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Study sets matching "microbiology chapter 7"

97 terms
Microbiology Chapter 7
binary fission
DNA replication... cytokinesis
circular
origin of replication
Most bacteria divide by what process?
What are the two main pathways of the cell cycle?
What is the overall shape of bacterial DNA?
Where does replication begin?
binary fission
Most bacteria divide by what process?
DNA replication... cytokinesis
What are the two main pathways of the cell cycle?
16 terms
Chapter 7 Microbiology
Gene
Genome
Codon
Genetic Code
Specific sequence of nucleotides that code for RNA or polypep…
Complete set of genes or genetic material present in cell or…
a sequence of three nucleotides that together form a unit of…
the nucleotide triplets of DNA and RNA molecules that carry g…
Gene
Specific sequence of nucleotides that code for RNA or polypep…
Genome
Complete set of genes or genetic material present in cell or…
81 terms
Microbiology Chapter 7
WASH YOUR HANDS
Yoou totally don't know this..
How does UV light do damage?
Microbial terminology
Please
Thermal death point (TDP): lowest temperature at which all ce…
Causes thymine dimers, preventing replication and transcription
Degerming: the mechanical removal of microbes from a limited…
WASH YOUR HANDS
Please
Yoou totally don't know this..
Thermal death point (TDP): lowest temperature at which all ce…
24 terms
Clinical Microbiology Chapter 7
Purulent
Wet Prep (Wet Mount)
Simple Stain
Differential Stain
Consisting of matter or pus; resembling pus
A glass slide holding a specimen suspended in a drop of liqui…
Staining procedure that uses one stain
Allow determination of cell size, morphology, and arrangement…
Purulent
Consisting of matter or pus; resembling pus
Wet Prep (Wet Mount)
A glass slide holding a specimen suspended in a drop of liqui…
47 terms
Microbiology Chapter 7
Sterilization
Commercial Sterilization
Disinfection
Antisepsis
is the killing of all forms of microbial growth including mic…
destroys spores... ex.clostridium botulinum
is the destruction of vegetative pathogens - Not Spores... -chem…
is the disinfection of living tissues
Sterilization
is the killing of all forms of microbial growth including mic…
Commercial Sterilization
destroys spores... ex.clostridium botulinum
71 terms
Chapter 7 Review Microbiology
autotroph
heterotroph
CO2 fixation
nitrogenase
an organism that uses inorganic carbon for growth; "self-feed…
an organism that must obtain carbon in organic form
conversion of CO2 into organic compounds
an enzyme of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms that catalyzes th…
autotroph
an organism that uses inorganic carbon for growth; "self-feed…
heterotroph
an organism that must obtain carbon in organic form
77 terms
Microbiology Chapter 7 Flashcards
essential nutrient
Macronutrients
Micronutrients
Heterotroph
any substance that must be provided to an organism
cell structure and metabolism (C, H, O)
trace elements ... Functions: enzyme function and maintenance of…
must obtain C in organic form (nutritionally dependent on oth…
essential nutrient
any substance that must be provided to an organism
Macronutrients
cell structure and metabolism (C, H, O)
65 terms
Microbiology Chapter 7
sterilization
commercial sterilization
disinfection
antisepsis
the complete destruction or removal of all forms of microbial…
a sufficient heat treatment that kills the endospores of Clos…
the destruction of vegetative pathogens on non-living objects…
a treatment, almost always by chemical antimicrobials, that r…
sterilization
the complete destruction or removal of all forms of microbial…
commercial sterilization
a sufficient heat treatment that kills the endospores of Clos…
29 terms
Microbiology: Chapter 7
Autotroph
Heterotroph
inorganic nutrients
organic nutrients
Self feeders; use carbon-dioxide
other-feeders; use organic carbon
a combination of atoms other than C and H
contain C and H, usually the products of living things
Autotroph
Self feeders; use carbon-dioxide
Heterotroph
other-feeders; use organic carbon
37 terms
Microbiology - Chapter 7 Vocabulary
Barriers
Innate Responses
Antigen-specific immune responses
Cytokines
Initial defense mechanisms of the body such as the skin, acid…
Quickly rally to the challenge and prevent expansion of the i…
If innate responses are not effective at destroying the patho…
Hormone-like proteins that stimulate and regulate cells to ac…
Barriers
Initial defense mechanisms of the body such as the skin, acid…
Innate Responses
Quickly rally to the challenge and prevent expansion of the i…
67 terms
Microbiology Chapter 7
genetics
aspects of inheritance, including the…
genome
genes
study of inheritance and inheritable traits as expressed in a…
what do genetics study
cells entire genetic complement including both its genes
specific sequences of nucleotides that code for RNA or polype…
genetics
study of inheritance and inheritable traits as expressed in a…
aspects of inheritance, including the…
what do genetics study
80 terms
Microbiology Chapter 7
genetics
genome
genotype
phenotype
the study of inheritance
the sum total of genetic material of an organism
actual set of genes in the genome
physical and functional traits expressed by the genes
genetics
the study of inheritance
genome
the sum total of genetic material of an organism
21 terms
Microbiology Chapter 7
What is gene expression? What is meant…
What are the two major levels of regul…
What are DNA binding proteins? When a…
What is negative control of expression…
Gene expression: transcription of gene into mRNA followed by…
Two major levels of regulation in the cell:... One controls the…
Most DNA-binding proteins interact with DNA in a sequence-spe…
Negative control: a regulatory mechanism that stops transcrip…
What is gene expression? What is meant…
Gene expression: transcription of gene into mRNA followed by…
What are the two major levels of regul…
Two major levels of regulation in the cell:... One controls the…
63 terms
Microbiology Chapter 7 Microbial Genetics
Genome
complementary base pairs
2 structures of prokaryotic genomes
chromosome of a prokaryote
the entire genetic complement of an organism; includes its ge…
G-C, A-T and A-U in RNA
Chromosomes... Plasmids
it is made a circular molecule of DNA, located in the nucleoid
Genome
the entire genetic complement of an organism; includes its ge…
complementary base pairs
G-C, A-T and A-U in RNA
78 terms
Chapter 7 Microbiology
__________ are acquired from the envir…
_____________ is any substance, in ele…
___________ are required in large quan…
___________ are trace elements, presen…
Nutrients
Essential nutrient
Macronutrients
Micronutrients
__________ are acquired from the envir…
Nutrients
_____________ is any substance, in ele…
Essential nutrient
14 terms
Microbiology- Chapter 7 Objectives
Learn basic structure of nucleic acids…
Learn the types of plasmids
Understand DNA replication (concepts o…
Describe types of RNA and their functi…
Polymers of nucleotides linked in a polypeptide chain.
-Fertility: makes pilus to transfer genetic material... -Resista…
-Replication fork begins unwinding at origin site (unwinded u…
-RNA primers: serves as a starting point for DNA synthesis (D…
Learn basic structure of nucleic acids…
Polymers of nucleotides linked in a polypeptide chain.
Learn the types of plasmids
-Fertility: makes pilus to transfer genetic material... -Resista…
53 terms
Microbiology Chapter 7
What is microbial nutritional requirem…
List the six major elements all living…
What do the six major elements of livi…
What three things does every organism…
Study of bacterial nutrition and microbial physiology enable…
Carbon, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Sulfur, and Hydrogen.
The 4 molecules of life.
1. Source of energy. ... 2. Source of carbon.... 3. Additional nutr…
What is microbial nutritional requirem…
Study of bacterial nutrition and microbial physiology enable…
List the six major elements all living…
Carbon, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Sulfur, and Hydrogen.
21 terms
Chapter 7 Microbiology Terms
essential nutrients
macronutrients
micronutrients
heterotroph
any substance absolutely required by an organism for survival
required in large amounts
trace elements
must obtain carbon in organic form made by other living organ…
essential nutrients
any substance absolutely required by an organism for survival
macronutrients
required in large amounts
55 terms
Microbiology Chapter 7
sterilization
commercial sterilization
disinfection
antisepsis
destruction or removal of all forms of microbial life, includ…
sufficient heat treatment to kill endospores of Clostridium b…
destruction of vegetative pathogens (surfaces)
destruction of vegetative pathogens on living tissue
sterilization
destruction or removal of all forms of microbial life, includ…
commercial sterilization
sufficient heat treatment to kill endospores of Clostridium b…
13 terms
microbiology chapter 7
codon
DNA polymerase
DNA replication
gene
a series of three nucleotides that code for a specific amino…
enzyme that synthesizes DNA, using an existing strand as a te…
duplication of a DNA molecule
the functional unit of the genome, it encodes a product, most…
codon
a series of three nucleotides that code for a specific amino…
DNA polymerase
enzyme that synthesizes DNA, using an existing strand as a te…
Microbiology chapter 7
All of the following are involved in t…
All of the following are involved in D…
All of the following are directly invo…
Translation begins at a site called a…
Polymerase ... sigma factor ... uracil... promoter
Primase... Gyrase ... Primer... Polymerase
Ribosome... Stop codon... tRNA... Start codon
False
All of the following are involved in t…
Polymerase ... sigma factor ... uracil... promoter
All of the following are involved in D…
Primase... Gyrase ... Primer... Polymerase
48 terms
Microbiology Chapter 7
replisome
DNA gyrase
DNA ligase
DNA polymerases
the complex of enzymes and other proteins that synthesize DNA
enzyme that temporarily breaks the strands of DNA, reliving t…
Enzyme that joins two DNA fragments by forming a covalent bon…
Enzymes that synthesize DNA: they use one strand of DNA as a…
replisome
the complex of enzymes and other proteins that synthesize DNA
DNA gyrase
enzyme that temporarily breaks the strands of DNA, reliving t…
24 terms
Clinical Microbiology Chapter 7
Purulent
Wet Prep (Wet Mount)
Simple Stain
Differential Stain
Consisting of matter or pus; resembling pus
A glass slide holding a specimen suspended in a drop of liqui…
Staining procedure that uses one stain
Allow determination of cell size, morphology, and arrangement…
Purulent
Consisting of matter or pus; resembling pus
Wet Prep (Wet Mount)
A glass slide holding a specimen suspended in a drop of liqui…
48 terms
Microbiology Chapter 7
Gene
Promoter
RNA Polymerase
RNA
a sequence of nucleotides in the DNA that holds the informati…
Sequence of DNA at the beginning of a gene at which RNA polym…
the enzyme that assembles nucleotides to make mRNA by binding…
coding sequence- portion of a gene that is transcribed
Gene
a sequence of nucleotides in the DNA that holds the informati…
Promoter
Sequence of DNA at the beginning of a gene at which RNA polym…
89 terms
Microbiology Chapter 7
What is genetics?
What is a genome?
Describe prokaryotic chromosomes
Prokaryotic cells are...diploid/haploid
The stud of inheritance and inheritable traits as expressed i…
The entire genetic complement of an organism; includes its ge…
one or two distinct chromosomes as circular molecule containi…
haploid (single chromosome copy)
What is genetics?
The stud of inheritance and inheritable traits as expressed i…
What is a genome?
The entire genetic complement of an organism; includes its ge…
73 terms
Microbiology chapter 7-10
Alleles
Replication
Transcription
Translation
Genes with different information
DNA makes new DNA
DNA makes RNA as first step in protein synthesis
RNA codons interpret amino acid and amino acids are linked to…
Alleles
Genes with different information
Replication
DNA makes new DNA
72 terms
Microbiology Chapter 7
Anabolism
Catabolism
Metabolism
Nutrients
Require ATP... Supplies building blocks for cells to synthesize…
Makes ATP... Supplies energy for all cells metabolic processes
all chemical processes in a cell
all substances that pass through the cytoplasmic membrane and…
Anabolism
Require ATP... Supplies building blocks for cells to synthesize…
Catabolism
Makes ATP... Supplies energy for all cells metabolic processes
20 terms
CSU Microbiology Chapter 7
DNA
Theory of Heredity and 3D structure of…
RNA
Gene
Deoxyribonucleic acid. Stores all genetic information. Polyme…
Theory of heredity- Gregor Mendel... 3D structure- James Watson…
Ribonucleic acid. Polymer of nucleotides, single strand. Base…
A functional unit of a genome. A section of the chromosome th…
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid. Stores all genetic information. Polyme…
Theory of Heredity and 3D structure of…
Theory of heredity- Gregor Mendel... 3D structure- James Watson…
49 terms
Microbiology Chapter 7
After DNA replication of a bacterial c…
Amino acids move from the cytoplasm to…
An anticodon would be found in a _____…
Bacterial chromosomes:
one strand of parent DNA along with one newly synthesized str…
tRNA
tRNA
must be present for a bacteria to stay alive and produce
After DNA replication of a bacterial c…
one strand of parent DNA along with one newly synthesized str…
Amino acids move from the cytoplasm to…
tRNA
78 terms
Microbiology Chapter 7
What are the two reproductive strategi…
How do Bacteria and Archea reproduce?
What is the primary mechanism of Bacte…
What are the two functional pathways d…
asexual and sexual (haploid vs diploid)
Haploid only, asexually through Binary Fission
Binary Fission
DNA replication and partition, and Cytokinesis
What are the two reproductive strategi…
asexual and sexual (haploid vs diploid)
How do Bacteria and Archea reproduce?
Haploid only, asexually through Binary Fission
40 terms
Microbiology [A Human Perspective] Chapter 7
Gregor Mendal
George Beadle & Edward Tatum
Genome
Genomic
"Father of Genetics"
1941 "One Gene One Enzyme Theory"... Treated bread mold (Nuerosp…
Set of genetic information: Chromosomes & Plasmids
DNA Sequence
Gregor Mendal
"Father of Genetics"
George Beadle & Edward Tatum
1941 "One Gene One Enzyme Theory"... Treated bread mold (Nuerosp…
11 terms
Microbiology Chapter 7
Reproductive strategies of Eukaryotic…
Binary Fission
Bacterial Cell Cycle
Determination of Cell Shape
Asexual and Sexual, Haploid or Diploid.
Two pathways function during cycle.... DNA replication and parti…
Determined by peptidoglycan synthesis in bacteria.
Reproductive strategies of Eukaryotic…
Asexual and Sexual, Haploid or Diploid.
Binary Fission
100 terms
Microbiology chapter 7
Nutrition
Essential nutrients
Two categories of essential nutrients
Macronutrients
process by which chemical substances (nutrients) are acquired…
must be provided to an organism (not made by organism)... -i.e.…
-macronutrients... -micronutrients/trace elements
-required in large quantities... -play principal role in cell st…
Nutrition
process by which chemical substances (nutrients) are acquired…
Essential nutrients
must be provided to an organism (not made by organism)... -i.e.…
32 terms
Chapter 7 Microbiology
Sterilization
Disinfection
Antiseptic
Degerming
The removal or destruction of all forms of microbial life exc…
Control directed at destroying harmful microorganisms. It usu…
Destruction of vegetative pathogens on living tissue
Removal of microbes from a limited area, such as the skin aro…
Sterilization
The removal or destruction of all forms of microbial life exc…
Disinfection
Control directed at destroying harmful microorganisms. It usu…
79 terms
Microbiology Chapter 7
Nutrition
Essential Nutrients
How many essential amino acids?
How many amino acids?
Process by which chemical substances (nutrients) are acquired…
Must be provided from an organism... EX: Amino Acid
8
20
Nutrition
Process by which chemical substances (nutrients) are acquired…
Essential Nutrients
Must be provided from an organism... EX: Amino Acid
116 terms
Chapter 7 Microbiology
Sterilization
Sterilant
Commercial sterilization
Disinfection
Removal or destruction of all living microorganisms
A sterilizing agent
Limited heat treatment that is heated just enough to destory…
Destruction of vegetative pathogens
Sterilization
Removal or destruction of all living microorganisms
Sterilant
A sterilizing agent
69 terms
Chapter 7 Review Microbiology
autotroph
heterotroph
CO2 fixation
nitrogenase
an organism that uses inorganic carbon for growth; "self-feed…
an organism that must obtain carbon in organic form
conversion of CO2 into organic compounds
an enzyme of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms that catalyzes th…
autotroph
an organism that uses inorganic carbon for growth; "self-feed…
heterotroph
an organism that must obtain carbon in organic form
36 terms
microbiology chapter 7
genome
genes
nucleotides
plasmids
All the genetic information in an organism; all of an organis…
DNA segments that serve as the key functional units in heredi…
Basic units of DNA molecule, composed of a sugar, a phosphate…
Small rings of DNA found naturally in some bacterial cells in…
genome
All the genetic information in an organism; all of an organis…
genes
DNA segments that serve as the key functional units in heredi…
Microbiology Chapter 7
Sterilization
Commercial Sterilization
Disinfection
Antisepsis
The complete destruction or removal of all forms of microbial…
A sufficient heat treatment that kills the endospores of Clos…
The Destruction of vegetative pathogens on non-living objects…
A Treatment, almost always by chemical antimicrobials, that r…
Sterilization
The complete destruction or removal of all forms of microbial…
Commercial Sterilization
A sufficient heat treatment that kills the endospores of Clos…
21 terms
Microbiology Chapter 7
Sterilization
Disinfection
Disinfectants
Sanitization
(sterilis-unable to produce offspring) process by which all l…
the killing, inhibition, or removal of microorganisms that ma…
agents, usually chemical, used to carry out disinfection and…
the microbial population is reduced to levels that are consid…
Sterilization
(sterilis-unable to produce offspring) process by which all l…
Disinfection
the killing, inhibition, or removal of microorganisms that ma…
Microbiology Chapter 7
The phrase "one gene-one enzyme" is as…
The two strands of DNA are bonded to o…
What structure is indicated by: 10A, 1…
GCCCAAAG is a molecule of... RNA.... DNA.…
Beadle and Tatum
hydrogen bonds
single-stranded DNA
cannot tell as written
The phrase "one gene-one enzyme" is as…
Beadle and Tatum
The two strands of DNA are bonded to o…
hydrogen bonds
227 terms
Microbiology Chapter 7
What is a genome?
Archaeal DNA is wrapped around globula…
What is a plasmid?
Fertility (F) plasmids (factors)
The entire genetic complement of an organism; includes its ge…
histones
found in prokaryotes; small molecules of DNA that replicate i…
carry instructions for conjugation
What is a genome?
The entire genetic complement of an organism; includes its ge…
Archaeal DNA is wrapped around globula…
histones
64 terms
microbiology chapter 7
sepsis
asepsis
sterilization
commercial sterilization
refers to bacterial contamination; presence of bacteria
absence of significant contamination; aseptic surgery techniq…
removing and destroying all microbial life; heat is most comm…
killing c.botulinum spores from canned goods; limited heat tr…
sepsis
refers to bacterial contamination; presence of bacteria
asepsis
absence of significant contamination; aseptic surgery techniq…
55 terms
Chapter 7 microbiology
Which of the following is the best met…
Which of the following best describes…
Which of the following chemical agents…
Which of the following substances is u…
Membrane filtration
The cells in a population die at constant rate
Ethylene oxide
Clorhexidine
Which of the following is the best met…
Membrane filtration
Which of the following best describes…
The cells in a population die at constant rate
90 terms
Microbiology Chapter 7
Sepsis
Asepsis
Aseptic surgery techniques
Sterilization
... refers to bacterial contamination
... is the absence of significant... contamination
... prevent the microbial contamination of wounds
... is removing and destroying all microbial life
Sepsis
... refers to bacterial contamination
Asepsis
... is the absence of significant... contamination
38 terms
Chapter 7- Microbiology
Compare and contrast the genomes of pr…
Describe the structure of DNA and disc…
Describe the structure and function of…
Describe the replication of DNA as a s…
Prokaryotes: Haploid... Eukaryotes: Diploid
a) polymer of basic building blocks called nucleotides (phosp…
small pieces of DNA replicate independently; usually circular…
each daughter cell is composed of one original strand and one…
Compare and contrast the genomes of pr…
Prokaryotes: Haploid... Eukaryotes: Diploid
Describe the structure of DNA and disc…
a) polymer of basic building blocks called nucleotides (phosp…
48 terms
Microbiology- Chapter 7
Why would you want to control microbes?
Antimicrobial
Microbiocidal
Microbiostatic
Lab: don't want to contaminate by others... Home: through cooked…
Antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, and antiprotozoan
-kill all microbes... -irreversible
-inhibit growth, but not kill or sterilize... -reversible
Why would you want to control microbes?
Lab: don't want to contaminate by others... Home: through cooked…
Antimicrobial
Antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, and antiprotozoan
32 terms
Microbiology chapter 7
Genetics
genome
nucleotides
base pairs
is the study of inheritance and inheritable traits as express…
The entire genetic complement of an organism, including both…
Nucleic acids are polymers of basic building blocks. Each nuc…
The bases of nucleotides hydrogen-bond to one another in spec…
Genetics
is the study of inheritance and inheritable traits as express…
genome
The entire genetic complement of an organism, including both…
71 terms
Chapter 7 Review Microbiology
autotroph
heterotroph
CO2 fixation
nitrogenase
an organism that uses inorganic carbon for growth; "self-feed…
an organism that must obtain carbon in organic form
conversion of CO2 into organic compounds
an enzyme of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms that catalyzes th…
autotroph
an organism that uses inorganic carbon for growth; "self-feed…
heterotroph
an organism that must obtain carbon in organic form
82 terms
Chapter 7 - Fundamentals of Microbiology (Pommerville)
3.8 billion years
Genetics
Gene
Genome
About how long Bacteria & Archaea domains have been on Earth.
The science of heredity covering the structure, replication,…
A segment of a DNA molecule that provides the biochemical inf…
The complete set of genes in a virus or cell.
3.8 billion years
About how long Bacteria & Archaea domains have been on Earth.
Genetics
The science of heredity covering the structure, replication,…
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