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Study sets matching "metabolism"

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Study sets matching "metabolism"

141 terms
Metabolism
Metabolism definition
Metabolism AKA
Metabolism of a drug generally leads t…
Clinical PK-Metabolism: Overview slide
Metabolism is the process by which a xenobiotic or endobiotic…
Biotransformation
Polar
The drugs we absorb orally go to liver then general circulati…
Metabolism definition
Metabolism is the process by which a xenobiotic or endobiotic…
Metabolism AKA
Biotransformation
6 terms
Metabolism
Enzyme: glucose>g6p
Enzyme:3phosphoenolpyruvate> pyruvate
Enzyme: pyruvate to OAA , used in ____…
Enzyme: OAA to PEP, used in ____process
hexokinase (p-ylation)
phosphoenol kinase (d p-ylation)
pyruvate carboxylase (3C to 4C OAA), gluconeogenesis
PEP carboxykinase (4C to 3C + Phosphate), gluconeogenesis
Enzyme: glucose>g6p
hexokinase (p-ylation)
Enzyme:3phosphoenolpyruvate> pyruvate
phosphoenol kinase (d p-ylation)
13 terms
Metabolism
Metabolism
Catabolic/Anabolic Pathways
Thermodynamics
Entropy
-total of an organism's chemical processes... -manages cellular…
Catabolic: release energy by breaking down complex molecules…
-Def: study of energy transformations... -First Law of Thermo: e…
measure of disorder that is proportional to randomness
Metabolism
-total of an organism's chemical processes... -manages cellular…
Catabolic/Anabolic Pathways
Catabolic: release energy by breaking down complex molecules…
92 terms
Metabolism
Functions and parts of metabolism
Metabolic pathways
Metabolic regulation
Autotrophs
1. Breakdown of food for energy and raw materials - through c…
Proceed by discrete steps, each of which is carried out by a…
Intracellular feedback control by negative feedback or positi…
Synthesize its bioorganic molecules entirely from inorganic s…
Functions and parts of metabolism
1. Breakdown of food for energy and raw materials - through c…
Metabolic pathways
Proceed by discrete steps, each of which is carried out by a…
44 terms
Metabolism
Different cells have different functions
Metabolism
Catabolism
Anabolism
*Some transport gases to and from cells.... *Some conduct nervou…
What cells can do. Sum total of all chemical reactions in the…
Reactions that break down nutrients to produce energy.
Reactions that build up molecules and require energy.
Different cells have different functions
*Some transport gases to and from cells.... *Some conduct nervou…
Metabolism
What cells can do. Sum total of all chemical reactions in the…
18 terms
Metabolism
ATP
NAD+/NADH
FAD/FADH2
glycolysis rxn 1
investment phase, hexokinase (Mg 2+).... glucose + ATP --> gluco…
ATP
NAD+/NADH
16 terms
Metabolism
Energy
Kinetic Energy
Mechanical Energy
Potential Energy
ability to do work
Energy of Motion
type of kinetic energy (moose walking)
stored energy, chemical energy (food we eat)
Energy
ability to do work
Kinetic Energy
Energy of Motion
246 terms
METABOLISM
Osmosis
Osmolarity
Diffusion
Filtration
diffusion of water down its concentration gradient
Number of particles per volume (mOsm/L)
movement of particles down their concentration gradient
The movement of water and solutes across a cell membrane due…
Osmosis
diffusion of water down its concentration gradient
Osmolarity
Number of particles per volume (mOsm/L)
41 terms
Metabolism
Glycolysis
Pyruvate
Glycolysis particularly important meta…
Glycolysis occurs in
Breakdown of glucose into pyruvate
with (aerobic conditions) or without (anaerobic conditions) o…
cytosol (fluid portion of living cells)
Glycolysis
Breakdown of glucose into pyruvate
Pyruvate
7 terms
Metabolism
Catabolism
Anabolism
Locomotion
Intracellular Transport
The breakdown of complex molecules in living organisms to for…
The synthesis of complex molecules in living organisms from s…
Movement or the ability to move from one place to another
Movement of substances within the cell
Catabolism
The breakdown of complex molecules in living organisms to for…
Anabolism
The synthesis of complex molecules in living organisms from s…
Metabolism
activation energy
allosteric regulation
carbon fixation
cellular respiration
the energy that must be overcome for a reaction to occur
regulation of enzyme activity caused by the binding of regula…
reduction of carbon dioxide to organic compounds by living or…
set of metabolic reactions and processes in cells to release…
activation energy
the energy that must be overcome for a reaction to occur
allosteric regulation
regulation of enzyme activity caused by the binding of regula…
73 terms
Metabolism
Metabolism
Catabolic
Anabolic
Entropy
totality of an organism's chemical processes... -managing the ma…
degradative process... -releases energy... -exergonic (-G)... -example…
building process... -consumes energy... -endergonic (+G)... -example:…
randomness which decreases as bonds are made making it more s…
Metabolism
totality of an organism's chemical processes... -managing the ma…
Catabolic
degradative process... -releases energy... -exergonic (-G)... -example…
51 terms
Metabolism
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD…
Flavine adenine dinucleotide (FAD/FADH2)
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide Phos…
Purines
-coenzyme derived from vitamin B3... -oxidized in electron trans…
-coenzyme derived from vitamin B2... -oxidized in electron trans…
-phosphorylated coenzyme derived from B3 oxidized during anab…
Adenine and Guanine
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD…
-coenzyme derived from vitamin B3... -oxidized in electron trans…
Flavine adenine dinucleotide (FAD/FADH2)
-coenzyme derived from vitamin B2... -oxidized in electron trans…
28 terms
Metabolism
metabolism
Catabolism
Catabolism - short definition
Anabolism
covers all the individual enzyme catalyzed reactions and path…
refers to metabolic pathways that convert complex biomolecule…
oxidative degradation of biomolecules example: glycolysis
relates to metabolic pathways that produce complex biomolecul…
metabolism
covers all the individual enzyme catalyzed reactions and path…
Catabolism
refers to metabolic pathways that convert complex biomolecule…
48 terms
Metabolism
metabolism
catabolism
exergonic
anabolism
refers to all chemicals reaction occuring in the body.
break down complex molecules.
produce more energy than they consume
combine simple molecules into complex ones
metabolism
refers to all chemicals reaction occuring in the body.
catabolism
break down complex molecules.
83 terms
Metabolism
Glycolysis ... Hexokinase (I to III)
Glycolysis ... Phosphoglucose Isomerase
Glycolysis ... Phosphofructokinase I
Glycolysis ... Aldolase
Phosphorylates Glucose irreversible... Inhibited by glucose-6-ph…
Glucose-6-phosphate to Fructose-6-phosphate
Phosphorylates Fructose-6-phosphate irreversible... Producing Fr…
Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate cleavage to DHAP and GAP... Glyceralde…
Glycolysis ... Hexokinase (I to III)
Phosphorylates Glucose irreversible... Inhibited by glucose-6-ph…
Glycolysis ... Phosphoglucose Isomerase
Glucose-6-phosphate to Fructose-6-phosphate
9 terms
Metabolism
metabolism
enzyme
induced fit model
cofactor
sum of all chemical reactions that take place in cell
catalytic protein that lowers a reaction's energy of activati…
enzyme model where the substrate induces the enzyme to alter…
inorganic enzyme assist https://o.quizlet.com/i/R_tGdhll2UvRX…
metabolism
sum of all chemical reactions that take place in cell
enzyme
catalytic protein that lowers a reaction's energy of activati…
76 terms
Metabolism
Catabolism
Characteristics of Catabolism
Anabolism (Biosynthesis)
Characteristics of Anabolism
The breakdown of a larger molecule into smaller one(s)
-Breaks covalent bonds and releases energy, so they are exerg…
The synthesis of a larger molecule from a smaller one or smal…
-Creates many new covalent bonds and requires energy input so…
Catabolism
The breakdown of a larger molecule into smaller one(s)
Characteristics of Catabolism
-Breaks covalent bonds and releases energy, so they are exerg…
14 terms
Metabolism
metabolism
catabolic pathway
anabolic pathway
bioenergetics
totality of an organism's chemical reactions
degradative process; breaking down (cellular respiration)
consuming energy to build complicated molecules from simpler…
process of energy flowing through living organisms
metabolism
totality of an organism's chemical reactions
catabolic pathway
degradative process; breaking down (cellular respiration)
12 terms
Metabolism
metabolism
organism
nutrition
autotroph
all life activities that keep us alive
a living thing
obtaining and processing food for energy and growth
an organism that can make its own food
metabolism
all life activities that keep us alive
organism
a living thing
13 terms
Metabolism
Anabolism
Catabolism
Cellular Respiration... (aerobic respirat…
Cellular Respiration Functions
-synthetic, constructive, energy requiring reactions... -buildin…
decomposing, energy yielding reactions
-Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, Electron Transport Chain
-catabolize glucose into co2 and h20... -produce large numbers o…
Anabolism
-synthetic, constructive, energy requiring reactions... -buildin…
Catabolism
decomposing, energy yielding reactions
13 terms
Metabolism
Enzyme
Exergonic
Endergonic
Where does the energy for an endergoni…
a protein that catalyzes (speeds up) reactions ... -has a specif…
releases energy... G < 0 (negative)... spontaneous
requires energy... G > 0 (positive)... not spontaneous
The exergonic reaction
Enzyme
a protein that catalyzes (speeds up) reactions ... -has a specif…
Exergonic
releases energy... G < 0 (negative)... spontaneous
Metabolism
Metabolism
Catabolism
anabolism
catabolism is ____
metabolism all the chemical reaction of the body
catabolism all the chemical reactions involving the breakdown…
anabolism the chemical reactions involving the building of a…
exergonic (produces or releases energy)... ie. substance>new sub…
Metabolism
metabolism all the chemical reaction of the body
Catabolism
catabolism all the chemical reactions involving the breakdown…
25 terms
Metabolism
metabolism
catabolic pathways
anabolic pathways
thermal energy
living organisms use energy to carry out different tasks; tot…
release energy by breaking down complex molecules to building…
use energy to build complex molecules from smaller ones; Requ…
kinetic energy associated with random motion of atoms/molecules
metabolism
living organisms use energy to carry out different tasks; tot…
catabolic pathways
release energy by breaking down complex molecules to building…
26 terms
Metabolism
potential energy
Kinetic energy
Chemical energy
thermal/heat energy
capacity to do work ... (cat about to pounce)
energy of motion... (cat attacking)
potential energy
low quality... created in reaction
potential energy
capacity to do work ... (cat about to pounce)
Kinetic energy
energy of motion... (cat attacking)
18 terms
Metabolism
Metabolism
Heterotroph
Autotroph
Phototroph
Sum of all the chemical processes necessary to make possible…
Obtains carbon from organic compounds that are metabolised
Obtains carbon from CO2
Obtains energy from light
Metabolism
Sum of all the chemical processes necessary to make possible…
Heterotroph
Obtains carbon from organic compounds that are metabolised
35 terms
Metabolism
Macronutrient
Carbohydrates (CHO) (4 kcal/g)
Protein (4 kcal/g)
Lipids (9 kcal/g)
For growth, maintenance, & repair of tissues (to create enoug…
Fuel source for life functions & exercise, circulates as gluc…
Regulatory functions (enzymes, transport receptors,etc), amin…
Fuel source & storage in muscle and adipose tissue, mostly tr…
Macronutrient
For growth, maintenance, & repair of tissues (to create enoug…
Carbohydrates (CHO) (4 kcal/g)
Fuel source for life functions & exercise, circulates as gluc…
49 terms
metabolism
the big picture
Intermediary Metabolism
metabolic pathway
Key energy metabolites
- living organisms need to survive long enough to procreate…
refers to thousands of ... chemical reactions occurring in the b…
is a linked sequence of biochemical reactions that results in…
- glucose (& other common monosaccharides) ... - fatty acids ... -…
the big picture
- living organisms need to survive long enough to procreate…
Intermediary Metabolism
refers to thousands of ... chemical reactions occurring in the b…
59 terms
Metabolism
Bioenergetics and metabolism
Intermediary metabolism
Catabolic reaction
Anabolic reactions
closely inter-related.
low molecular weight molecules (metabolites) that are INTERME…
Rxns that degrade molecules to liberate smaller molecules of…
Rxns that synthesize molecules that cell uses for growth, rep…
Bioenergetics and metabolism
closely inter-related.
Intermediary metabolism
low molecular weight molecules (metabolites) that are INTERME…
Metabolism
Metabolism
metabolism arises from...
metabolic pathway
each metabolic pathway step is...
Totality of organnism's chemical reactions
interactions between molecules
begins with a single molecule & ends with a product.
catalyzed by a specific enzyme
Metabolism
Totality of organnism's chemical reactions
metabolism arises from...
interactions between molecules
27 terms
Metabolism
Metabolism
Catabolism
Anabolism
Study of Energy Transformation
total of an organisms chemical reactions
break down of complex molecules and release of energy. ... EX: C…
building of complex molecules through consuming of energy. ... E…
Open- can transfer/exchange energy easily with surroundings…
Metabolism
total of an organisms chemical reactions
Catabolism
break down of complex molecules and release of energy. ... EX: C…
51 terms
Metabolism
animals need energy
second law of thermodynamics
entropy
energy forms
to create and maintain their essential organisation
when energy transforms, entropy increases and energy decreases
chaos
chemical, ... electrical,... kinetic (mechanical & heat)
animals need energy
to create and maintain their essential organisation
second law of thermodynamics
when energy transforms, entropy increases and energy decreases
43 terms
Metabolism
metabolism
respiration
Glycolysis
cellular respiration equation
-sum of all chemical reactions in body ... -divided into catabol…
-conversion of chemical energy in molecular bonds into usable…
-glucose catabolism ... -anaerobic process ... -occurs in cytosol…
Glucose + oxygen -> CO2 + H20 + ATP
metabolism
-sum of all chemical reactions in body ... -divided into catabol…
respiration
-conversion of chemical energy in molecular bonds into usable…
13 terms
metabolism
What is metabolism
catabolic and anabolic pathways
types of energy
open and closed systems
sets of reactions that allow us to convert energy from one fo…
multi-step pathways... Catabolic - ... release energy, break down…
Metabolism deals with energy consumption and production. ... Ene…
energy is transformed from one type to another. ... In closed sy…
What is metabolism
sets of reactions that allow us to convert energy from one fo…
catabolic and anabolic pathways
multi-step pathways... Catabolic - ... release energy, break down…
22 terms
Metabolism
Metabolism
Metabolic Pathway
Catabolic Pathway
Exergonic
-The totality of an organism's chemical reactions, consisting…
-Begins with specific molecule and ends with a specific produ…
-A metabolic pathway that releases energy by breaking down co…
-Releases energy.... -Products have less energy than reactants.…
Metabolism
-The totality of an organism's chemical reactions, consisting…
Metabolic Pathway
-Begins with specific molecule and ends with a specific produ…
13 terms
Metabolism
Enzyme
Exergonic
Endergonic
Where does the energy for an endergoni…
a protein that catalyzes (speeds up) reactions ... -has a specif…
releases energy... G < 0 (negative)... spontaneous
requires energy... G > 0 (positive)... not spontaneous
The exergonic reaction
Enzyme
a protein that catalyzes (speeds up) reactions ... -has a specif…
Exergonic
releases energy... G < 0 (negative)... spontaneous
47 terms
Metabolism
Absorption spectrum
Accessory pigment
Acetyl coA
Action spectrum
The range of a pigment's ability to absorb various wavelength…
Compound other than chlorophyll that absorbs light at differe…
Acetyl coenzyme A; the entry compound for the citric acid cyc…
A profile of the relative performance of the different wavele…
Absorption spectrum
The range of a pigment's ability to absorb various wavelength…
Accessory pigment
Compound other than chlorophyll that absorbs light at differe…
21 terms
Metabolism
Metabolism
Exergonic reactions
Endergonic reactions
Anabolic reactions
The sum of all catabolic (breakdown) and anabolic (build up)…
Energy is released... e.g. combustion, bioluminescence, and cell…
Energy is absorbed... e.g. photosynthesis
Use energy to build large molecules from smaller molecules... e.…
Metabolism
The sum of all catabolic (breakdown) and anabolic (build up)…
Exergonic reactions
Energy is released... e.g. combustion, bioluminescence, and cell…
26 terms
Metabolism
Metabolism
anabolic
catabolic
coenzymes
sum of all biochemical reactions within body
to synthesise or build up molecules from small to large
to degrade or breakdown
associate with particular enzymes and act as acceptors... - NAD…
Metabolism
sum of all biochemical reactions within body
anabolic
to synthesise or build up molecules from small to large
26 terms
Metabolism
Phase 1 Reaction catagories
Phase 2 Reaction catagories
Aromatic Hydrogenation (usually para p…
Alkene Epoxidaiton
Oxidation... Reduction... Hydrolysis
Conjugations
Phase 1 Reaction catagories
Oxidation... Reduction... Hydrolysis
Phase 2 Reaction catagories
Conjugations
111 terms
Metabolism
normal energy requirement per unit wei…
energy expenditure if sedentary
causes for increased metabolic rate
gibbs free energy equation
~30 kcal/kg
2,100 kcal/day
1. exposure to extreme cold... 2. sickness... 3. activity/heavy exe…
\delta G = \delta H - T \delta S
normal energy requirement per unit wei…
~30 kcal/kg
energy expenditure if sedentary
2,100 kcal/day
47 terms
Metabolism
OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION where
OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION produce
OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION substance
Understand how the electrochemical gra…
matrix mitochondria
ATP
FADH2, NADH, O2, ADP
1. Electrons travel through the electron transport chain... 2. p…
OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION where
matrix mitochondria
OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION produce
ATP
31 terms
metabolism
metabolism
catabolism
anabolism
energy
organism's chemical processes
breakdown of complex molecules to simples molecules
build complex molecules from simple molecules
capacity to do work
metabolism
organism's chemical processes
catabolism
breakdown of complex molecules to simples molecules
49 terms
Metabolism
catabolic pathways
anabolic pathways
creatine phosphate... reaction
significance of elevated creatine kina…
generate ATP by oxidation of fuel molecules... involves degradat…
use ATP for biosynthesis of macromolecules ... use intermediates…
serves as an energy reservoir ... creatine phosphate + ADP ⇄ cre…
indicates muscle or heart damage ... CK or CPK
catabolic pathways
generate ATP by oxidation of fuel molecules... involves degradat…
anabolic pathways
use ATP for biosynthesis of macromolecules ... use intermediates…
44 terms
Metabolism
Absorption spectrum
Accessory pigment
Acetyl coA
Action Spectrum
The range of a pigment's ability to absorb various wavelength…
Compound other than chlorophyll that absorbs light at differe…
Acetyl coenzyme A; the entry compound for the citric acid cyc…
A profile of the relative performance of the different wavele…
Absorption spectrum
The range of a pigment's ability to absorb various wavelength…
Accessory pigment
Compound other than chlorophyll that absorbs light at differe…
71 terms
metabolism
Glucose metabolism -
Protein metabolism -
Fat metabolism -
Vitamin and Iron storage
regulation of blood glucose concentration, stored as glycogen…
synthesizes almost all plasma proteins except (gamma-globulin…
fatty acids are broken down for the production of energy and…
- vit A, B, D and several B-complex vitamins, Iron and Copper…
Glucose metabolism -
regulation of blood glucose concentration, stored as glycogen…
Protein metabolism -
synthesizes almost all plasma proteins except (gamma-globulin…
23 terms
Metabolism
Anabolic
Catabolic
Kenetic Energy
Heat/Thermal Energy
requires energy... synthesizes molecules
releases energy... breaks molecules down
Energy associated with motion
Random movement of atoms/molecules
Anabolic
requires energy... synthesizes molecules
Catabolic
releases energy... breaks molecules down
19 terms
Metabolism
Where does the ATP used by cells come…
How do we generate ATP?
Metabolism
Catabolic pathways
Metabolism
We release energy from chemical bonds in our food
total chemical reactions of an organism
Release energy, break down complex molecules to simpler compo…
Where does the ATP used by cells come…
Metabolism
How do we generate ATP?
We release energy from chemical bonds in our food
19 terms
Metabolism
Brain
Lymph
portal vein
pancreas
loves glucose... high metabolism... no fuel reserves... uses ketone bo…
carries lipids from SI to liver
carries non-lipophilic nutrients from the SI to the liver
insulin and glucagon
Brain
loves glucose... high metabolism... no fuel reserves... uses ketone bo…
Lymph
carries lipids from SI to liver
24 terms
metabolism
metabolism
anabolism
catabolism
glycolysis
all chemical reactions performed by cells, major component is…
synthesis metabolic reactions
decomposition metabolic reactions
occurs in cytoplasm, is anaerobic, and produces 2 pyruvic aci…
metabolism
all chemical reactions performed by cells, major component is…
anabolism
synthesis metabolic reactions
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