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Study sets matching "microbiology exam 2"

111 terms
Microbiology exam 2
Membrane fusion
Endocytosis
Uncoding
Lysis
Enveloped viruses, they fuse with membrane of host cell, caps…
How enveloped and nonenveloped viruses get into cell... through…
How genetic material gets released into host cytoplasm
form of release: means to burst open and is immediately lethal
Membrane fusion
Enveloped viruses, they fuse with membrane of host cell, caps…
Endocytosis
How enveloped and nonenveloped viruses get into cell... through…
28 terms
Microbiology Exam 2
Gene
Genome
Lac Operon
Operon
A collection of DNA nucleotides that encodes a functional pro…
ALL of the DNA in an organism. (In prokaryotes, the whole org…
Important for lactose degradation.
A set of genes that are transcribed as a single unit.
Gene
A collection of DNA nucleotides that encodes a functional pro…
Genome
ALL of the DNA in an organism. (In prokaryotes, the whole org…
274 terms
Microbiology Exam 2
Antibodies made in a ______ immune res…
Long-lived clones of which 2 cell type…
what are some of the difference betwee…
the following are examples of which ty…
primary
memory B cells and T cells
1. artificially acquired passive immunity... 2. naturally acquir…
Antibodies made in a ______ immune res…
primary
Long-lived clones of which 2 cell type…
memory B cells and T cells
79 terms
Microbiology: Exam 2
What are 3 properties of a biofilm?
A biofilm consists of what two things?
How is a biofilm formed? Describe each…
Define quorum sensing. What stage in b…
A biofilm is...... A microbial community... Attached to a surface…
A microbe and a matrix
1. Attachment: use of pili and adherence proteins to attach t…
Quorum sensing: communication between cells in a density-depe…
What are 3 properties of a biofilm?
A biofilm is...... A microbial community... Attached to a surface…
A biofilm consists of what two things?
A microbe and a matrix
112 terms
Microbiology Exam 2 Prep
The nucleotide to the right would be u…
The nucleotide to the right contains w…
What do we call the sequence of DNA wh…
What do we call genes that are "on" al…
B.)
D.)
A.)
non-repressable
The nucleotide to the right would be u…
B.)
The nucleotide to the right contains w…
D.)
166 terms
Exam 2 Microbiology
salt
are endospores found in prokaryotic or…
Do eukaryotes have circular or linear…
Do prokaryotes have circular or linear…
a substance that dissociates into cations (+) and anions (-)
prokaryotic
they have linear
they have circular
salt
a substance that dissociates into cations (+) and anions (-)
are endospores found in prokaryotic or…
prokaryotic
Microbiology Exam 2
Loss of electrons
loss of H+
addition of O2
loss of energy
oxidation
oxidation
oxidation
oxidation
Loss of electrons
oxidation
loss of H+
oxidation
161 terms
Microbiology Exam 2
What are the 3 components of the innat…
What are the first line defenses?
What is the function of sensor systems…
Interferon
1) First line defenses... 2) Sensor Systems... 3) Innate effector a…
1) Anatomical barriers (skin, mucous membranes)... 2) Antimicrob…
Allows the immune system to produce a tailored response to a…
Molecule that induces nearby cells to develop an antiviral st…
What are the 3 components of the innat…
1) First line defenses... 2) Sensor Systems... 3) Innate effector a…
What are the first line defenses?
1) Anatomical barriers (skin, mucous membranes)... 2) Antimicrob…
141 terms
Microbiology Exam 2
The Perishability of Foods
Several conditions can determine if sp…
Temperature Requirements
Gases
- The composition of food determines what microbes may be pre…
- Water ... - pH ... - Physical... structure... - Chemical composition... -…
Thermoduric - can survive short exposure to high temp. → can…
Most influential = O2 , CO2... Used in aerobic respiration: supe…
The Perishability of Foods
- The composition of food determines what microbes may be pre…
Several conditions can determine if sp…
- Water ... - pH ... - Physical... structure... - Chemical composition... -…
97 terms
Microbiology Exam 2
What microbes are prokaryotic?
What does the prefix Eu mean?
In the 1850's - 1970's Eubacteria were…
1970s
1. Eubacteria ... 2. Archaea
True
The first bacteria that were seen by microbiologists
Some odd bacteria that were isolated in Yellowstone national…
What microbes are prokaryotic?
1. Eubacteria ... 2. Archaea
What does the prefix Eu mean?
True
82 terms
Microbiology - Lab Exam 2
psychrophiles
mesophiles
thermophiles
psychrotrophs
This bacterial group likes living in temperatures ranging fro…
This bacterial group live in temperatures ranging from 25 to…
This bacterial group loves warm temperatures ranging from 45…
This bacterial group spans across a wide range of temperature…
psychrophiles
This bacterial group likes living in temperatures ranging fro…
mesophiles
This bacterial group live in temperatures ranging from 25 to…
202 terms
Microbiology Exam 2
what is a tablet that you put in water…
how do you disinfect a table, what typ…
examples of heavy metal use
major heavy metals used in
halazone
never carcinogenic- ex. triclosan, phenols... instead use alcoh…
babies get 1% silver nitrate eye drops to prevent gonorrhea…
Mercury, Silver, Arsenic, Zinc, Copper
what is a tablet that you put in water…
halazone
how do you disinfect a table, what typ…
never carcinogenic- ex. triclosan, phenols... instead use alcoh…
70 terms
Microbiology Exam 2
Structure of a virus
Caspids
Viral Envelope
Viral genome
Size - can vary greatly, from 10 to 400 nm, in diameter; must…
Large macromolecular structure that serves as a viruses prote…
Envelope is outermost layer of some viruses and can derive fr…
Great diversity ... Viruses can have single or double stranded…
Structure of a virus
Size - can vary greatly, from 10 to 400 nm, in diameter; must…
Caspids
Large macromolecular structure that serves as a viruses prote…
173 terms
Microbiology exam 2
Gene regulation
Gene repressors
Gene activators
Induction (gene repression)
1. Bacterial genes are turned on and off based on the environ…
Proteins that bind to the regulatory sequence of a gene and b…
1.For certain genes, they are not transcribed until this type…
1. A repressor protein is bound to the regulatory site of a g…
Gene regulation
1. Bacterial genes are turned on and off based on the environ…
Gene repressors
Proteins that bind to the regulatory sequence of a gene and b…
114 terms
Microbiology Exam 2
chromosome
gene
plasmid
alleles
- circular (in prokaryotes) or linear (in eukaryotes) threadl…
basic unit of heredity; a linear sequence of nucleotides of D…
non-chromosomal extra piece of DNA that cells acquire... - NOT v…
- genes with different information at the same locus... - becaus…
chromosome
- circular (in prokaryotes) or linear (in eukaryotes) threadl…
gene
basic unit of heredity; a linear sequence of nucleotides of D…
51 terms
Microbiology Exam 2
Viruses
Virion
Capsomeres
Icosahedral capsids
are intracellular, obligate parasites
is nucleic acid (DNA/RNA) in a capsid
repeating protein subunits of virus capsids
have a host membrane-derived envelope which has viral pro…
Viruses
are intracellular, obligate parasites
Virion
is nucleic acid (DNA/RNA) in a capsid
42 terms
Microbiology Exam 2
Chemotaxis
Mycobacterium
Mycoplasma
Palisades
Movement of cell or microorganism in response to chemical sti…
Acid-Fast Bacteria, Rod shaped, Contain mycolic acid (a wax)…
Bacteria that lack a cell wall, cell membranes contain high a…
a clustering pattern of baccilus
Chemotaxis
Movement of cell or microorganism in response to chemical sti…
Mycobacterium
Acid-Fast Bacteria, Rod shaped, Contain mycolic acid (a wax)…
54 terms
Microbiology Exam 2
Function of Cell Walls
Do archaea possess well walls?
Most bacterial have a cell wall. What…
Bacteria have cell walls that fall int…
1. structure... 2. shape... 3. protection from osmotic forces... 4. ai…
Yes, these microbes possess cell walls.
Mycoplasma pneumoniae (causes an atypical form of pneumonia i…
cocci and bacilli
Function of Cell Walls
1. structure... 2. shape... 3. protection from osmotic forces... 4. ai…
Do archaea possess well walls?
Yes, these microbes possess cell walls.
253 terms
Microbiology Exam 2
binary fission
process of binary fission
generation time
calculations of generation time
cell division following enlargement of a cell to twice its mi…
1. cell elongation- cell elongates to twice their original si…
- amount of time required for one cell to form into two.... - d…
g= t/n... g: generation time... t: the duration of exponential gro…
binary fission
cell division following enlargement of a cell to twice its mi…
process of binary fission
1. cell elongation- cell elongates to twice their original si…
208 terms
Microbiology Exam 2
Solution
Osmosis
Osmosis Process
Simple Diffusion
Solute + Solvent
Movement of water from high concentration to low concentratio…
Solution
Solute + Solvent
Osmosis
Movement of water from high concentration to low concentratio…
152 terms
Microbiology Exam 2
protein
DNA
Genetic material
Griffith
~20 AA ... large molecules with complex AA sequences that vary a…
4 nucleotides - not enough for complex sequences to encode ge…
carries the detailed instructions for the complex process of…
bacteriological discovery of "transforming principle"
protein
~20 AA ... large molecules with complex AA sequences that vary a…
DNA
4 nucleotides - not enough for complex sequences to encode ge…
125 terms
Microbiology Exam 2
Bacterial cytoplasmic membrane (other…
Membrane structure
Selectively permeable
Concentration gradient
Phospholipid bilayer
Composed of lipids and associated proteins; fluid mosaic model
Naturally impermeable to most substances; proteins allow subs…
Difference in saturation of molecules
Bacterial cytoplasmic membrane (other…
Phospholipid bilayer
Membrane structure
Composed of lipids and associated proteins; fluid mosaic model
106 terms
Microbiology Exam 2
Passive Transport (Simple diffusion, O…
Active transport
Simple Diffusion
Facilitated Diffusion
Does not require energy. Substances exist in a gradient and m…
Requires Energy and carrier proteins; gradient independent. M…
Movement of molecules from areas of high concentration to low…
Involves attachment of a molecule to a specific protein carri…
Passive Transport (Simple diffusion, O…
Does not require energy. Substances exist in a gradient and m…
Active transport
Requires Energy and carrier proteins; gradient independent. M…
241 terms
Microbiology Exam 2
minimum growth temperature
optimum growth temperature
maximum growth temperature
psychrophiles
lowest temperature a species will grow- wont grow much
temperature at which a species grows best
the highest temperature at which growth of a species is possi…
cold-loving... prefer to be in cold temp
minimum growth temperature
lowest temperature a species will grow- wont grow much
optimum growth temperature
temperature at which a species grows best
133 terms
Microbiology Exam 2
What grows in similar conditions?
Strep Throat
Pharwngitis
What are the five "I"s of culturing mi…
Fungi and Bacteria
Bacteria infection
Fungal infection
1) Inoculation- getting a sample from the patient ... 2) Incubat…
What grows in similar conditions?
Fungi and Bacteria
Strep Throat
Bacteria infection
Microbiology-Exam 2
Temperature
Cardinal temperatures
Mesophiles
Extremophiles
is a major environmental factor controlling microbial growth
the minimum, optimum, and maximum temperatures at which an or…
organisms that have midrange temperature optima; found in ... Wa…
Organisms that grow under very hot or very cold conditions
Temperature
is a major environmental factor controlling microbial growth
Cardinal temperatures
the minimum, optimum, and maximum temperatures at which an or…
176 terms
Microbiology Exam 2
DNA Structure... What is DNA
DNA Structure ... What 3 parts make up a…
DNA Structure... How are nucleotides conn…
DNA Structure... Hydrogen bonding
A polymer of nucleotides. (double helix)
Nitrogenous base... Deoxyribose sugar ... Phosphate
By 3' - 5' phosodiester bonds
allows complementary base interactions of the nitrogenous bas…
DNA Structure... What is DNA
A polymer of nucleotides. (double helix)
DNA Structure ... What 3 parts make up a…
Nitrogenous base... Deoxyribose sugar ... Phosphate
214 terms
Microbiology Exam 2
Nares
Secondary invaders
Gram positive
Golden color
Where would you find Staph. Aureus in your normal body flora?
Staphylococci are usually __________ so they occur after a wo…
What type of stain would the staph. Aureus be?
What is a distinguishing feature of Staph. Aureus from Staph.…
Nares
Where would you find Staph. Aureus in your normal body flora?
Secondary invaders
Staphylococci are usually __________ so they occur after a wo…
130 terms
Microbiology Exam 2
Eukarya Reproduction Strategies
Bacteria and Archaea Reproduction Stra…
Bacterial Cell Cycle
Terminus
Asexual or sexual; haploid or diploid
Haploid only --> Binary fission, budding, filamentous
1. DNA Replication and Partition... 2. Cytokinesis
Site at which replication is terminated; located opposite of…
Eukarya Reproduction Strategies
Asexual or sexual; haploid or diploid
Bacteria and Archaea Reproduction Stra…
Haploid only --> Binary fission, budding, filamentous
137 terms
Microbiology Exam 2
Binary Fission
Generation time
Standard Growth Curve
Lag phase
The process by which bacteria and archaea multiply. Cell incr…
The time it takes for the population to double in number. Hig…
Pattern of cell growth found in closed systems. Characterized…
Period of time in growth curve before cells begin dividing. C…
Binary Fission
The process by which bacteria and archaea multiply. Cell incr…
Generation time
The time it takes for the population to double in number. Hig…
172 terms
Microbiology Exam 2
Characteristics of Eneterobacteriaceae…
Enterobacteriaceae responsible for foo…
Enterobacteriaceae responsible for nos…
Predominant species in the human GI tr…
Gram Negative... Facultative Anaerobes... most are commensal organi…
Escherichia, shigella, salmonella, and yersinia
citrobacter, enterobacter, Klebsiella, Morganella, proteus, p…
baccteroides
Characteristics of Eneterobacteriaceae…
Gram Negative... Facultative Anaerobes... most are commensal organi…
Enterobacteriaceae responsible for foo…
Escherichia, shigella, salmonella, and yersinia
77 terms
Microbiology Exam 2
Routine protection present at birth
What are the 3 general components of i…
Specialized defense system that develo…
Substance causing immune response
Innate immunity
1) First line defenses... 2)Sensor systems... 3)Innate effector act…
Adaptive immunity
Antigen
Routine protection present at birth
Innate immunity
What are the 3 general components of i…
1) First line defenses... 2)Sensor systems... 3)Innate effector act…
13 terms
Lecture Exam 2 - Microbiology
catabolism
carbohydrates
monosaccharides
Oligosaccharides
chemical reactions that release energy from the decomposition…
are organic molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxyg…
simple sugars containing from three to seven carbon atoms
composed of two to 20 monosaccharide molecules ex: disaccarides
catabolism
chemical reactions that release energy from the decomposition…
carbohydrates
are organic molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxyg…
180 terms
Microbiology 240 - Exam 2
False
C
B
B
A species of fungi can only grow as a yeast or as a mold, but…
Which of the following is not a member of Phylum Spirochaetes…
In the scientific name, Enterobacter aerogenous, Enterobacter…
Which of the following is true about betaproteobacteria?... a. c…
False
A species of fungi can only grow as a yeast or as a mold, but…
C
Which of the following is not a member of Phylum Spirochaetes…
401 terms
Microbiology Exam 2
What is the shape and gram stain for c…
Spirillium is a common shape for what…
Campylobacter and Helicobacter are bot…
What illnesses do campylobacter and he…
Gram-negative with curves.
Campylobacter and helicobacter.
Reduced oxygen and extra co2 is needed for growth.... (No growt…
They cause a variety of intestinal illnesses. ... (Campylobacte…
What is the shape and gram stain for c…
Gram-negative with curves.
Spirillium is a common shape for what…
Campylobacter and helicobacter.
146 terms
Microbiology Exam 2
Why do we need to know about microbial…
What is metabolism?
What is the ultimate function of metab…
What are the two major classes of meta…
-Basis of all life, not just microbes... -Forms the basis of ant…
Collection of controlled biochemical reactions that take plac…
Ultimate function of metabolism is to reproduce the organism
-Catabolic: exergonic... -Anabolic: endergonic
Why do we need to know about microbial…
-Basis of all life, not just microbes... -Forms the basis of ant…
What is metabolism?
Collection of controlled biochemical reactions that take plac…
197 terms
Microbiology Exam 2
What are nutrients?
What are macronutrients?
What are micronutrients?
Which cells require Carbon?
Supply of monomers required by cells for growth
Nutrients required in large amounts
Nutrients required in trace amounts
All cells
What are nutrients?
Supply of monomers required by cells for growth
What are macronutrients?
Nutrients required in large amounts
76 terms
Microbiology Exam 2
Lecture 14
State the modern biological "central d…
DNA carries the instructions to make a…
Sketch DNA double helix
STARTS HERE!!
DNA-->RNA-->Protein via transcription and translation
DNA codes for proteins, which determine structure and therefo…
Antiparallel; phosphodiester bonds; H-bonds for bases; 5'-3'…
Lecture 14
STARTS HERE!!
State the modern biological "central d…
DNA-->RNA-->Protein via transcription and translation
82 terms
Microbiology EXAM 2
Fungi
Dimorphic Fungi
microscopic fungi
macroscopic fungi
Eukaryotic cell; 100,000 species, great variety, complex, mac…
Can take more then one shape ... 37°C = yeast like shape ... 25°C =…
cell walls which are made up chitin
mushrooms
Fungi
Eukaryotic cell; 100,000 species, great variety, complex, mac…
Dimorphic Fungi
Can take more then one shape ... 37°C = yeast like shape ... 25°C =…
227 terms
Microbiology: Exam 2
Transmission of infectious agents in h…
Reservoirs of infectious agents in hea…
Nosocomial infections
Reduction and eradication of disease
1. Fomite transmision... 2. Direct transmission... 3. Airborne Tran…
1. Other patients (skin cells, respiratory droplets, other bo…
Hospital acquired infections. Length of exposure, manner in w…
Improved sanitation, reservoir and vector control, vaccinatio…
Transmission of infectious agents in h…
1. Fomite transmision... 2. Direct transmission... 3. Airborne Tran…
Reservoirs of infectious agents in hea…
1. Other patients (skin cells, respiratory droplets, other bo…
107 terms
Microbiology Exam 2
Bacterial Cell Surface Structures
Pili
Fimbriae
Capsules
Fimbriae and Pili, Capsules and Slime layers, and Paracrystal…
Longer and fewer in number than fimbriae. Type IV are found o…
Aid in adhesion to host cell surfaces.
Are notable virulence factors. Aid in adhesion to surfaces. H…
Bacterial Cell Surface Structures
Fimbriae and Pili, Capsules and Slime layers, and Paracrystal…
Pili
Longer and fewer in number than fimbriae. Type IV are found o…
129 terms
Microbiology Exam 2
Gram +
Gram -
Aminoglycosides
What causes acne
Cell wall
No Cell Wall
Attack inside of bateria
Propion Ances
Gram +
Cell wall
Gram -
No Cell Wall
35 terms
Microbiology Exam 2
Portals of entry
Adhesion
Examples of Exoenzymes
Exotoxin
Mucous Membranes: Respiratory Tract... Gastrointestinal tract…
Pilli, Capsules, Fimbrae, Slime layer, Glues, Spikes
Collagenase- Breaks down collagen, tissue fiber... Hyaluronidase…
Endotoxin or Exotoxin?... Gram (+) mainly, but can be (+) or (-)
Portals of entry
Mucous Membranes: Respiratory Tract... Gastrointestinal tract…
Adhesion
Pilli, Capsules, Fimbrae, Slime layer, Glues, Spikes
302 terms
Microbiology Exam 2
What do viruses infect?
How many viruses does seawater contain…
who proposed the term "virus"?
Virus is Latin for?
every type of cell, including bacteria, algae, fungi, protozo…
10 million viruses per milliliter
Louis Pasteur, he postulated that a "living thing" smaller th…
Poison
What do viruses infect?
every type of cell, including bacteria, algae, fungi, protozo…
How many viruses does seawater contain…
10 million viruses per milliliter
Microbiology exam 2 terms
Intercalating agents
Thymine dimers repaired by
Thymine dimers
Pyrimidine dimers
the insertion of molecules between the planar bases of DNA
SOS repair, excision repair, photoreactivation
molecular lesions formed by Thymine or Cytosine bases in DNA…
* same as thymine dimer, not much info.
Intercalating agents
the insertion of molecules between the planar bases of DNA
Thymine dimers repaired by
SOS repair, excision repair, photoreactivation
163 terms
Microbiology Exam 2
sterile
sterilize
disinfect
sanitize
absence of ALL life
to kill or remove from an object of all living organisms, inc…
kill or inhibit potential pathogens or inanimate objects
reduce the number of microbes to a safe level by public healt…
sterile
absence of ALL life
sterilize
to kill or remove from an object of all living organisms, inc…
51 terms
Microbiology Exam 2
Virus
Retrovirus
Every type of living organism has a vi…
Specialist virus
-miniscule... -acellular... -protein-coated... -use hosts' metabolism…
inserts itself into the hosts genome
True
infect one type of cell or one type of host
Virus
-miniscule... -acellular... -protein-coated... -use hosts' metabolism…
Retrovirus
inserts itself into the hosts genome
191 terms
Microbiology Exam 2
Sterilization
disinfection
antiseptic
sanitization
removal or destruction of all microorganisms including endosp…
elimination of most or all pathogens on/in a material... doesn't…
antimicrobial chemicals that are non-toxic and can be used to…
same as disinfection, but in a restaurant/cafeteria setting
Sterilization
removal or destruction of all microorganisms including endosp…
disinfection
elimination of most or all pathogens on/in a material... doesn't…
86 terms
Microbiology: Exam 2
Classify microbes into five groups on…
Describe the 2 cold-loving microbes
Describe the moderate-temperature-lovi…
Describe the 2 heat-loving microbes
Psychrophiles, Psychrotrophs, Mesophiles, Thermophiles, Hypot…
PSYCHROPHILES... - Optimal growth at 15°C; very sensitive to hig…
MESOPHILES... - Optimal growth at 25 - 40°C; grow between 10 and…
THERMOPHILES... - Optimum growth at 50 - 60°C; grow between 40 a…
Classify microbes into five groups on…
Psychrophiles, Psychrotrophs, Mesophiles, Thermophiles, Hypot…
Describe the 2 cold-loving microbes
PSYCHROPHILES... - Optimal growth at 15°C; very sensitive to hig…
175 terms
Microbiology Exam 2
The Gram Stain
Viroid
Virusoids
What are the 4 Categories of Fungi?
Step 1: Add Crystal Violet Dye (primary stain) ... Step 2: Add I…
RNA molecules (Nucleic Acid RNA only) that infect plants. Ext…
aka Satellite Viruses... Incomplete 'Viruses' which need a host…
ABZD's... Ascomycota - Sexually Reproduced... Basidiomycota - Sexua…
The Gram Stain
Step 1: Add Crystal Violet Dye (primary stain) ... Step 2: Add I…
Viroid
RNA molecules (Nucleic Acid RNA only) that infect plants. Ext…
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