catalase
DNase
cytochrome oxidase test
an enzyme that is able to convert superoxide radicals in the…
this enzyme changes the hydrogen peroxide into water and free…
this enzyme degrades DNA for use as a carbon source, it is a…
is a differential test that should be performed on all gram n…
superoxide dismutase
an enzyme that is able to convert superoxide radicals in the…
catalase
this enzyme changes the hydrogen peroxide into water and free…
30 terms
metabolism 2
purpose
glucagon in liver vs. skeletal muscle
glucose from glycogen breakdown
glycogen structure
glucose is osmoitcally active and intermittent... reserves last…
muscle glycogen is used by tissue itself... liver glycogen is to…
produces glucose 6 phosphate... muscle uses this directly for gl…
linear chains with a1-4 glycosidic bonds ... braces with a1-6 gl…
purpose
glucose is osmoitcally active and intermittent... reserves last…
glucagon in liver vs. skeletal muscle
muscle glycogen is used by tissue itself... liver glycogen is to…
38 terms
Metabolism 2
What types of reactions does metabolis…
What are exergonic reactions?
What are endergonic reactions?
What is metabolism?
Ones that need energy with ones that release energy
Reactions that release free energy;... Catabolic reactions that…
Reactions that consume free energy;... Anabolic reactions that i…
The sum of all chemical reactions in cells
What types of reactions does metabolis…
Ones that need energy with ones that release energy
What are exergonic reactions?
Reactions that release free energy;... Catabolic reactions that…
29 terms
2.1 Molecules to metabolism
covalent bonds
metabolism
anabolism
catabolism
bonds created by sharing electrons with other atoms
the web of all the enzyme-catalysed reactions in a cell or or…
the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler molecules inc…
the breakdown of complex molecules into simpler molecules inc…
covalent bonds
bonds created by sharing electrons with other atoms
metabolism
the web of all the enzyme-catalysed reactions in a cell or or…
15 terms
Metabolism 2
Glycolysis
Aerobic
Anaerobic
Fermentation
Most common pathway of glucose breakdown.
Series of reactions that convert glucose to CO2 and allows th…
Does not use molecular oxygen as the final electron acceptor.
Use only glycolysis to incompletely oxidize glucose.
Glycolysis
Most common pathway of glucose breakdown.
Aerobic
Series of reactions that convert glucose to CO2 and allows th…
Metabolism 2
cytosol
phosphoglycerol
transferases
outer
fatty acid synthesis takes place in the?
where does the phosphate group in the phospholipid come from?
enzymes that add the head group to the phospholipid, eg. chol…
sphingomyelin mainly found on inner/outer leaflet?
cytosol
fatty acid synthesis takes place in the?
phosphoglycerol
where does the phosphate group in the phospholipid come from?
241 terms
Metabolism 2
retinol function
vit A used to treat?
vit A source?
retinol deficiency
antioxidant; visual pigments; differentation of epithelial ce…
measles and AML
liver and leafy veggies
nyctalopia; xerosis cutis; alopecia; cornea degeneration (ker…
retinol function
antioxidant; visual pigments; differentation of epithelial ce…
vit A used to treat?
measles and AML
Metabolism 2
electron transport chain
entropy
endergonic reaction
enzyme
A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins)…
A measure of disorder, or randomness.
A non-spontaneous chemical reaction, in which free energy is…
A macromolecule serving as a catalyst, a chemical agent that…
electron transport chain
A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins)…
entropy
A measure of disorder, or randomness.
109 terms
Metabolism 2 Exam 3
Electrolyte/Fluid Balance
What are the compartments for water di…
how does water distribution change wit…
What is osmotic pressure?
Electrolyte/Fluid Balance
Intracellular... Extracellular... -plasma... -interstitial fluid
Total water decreases and extracellular fluid decerases while…
the control of water movement from a dilute solution to conce…
Electrolyte/Fluid Balance
Electrolyte/Fluid Balance
What are the compartments for water di…
Intracellular... Extracellular... -plasma... -interstitial fluid
Metabolism 2
endocrine pancreas secretes hormones
insulin is a hormone of
glucagon is hormone of
metabolism is controlled primarily by…
insulin and glucagon
energy storage
energy release
insulin-glucagon ratio
endocrine pancreas secretes hormones
insulin and glucagon
insulin is a hormone of
energy storage
40 terms
Metabolism 2
Glucose Digestion and Absorption in In…
Protein Digestion and Absorption in In…
Oligomer Digestion and Absorption in I…
Peptide Digestion and Absorption in In…
No breakdown required, glucose molecule can pass straight thr…
Protein is hydrolysed from the polymer form into its amino ac…
Oligomer is hydrolysed on the luminal brush border into its c…
Peptide is able to pass straight through to intestinal epithe…
Glucose Digestion and Absorption in In…
No breakdown required, glucose molecule can pass straight thr…
Protein Digestion and Absorption in In…
Protein is hydrolysed from the polymer form into its amino ac…
10 terms
Metabolism 2
inhibitor-
photosynthesis-
Respiration -
Glycolysis -
provides the active site from being available
an energy harvesting process that takes light and converts it…
An energy harvesting process
process where glucose is broken down into two pyruvate molecu…
inhibitor-
provides the active site from being available
photosynthesis-
an energy harvesting process that takes light and converts it…
20 terms
Metabolism (2.5)
Catabolism
Anabolism
Energy
Kinetic E
This refers to the breaking down of a molecule.
This is the assembly of molecules.
Has the ability to facilitate transformation
This is the energy of movemen
Catabolism
This refers to the breaking down of a molecule.
Anabolism
This is the assembly of molecules.
10 terms
2.1 Metabolic to metabolism
Carbon atoms
Organic compound
Anabolism
Catabolism
can form four covalent bonds
consists of H and C bonds
synthesis of complex molecules into simpler ones
synthesis of simpler molecules into complex ones
Carbon atoms
can form four covalent bonds
Organic compound
consists of H and C bonds
124 terms
Metabolism 2 Exam 1
Where does heme come from?
What are the heme proteins?
What are the basic themes of foods ric…
Why is heme iron absorbed more efficie…
Animal meats
o Hemoglobin: blood... o Myoglobin: muscle... o Cytochrome: TCA cyc…
o White beans, lentils, spinach... o Cereals, grains, legumes an…
Phytate, an enzyme, inhibits iron absorption through its nega…
Where does heme come from?
Animal meats
What are the heme proteins?
o Hemoglobin: blood... o Myoglobin: muscle... o Cytochrome: TCA cyc…
15 terms
Metabolism 2
Acetyl CoA
Energy Storage
Triglycerides (fat)
Carbs and Proteins
-10 ATPs... -3NADH... -1 FADH2... -1 ATP ... ---Is a common substrate for…
when more energy is taken in than consumed glucose converted…
fatty acids+glycerol ... --occurs mainly in adipose and liver ti…
yield only 4 kilocalories/gram
Acetyl CoA
-10 ATPs... -3NADH... -1 FADH2... -1 ATP ... ---Is a common substrate for…
Energy Storage
when more energy is taken in than consumed glucose converted…
2.12 Nucleotide Metabolism
What do nucleotides consist of?
What do nucleosides consist of?
What does the synthesis of nucleotides…
What does the synthesis of nucleotides…
Sugar, Base, and Phosphate
Sugar and Base
Begins with metabolic precursors: amino acids, ribose 5 phosp…
Recycles free bases and nucleosides released from nucleic aci…
What do nucleotides consist of?
Sugar, Base, and Phosphate
What do nucleosides consist of?
Sugar and Base
101 terms
Metabolism 2
What is a xenobiotic
Definition of toxicology
Definition of a toxin
Definition of a toxicant
It is a foreign substance taken into the body, could be toxic…
Study of the adverse effects of chemicals or physical agents…
a toxic substance produced by a living organism eg: Tetany
A toxic substance created or released into the environment by…
What is a xenobiotic
It is a foreign substance taken into the body, could be toxic…
Definition of toxicology
Study of the adverse effects of chemicals or physical agents…
Metabolism 2
Briefly describe the energy requiremen…
What is the difference between Glucoge…
Describe the actions of three key meta…
List the four main metabolic states
Energy required by the body involves three key factors:... Basal…
Glycogenesis is the formation of glycogen from glucose.... In g…
Insulin - encourages storage of fuels... - suppresses glucagon s…
Absorptive (post-prandial)... Short term fasting... Prolonged fasti…
Briefly describe the energy requiremen…
Energy required by the body involves three key factors:... Basal…
What is the difference between Glucoge…
Glycogenesis is the formation of glycogen from glucose.... In g…
18 terms
metabolism 2
niacin; describe its function and list…
riboflavin; describe its function and…
thiamin; describe its function and lis…
vitamin B6; describe its function and…
occurs as NADH and NADPH; important in redox reactions in ene…
occurs as FADH and FMN; coenzyme in redox pathways. Sources:…
coenzyme in PPP, role in membrane and nerve function. Sources…
coenzymes for amino acid metabolism, heme synthesis. Sources:…
niacin; describe its function and list…
occurs as NADH and NADPH; important in redox reactions in ene…
riboflavin; describe its function and…
occurs as FADH and FMN; coenzyme in redox pathways. Sources:…
28 terms
Metabolism 2
What does lactic acid break down into?
Where is the H mostly buffered?
What is one of the major causes of fat…
What is lactate used as?
Lactate and H+
In the blood... H2O + CO2 <--> H2CO3 <--> HCO3- + H+
Build up on H+... It protects the muscle from further damage
A substrate... 75% is oxidized ... 25% is used in gluconeogenesis
What does lactic acid break down into?
Lactate and H+
Where is the H mostly buffered?
In the blood... H2O + CO2 <--> H2CO3 <--> HCO3- + H+
29 terms
(2) Metabolism
What is Catabolism?
What is Anabolism?
What are the two types of metabolic re…
ATP is needed for this metabolic react…
chemical reactions that BREAKDOWN large molecules into smalle…
chemical reactions that BUILD larger molecules from smaller o…
catabolic and anabolic
anabolic
What is Catabolism?
chemical reactions that BREAKDOWN large molecules into smalle…
What is Anabolism?
chemical reactions that BUILD larger molecules from smaller o…
Metabolism 2
What is the preferred energy source in…
What is the major energy storage form…
What are the least preferred energy so…
What mediates cell membrane glucose tr…
Carbs
Fat
Protein / Amino acids
GLUTs
What is the preferred energy source in…
Carbs
What is the major energy storage form…
Fat
26 terms
Metabolism 2
Most lipids must be combined with what…
How are lipoproteins categorized?
What are the 4 major classes of lipopr…
Class of lipoprotein form in hepatocyt…
Protein
•Function... •Density
•Chylomicrons... •Very low density... •Low density... •High density
•Very low density lipoproteins
Most lipids must be combined with what…
Protein
How are lipoproteins categorized?
•Function... •Density
Metabolism #2
Carbohydrate
Criteria
Dossier
Engineer
A group of molecule types broken down by the digestive system…
Standards by which something may be judged
A set of related documents about a particular topic
A person who uses math and science to design things
Carbohydrate
A group of molecule types broken down by the digestive system…
Criteria
Standards by which something may be judged
21 terms
Metabolism 2
photosynthesis
oxygenic photosynthesis
anoxygenic photosynthesis
rhodopsin-based photosynthesis
Energy from light is trapped and converted into chemical ener…
Type of photosynthesis in which oxygen is released... Use chloro…
Type of photosynthesis in which oxygen is NOT released, and w…
Type of photosynthesis based on a specific pigment... No ETC is…
photosynthesis
Energy from light is trapped and converted into chemical ener…
oxygenic photosynthesis
Type of photosynthesis in which oxygen is released... Use chloro…
Metabolism 2
Lactate accumulation
Lactate dehydrogenase
Epinephrine signal cascade
Glycogen Synthase
turned back into energy, MCT, moved to liver to turn into glu…
Turns pyruvate into lactate and back
receptor, g protein, adenylate cyclase, Turns ATP to CAMP, tu…
Activated: Insulin, ATP, Glucose ... Inhibited: Epi, P, Glycagon…
Lactate accumulation
turned back into energy, MCT, moved to liver to turn into glu…
Lactate dehydrogenase
Turns pyruvate into lactate and back
Chapter 19
Standard nursing interventions
preparing for implementation
--- --- means that patients and famili…
--- help nurses to anticipate and sequ…
clinical practice guidelines... standing orders... NIC intervention…
time management... equipment... personal... environment... patient
patient adherence
priorities
Standard nursing interventions
clinical practice guidelines... standing orders... NIC intervention…
preparing for implementation
time management... equipment... personal... environment... patient
17 terms
Metabolism 2
glycogenesis
glucose 1-phosphate
UDP-glucose
glycogen chain
Metabolic pathway by which glycogen is synthesised from gluco…
Glycogenesis Step 1 - Isomerization... Formation of ___________…
Glycogenesis Step 2 - Activation... Formation of _______________
Glycogenesis Step 3 - Linkage to chain... Transfer of Glucose to…
glycogenesis
Metabolic pathway by which glycogen is synthesised from gluco…
glucose 1-phosphate
Glycogenesis Step 1 - Isomerization... Formation of ___________…
metabolism 2
GLUT 1
GLUT 2
GLUT 3
GLUT 4
also galactose
high Km in liver
low Km in brain
insulin responsive
GLUT 1
also galactose
GLUT 2
high Km in liver
8 terms
Metabolism #2
Carboydrate
Criteria
Dossier
Engineer
A group of molecule types broken down by the digestive system…
Standards by which something may be judged
A set of related documents about a particular topic
A person who uses math and science to design things
Carboydrate
A group of molecule types broken down by the digestive system…
Criteria
Standards by which something may be judged
Metabolism 2
Aerobic Respiration
Fermentation
Anaerobic Respiration
Catabolism: The Big Picture
Process of producing cellular energy involving oxygen.... Glyco…
The chemical breakdown of a substance by bacteria, yeast, or…
Process of producing cellular energy without oxygen.... -Produce…
1. Glucose is oxidized as it passes through sequential metabo…
Aerobic Respiration
Process of producing cellular energy involving oxygen.... Glyco…
Fermentation
The chemical breakdown of a substance by bacteria, yeast, or…
12 terms
2.1 Molecules to Metabolism
Metabolism
Catabolism
Anabolism
Carbon
The sum total of all the enzyme-catalysed reactions going on…
The breakdown of complex molecules into simple molecules, inc…
The synthesis of complex molecules from simple molecules, inc…
Is found in all forms of life except for in the states of car…
Metabolism
The sum total of all the enzyme-catalysed reactions going on…
Catabolism
The breakdown of complex molecules into simple molecules, inc…
12 terms
Metabolism Lec 2
Radical Stability trend
P450 selectivity with thiopental
P450 selectivity with ethylbenzene
P450 selectivity with tolbutamide
The trend for ease of proton abstraction is reversed due to s…
Radical Stability trend
The trend for ease of proton abstraction is reversed due to s…
P450 selectivity with thiopental
509 terms
Metabolism 2
What blood vessels supply the rectus a…
What is the arcuate line and what does…
what spinal level is the xiphoid proce…
What spinal level is the umbilicus at?
Internal thoracic and superior + inferior epigastric arteries
half way between pubic symphysis and umbilicus. above aponeur…
T7
T10
What blood vessels supply the rectus a…
Internal thoracic and superior + inferior epigastric arteries
What is the arcuate line and what does…
half way between pubic symphysis and umbilicus. above aponeur…
195 terms
metabolism 2
what is the definition of a triglyceride
what is the most active site of lipid…
linoleic acid has double bonds at carb…
humans synthesize about ____ mg of cho…
a glycerol plus three attached fatty acids
upper jejunum
8, 11, 14, 17
700
what is the definition of a triglyceride
a glycerol plus three attached fatty acids
what is the most active site of lipid…
upper jejunum
28 terms
2.1 Molecules to metabolism
Amino acid
Hydroxyl Group
Amine Group
Carboxyl Group
building block of proteins that consists of a basic amino gro…
What is this? ... -OH
What is this? ... NH2
What is this? ... -COOH
Amino acid
building block of proteins that consists of a basic amino gro…
Hydroxyl Group
What is this? ... -OH
29 terms
2.1 Molecules to metabolism
covalent bonds
metabolism
anabolism
catabolism
bonds created by sharing electrons with other atoms
the web of all the enzyme-catalysed reactions in a cell or or…
the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler molecules inc…
the breakdown of complex molecules into simpler molecules inc…
covalent bonds
bonds created by sharing electrons with other atoms
metabolism
the web of all the enzyme-catalysed reactions in a cell or or…
29 terms
Metabolism 2
Pyruvate
Storage polysaccharides, anaerobic met…
Lipid Catabolism, stage 1
Within cells
Ruminant Fermentation produces what molecule?
Glucose can be used in what three molecules/pathways?
What does this pathway outline and at what stage?... Extracellul…
Where does stage 2 of lipid catabolism occur?
Pyruvate
Ruminant Fermentation produces what molecule?
Storage polysaccharides, anaerobic met…
Glucose can be used in what three molecules/pathways?
Metabolism 2 -
not
photoautotrophic
carbohydrates, proteins, fats, CO₂, H₂O
pyruvate
Plants ability to generate glucose is spontaneous or not?
Plants contain ____ cells that capture radiant energy
Fundamental to heterotrophic cells is the ability to metaboli…
In some heterotrophic cells each glucose molecule is metaboli…
not
Plants ability to generate glucose is spontaneous or not?
photoautotrophic
Plants contain ____ cells that capture radiant energy
20 terms
2.1 Molecules to metabolism
Atoms
Molecule
Compound
Element
Smallest unit of a molecule. Made of protons (positively char…
Two or more atoms bonded together
Two or more DIFFERENT atoms bonded together
Substance made up of only ONE type of atom
Atoms
Smallest unit of a molecule. Made of protons (positively char…
Molecule
Two or more atoms bonded together
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