Study sets matching "metabolism"

Study sets
Classes
Users

Study sets matching "metabolism"

Metabolism
Primary roles of macronutrients
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Lipids
Carbohydrates: fuel source for basic life functions and exerc…
4 kcal/g... Circulated in blood as glucose... Stored in muscle, liv…
4 kcal/g... Some AAs are inessential (the body makes them) and s…
9 kcal/g... Stored in muscle and adipose tissue... Most are triglyc…
Primary roles of macronutrients
Carbohydrates: fuel source for basic life functions and exerc…
Carbohydrates
4 kcal/g... Circulated in blood as glucose... Stored in muscle, liv…
50 terms
Metabolism
Matter
Energy
Two types of energy
Kinetic
Anything that has mass and takes up space
Ability to do work
kinetic and potential
Energy of motion; heat light & anything in motion
Matter
Anything that has mass and takes up space
Energy
Ability to do work
Metabolism
In the last stage of aerobic respirati…
In alcoholic fermentation, ________ is…
The fermentation pathways produce no m…
In certain organisms and under certain…
Pyruvic Acid
acetaldehyde
regenerate NAD+
a) fatty acids b) amino acids c) glycerol ... ALL OF THE ABOVE
In the last stage of aerobic respirati…
Pyruvic Acid
In alcoholic fermentation, ________ is…
acetaldehyde
28 terms
Metabolism
anabolic reactions
catabolic reactions
external respiration
Internal respiration
The chemical reactions in the body that build up versus break…
break down large, complex molecules to provide energy and sma…
the act of bringing air into and out of the lungs and exchang…
Exchange of gases between cells of the body and the blood
anabolic reactions
The chemical reactions in the body that build up versus break…
catabolic reactions
break down large, complex molecules to provide energy and sma…
METABOLISM
Endergonic Reaction
Enzyme
Exergonic Reaction
Feedback Inhibition
In chemical thermodynamics, this is a chemical reaction in wh…
Biological molecules (proteins) that act as catalysts and hel…
A reaction where energy is released. These reactions usually…
A molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity.
Endergonic Reaction
In chemical thermodynamics, this is a chemical reaction in wh…
Enzyme
Biological molecules (proteins) that act as catalysts and hel…
12 terms
Metabolism
Define metabolism
Anabolism
Catabolism
Enzymes
all the chemical reactions in cell... all the building and break…
Constructive metabolism; the process of building up larger mo…
Biological processes which primarily break down large storage…
Catalysts for chemical reactions in living things
Define metabolism
all the chemical reactions in cell... all the building and break…
Anabolism
Constructive metabolism; the process of building up larger mo…
25 terms
Metabolism
Anabolism
Catabolism
Defined Culture medium
Fastidious organism
Production of "building block" and ATP
Production of reducing power and energy. Some byproduct can b…
The culture with known compounds
Organisms that require a lot of compounds to be cultured.
Anabolism
Production of "building block" and ATP
Catabolism
Production of reducing power and energy. Some byproduct can b…
6 terms
Metabolism
All sugars in our body have this confi…
Glyceraldehyde
Ribose
Glucose
D
All sugars in our body have this confi…
D
Glyceraldehyde
Metabolism
Metabolism - overview
Metabolism
Metabolism - supplies needed
Role of cardiovascular system
Body stores energy reserves when nutrients are abundant. Body…
All chemical reactions that occur in an organism. Cells break…
Nutrients: amino acids, simple sugars - monosaccharides, lipi…
Carries these substances throughout the body, they diffuse fr…
Metabolism - overview
Body stores energy reserves when nutrients are abundant. Body…
Metabolism
All chemical reactions that occur in an organism. Cells break…
33 terms
Metabolism
metabolism
entropy
first law of thermodynamics
second law of thermodynamics
cell's capacity to acquire energy, use it to build, break apa…
measure of the degree of a system's disorder
the total amount of energy in the universe remains constant
energy flows in the universe from higher to lower quality
metabolism
cell's capacity to acquire energy, use it to build, break apa…
entropy
measure of the degree of a system's disorder
Metabolism
Metabolism
Anabolism
Catabolism
Enzymes
Encompasses all reactions that take place in the body. Can be…
Means synthesis or "formation" reactions, the bonding togethe…
Decomposition, the breaking of bonds of larger molecules to f…
Proteins that enable reactions to take place rapidly at body…
Metabolism
Encompasses all reactions that take place in the body. Can be…
Anabolism
Means synthesis or "formation" reactions, the bonding togethe…
17 terms
Metabolism
Metabolism
Catabolism
Anabolism
Energy transfer
functions of food... source of energy... essential nutrients... stored…
catabolic reactions break down complex organic compounds... -pro…
anabolic reactions synthesize complex molecules ... requiring en…
energy is found in the bonds between atoms... -oxidation is a de…
Metabolism
functions of food... source of energy... essential nutrients... stored…
Catabolism
catabolic reactions break down complex organic compounds... -pro…
47 terms
Metabolism
Glycolysis
Fermentation
2,3-BPG
Regulation of glycolysis and gluconeog…
takes place in cytoplasm... 2ATP (net) , 2NADH, 2 Pyruvate... - 3 i…
anaerobic, pyruvate and pyruvic acid are the same thing
decreases Hb affinity to oxygen, binds B subunit... - good at hi…
glycolysis: generates ATP... gluconeogenesis: uses ATP ... - draw a…
Glycolysis
takes place in cytoplasm... 2ATP (net) , 2NADH, 2 Pyruvate... - 3 i…
Fermentation
anaerobic, pyruvate and pyruvic acid are the same thing
22 terms
Metabolism
metabolism
metabolic pathway
catabolic pathways
anabolic pathways
the totality of an organism's chemical reactions
begins with a specific molecule, which is then altered in a s…
[breakdown pathways]... release energy by breaking down complex…
[biosynthetic pathways]... consume energy to build complicated m…
metabolism
the totality of an organism's chemical reactions
metabolic pathway
begins with a specific molecule, which is then altered in a s…
141 terms
Metabolism
Metabolism definition
Metabolism AKA
Metabolism of a drug generally leads t…
Clinical PK-Metabolism: Overview slide
Metabolism is the process by which a xenobiotic or endobiotic…
Biotransformation
Polar
The drugs we absorb orally go to liver then general circulati…
Metabolism definition
Metabolism is the process by which a xenobiotic or endobiotic…
Metabolism AKA
Biotransformation
41 terms
Metabolism
reducing sugar
glycogen
lipids
triacylglycerol
have aldehyde group, more chemically active, ex: glucose, gal…
branched carbohydrates, made in humans
carboxyl group on one end, made by polymerization of 2 carbon…
neutral fat, alcohol group, 3C sugar, covalent linking of gly…
reducing sugar
have aldehyde group, more chemically active, ex: glucose, gal…
glycogen
branched carbohydrates, made in humans
Metabolism
Metabolism
32
Glycolysis
6
The way the body converts food to energy (glucose to ATP)
How many ATP does glucose create?
-KREBS cycle... -Electron transport chain
How many carbons in glucose?
Metabolism
The way the body converts food to energy (glucose to ATP)
32
How many ATP does glucose create?
Metabolism
Metabolism
Metabolism Pathway
Catabolic
Anabolic
The totality of an organism's chemical reactions
Begins with a specific molecule and ends with a product
Break food (sugar) down
Consumes energy and builds new molecules
Metabolism
The totality of an organism's chemical reactions
Metabolism Pathway
Begins with a specific molecule and ends with a product
Metabolism
Functions and parts of metabolism
Metabolic pathways
Metabolic regulation
Autotrophs
1. Breakdown of food for energy and raw materials - through c…
Proceed by discrete steps, each of which is carried out by a…
Intracellular feedback control by negative feedback or positi…
Synthesize its bioorganic molecules entirely from inorganic s…
Functions and parts of metabolism
1. Breakdown of food for energy and raw materials - through c…
Metabolic pathways
Proceed by discrete steps, each of which is carried out by a…
13 terms
Metabolism
Metabolism
Catabolic/Anabolic Pathways
Thermodynamics
Entropy
-total of an organism's chemical processes... -manages cellular…
Catabolic: release energy by breaking down complex molecules…
-Def: study of energy transformations... -First Law of Thermo: e…
measure of disorder that is proportional to randomness
Metabolism
-total of an organism's chemical processes... -manages cellular…
Catabolic/Anabolic Pathways
Catabolic: release energy by breaking down complex molecules…
44 terms
Metabolism
Different cells have different functions
Metabolism
Catabolism
Anabolism
*Some transport gases to and from cells.... *Some conduct nervou…
What cells can do. Sum total of all chemical reactions in the…
Reactions that break down nutrients to produce energy.
Reactions that build up molecules and require energy.
Different cells have different functions
*Some transport gases to and from cells.... *Some conduct nervou…
Metabolism
What cells can do. Sum total of all chemical reactions in the…
16 terms
Metabolism
Energy
Kinetic Energy
Mechanical Energy
Potential Energy
ability to do work
Energy of Motion
type of kinetic energy (moose walking)
stored energy, chemical energy (food we eat)
Energy
ability to do work
Kinetic Energy
Energy of Motion
41 terms
Metabolism
Glycolysis
Pyruvate
Glycolysis particularly important meta…
Glycolysis occurs in
Breakdown of glucose into pyruvate
with (aerobic conditions) or without (anaerobic conditions) o…
cytosol (fluid portion of living cells)
Glycolysis
Breakdown of glucose into pyruvate
Pyruvate
30 terms
Metabolism
Metabolism
Attributes of Metabolism
Components of Metabolism
Hormones
The processes of biochemical reactions occurring in the body'…
• Blood glucose homeostasis... • Fluid and electrolyte balance... •…
• Hormonal (Endocrine) Regulation... • Deviations from normal... •…
Chemical messengers secreted by various glands that exert con…
Metabolism
The processes of biochemical reactions occurring in the body'…
Attributes of Metabolism
• Blood glucose homeostasis... • Fluid and electrolyte balance... •…
73 terms
Metabolism
Metabolism
Catabolic
Anabolic
Entropy
totality of an organism's chemical processes... -managing the ma…
degradative process... -releases energy... -exergonic (-G)... -example…
building process... -consumes energy... -endergonic (+G)... -example:…
randomness which decreases as bonds are made making it more s…
Metabolism
totality of an organism's chemical processes... -managing the ma…
Catabolic
degradative process... -releases energy... -exergonic (-G)... -example…
Metabolism
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD…
Flavine adenine dinucleotide (FAD/FADH2)
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide Phos…
Purines
-coenzyme derived from vitamin B3... -oxidized in electron trans…
-coenzyme derived from vitamin B2... -oxidized in electron trans…
-phosphorylated coenzyme derived from B3 oxidized during anab…
Adenine and Guanine
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD…
-coenzyme derived from vitamin B3... -oxidized in electron trans…
Flavine adenine dinucleotide (FAD/FADH2)
-coenzyme derived from vitamin B2... -oxidized in electron trans…
48 terms
Metabolism
metabolism
catabolism
exergonic
anabolism
refers to all chemicals reaction occuring in the body.
break down complex molecules.
produce more energy than they consume
combine simple molecules into complex ones
metabolism
refers to all chemicals reaction occuring in the body.
catabolism
break down complex molecules.
19 terms
Metabolism
Gibb's Free Energy (G)
exergonic
endergonic
activation energy
energy released by a chemical reaction that is available to d…
release of free energy; negative delta G; indicates spontaneo…
absorption of free energy; positive delta G; indicates non-sp…
amount of energy to get all reactants into chemically active…
Gibb's Free Energy (G)
energy released by a chemical reaction that is available to d…
exergonic
release of free energy; negative delta G; indicates spontaneo…
Metabolism
Satiety
Hypothalamus
Leptin
Neuropeptide y
The sense of feeling "full" after a meal is called
The stingy and feeding centers are located here
This signal molecule is secreted by adipocytes ( fat cells )…
The brain neurotransmitter stimulates the appetite to increas…
Satiety
The sense of feeling "full" after a meal is called
Hypothalamus
The stingy and feeding centers are located here
76 terms
Metabolism
Catabolism
Characteristics of Catabolism
Anabolism (Biosynthesis)
Characteristics of Anabolism
The breakdown of a larger molecule into smaller one(s)
-Breaks covalent bonds and releases energy, so they are exerg…
The synthesis of a larger molecule from a smaller one or smal…
-Creates many new covalent bonds and requires energy input so…
Catabolism
The breakdown of a larger molecule into smaller one(s)
Characteristics of Catabolism
-Breaks covalent bonds and releases energy, so they are exerg…
13 terms
Metabolism
Enzyme
Exergonic
Endergonic
Where does the energy for an endergoni…
a protein that catalyzes (speeds up) reactions ... -has a specif…
releases energy... G < 0 (negative)... spontaneous
requires energy... G > 0 (positive)... not spontaneous
The exergonic reaction
Enzyme
a protein that catalyzes (speeds up) reactions ... -has a specif…
Exergonic
releases energy... G < 0 (negative)... spontaneous
51 terms
Metabolism
animals need energy
second law of thermodynamics
entropy
energy forms
to create and maintain their essential organisation
when energy transforms, entropy increases and energy decreases
chaos
chemical, ... electrical,... kinetic (mechanical & heat)
animals need energy
to create and maintain their essential organisation
second law of thermodynamics
when energy transforms, entropy increases and energy decreases
14 terms
Metabolism
Enzyme: glucose>g6p
Enzyme:3phosphoenolpyruvate> pyruvate
Enzyme: pyruvate to OAA , used in ____…
Enzyme: OAA to PEP, used in ____process
hexokinase (p-ylation)
phosphoenol kinase (d p-ylation)
pyruvate carboxylase (3C to 4C OAA), gluconeogenesis
PEP carboxykinase (4C to 3C + Phosphate), gluconeogenesis
Enzyme: glucose>g6p
hexokinase (p-ylation)
Enzyme:3phosphoenolpyruvate> pyruvate
phosphoenol kinase (d p-ylation)
13 terms
metabolism
What is metabolism
catabolic and anabolic pathways
types of energy
open and closed systems
sets of reactions that allow us to convert energy from one fo…
multi-step pathways... Catabolic - ... release energy, break down…
Metabolism deals with energy consumption and production. ... Ene…
energy is transformed from one type to another. ... In closed sy…
What is metabolism
sets of reactions that allow us to convert energy from one fo…
catabolic and anabolic pathways
multi-step pathways... Catabolic - ... release energy, break down…
Metabolism
Metabolism
metabolism arises from...
metabolic pathway
each metabolic pathway step is...
Totality of organnism's chemical reactions
interactions between molecules
begins with a single molecule & ends with a product.
catalyzed by a specific enzyme
Metabolism
Totality of organnism's chemical reactions
metabolism arises from...
interactions between molecules
6 terms
metabolism
Cells will usually divide if they rece…
Which of the following statements is a…
Which of the following statements is r…
Which of the following is an example o…
c. the organism ultimately must obtain all of the necessary e…
d. every chemical reaction must increase the total entropy of…
D. cells require a constant input of energy to maintain their…
b. a molecule of glucose
Cells will usually divide if they rece…
c. the organism ultimately must obtain all of the necessary e…
Which of the following statements is a…
d. every chemical reaction must increase the total entropy of…
35 terms
Metabolism
Metabolism
metabolism
Energy
Forms of Energy
Biosynthesis... Harvest energy... Convert food into usable energy (…
The sum total of chemical reactions of biosynthesis and energ…
is the capacity to do work
Potential- stored
Metabolism
Biosynthesis... Harvest energy... Convert food into usable energy (…
metabolism
The sum total of chemical reactions of biosynthesis and energ…
Metabolism
_____ = all of the chemical reactions…
____ builds large polymers (macromolec…
Monosaccharides (simple carbs) ----->…
3 Fatty Acids + 1 Glycerol -----> ____…
Metabolism
Anabolism
polysaccharides
triglyceride
_____ = all of the chemical reactions…
Metabolism
____ builds large polymers (macromolec…
Anabolism
49 terms
Metabolism
Non-cyclic photophosphorylation requir…
Which of the following is required for…
Anabolic reactions may be characterize…
During the synthesis of acetyl-CoA fro…
True
coenzyme
forming large molecules from smaller molecules.
nadh
Non-cyclic photophosphorylation requir…
True
Which of the following is required for…
coenzyme
Metabolism
Enzyme
Exergonic
Endergonic
Where does the energy for an endergoni…
a protein that catalyzes (speeds up) reactions ... -has a specif…
releases energy... G < 0 (negative)... spontaneous
requires energy... G > 0 (positive)... not spontaneous
The exergonic reaction
Enzyme
a protein that catalyzes (speeds up) reactions ... -has a specif…
Exergonic
releases energy... G < 0 (negative)... spontaneous
49 terms
Metabolism
catabolic pathways
anabolic pathways
creatine phosphate... reaction
significance of elevated creatine kina…
generate ATP by oxidation of fuel molecules... involves degradat…
use ATP for biosynthesis of macromolecules ... use intermediates…
serves as an energy reservoir ... creatine phosphate + ADP ⇄ cre…
indicates muscle or heart damage ... CK or CPK
catabolic pathways
generate ATP by oxidation of fuel molecules... involves degradat…
anabolic pathways
use ATP for biosynthesis of macromolecules ... use intermediates…
19 terms
Metabolism
Where does the ATP used by cells come…
How do we generate ATP?
Metabolism
Catabolic pathways
Metabolism
We release energy from chemical bonds in our food
total chemical reactions of an organism
Release energy, break down complex molecules to simpler compo…
Where does the ATP used by cells come…
Metabolism
How do we generate ATP?
We release energy from chemical bonds in our food
28 terms
Metabolism
metabolism
Catabolism
Catabolism - short definition
Anabolism
covers all the individual enzyme catalyzed reactions and path…
refers to metabolic pathways that convert complex biomolecule…
oxidative degradation of biomolecules example: glycolysis
relates to metabolic pathways that produce complex biomolecul…
metabolism
covers all the individual enzyme catalyzed reactions and path…
Catabolism
refers to metabolic pathways that convert complex biomolecule…
Metabolism
Metabolism
Catabolism
Anabolism
Study of Energy Transformation
total of an organisms chemical reactions
break down of complex molecules and release of energy. ... EX: C…
building of complex molecules through consuming of energy. ... E…
Open- can transfer/exchange energy easily with surroundings…
Metabolism
total of an organisms chemical reactions
Catabolism
break down of complex molecules and release of energy. ... EX: C…
14 terms
Metabolism
metabolism
catabolic pathway
anabolic pathway
bioenergetics
totality of an organism's chemical reactions
degradative process; breaking down (cellular respiration)
consuming energy to build complicated molecules from simpler…
process of energy flowing through living organisms
metabolism
totality of an organism's chemical reactions
catabolic pathway
degradative process; breaking down (cellular respiration)
43 terms
Metabolism
metabolism
respiration
Glycolysis
cellular respiration equation
-sum of all chemical reactions in body ... -divided into catabol…
-conversion of chemical energy in molecular bonds into usable…
-glucose catabolism ... -anaerobic process ... -occurs in cytosol…
Glucose + oxygen -> CO2 + H20 + ATP
metabolism
-sum of all chemical reactions in body ... -divided into catabol…
respiration
-conversion of chemical energy in molecular bonds into usable…
6 terms
Metabolism
Thylakoid
Grana
Stroma
Chlorophyll
Sac-like membrane where the light reactions take place
Stacks of thylakoids
Fluid-filled space between grana, site where the Calvin cycle…
Light-capturing green pigment found in green plants
Thylakoid
Sac-like membrane where the light reactions take place
Grana
Stacks of thylakoids
111 terms
Metabolism
normal energy requirement per unit wei…
energy expenditure if sedentary
causes for increased metabolic rate
gibbs free energy equation
~30 kcal/kg
2,100 kcal/day
1. exposure to extreme cold... 2. sickness... 3. activity/heavy exe…
\delta G = \delta H - T \delta S
normal energy requirement per unit wei…
~30 kcal/kg
energy expenditure if sedentary
2,100 kcal/day
12 terms
Metabolism
metabolism
organism
nutrition
autotroph
all life activities that keep us alive
a living thing
obtaining and processing food for energy and growth
an organism that can make its own food
metabolism
all life activities that keep us alive
organism
a living thing
47 terms
Metabolism
Absorption spectrum
Accessory pigment
Acetyl coA
Action spectrum
The range of a pigment's ability to absorb various wavelength…
Compound other than chlorophyll that absorbs light at differe…
Acetyl coenzyme A; the entry compound for the citric acid cyc…
A profile of the relative performance of the different wavele…
Absorption spectrum
The range of a pigment's ability to absorb various wavelength…
Accessory pigment
Compound other than chlorophyll that absorbs light at differe…
2 of 10