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Study sets matching "microbiology microbial genetics"

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Study sets matching "microbiology microbial genetics"

48 terms
Microbiology - Microbial Genetics
Genome
Chromosome
Gene
Genotype
the entire complement of genes on all chromosomes normally fo…
one entire double-strand of DNA containing multiple genes (ch…
segment of DNA that contains the genetic code (blueprint) for…
total genetic makeup of an organism (potential properties of…
Genome
the entire complement of genes on all chromosomes normally fo…
Chromosome
one entire double-strand of DNA containing multiple genes (ch…
30 terms
Microbiology Ch. 8: Microbial Genetics
Genetics
Gene
Chromosome
Genome
1) The study of what genes are... 2) how they carry information…
A segment of DNA that encodes a functional product, usually a…
Structure containing DNA that physically carries hereditary i…
All the genetic information in a cell
Genetics
1) The study of what genes are... 2) how they carry information…
Gene
A segment of DNA that encodes a functional product, usually a…
91 terms
Microbiology Chapter 8 : Microbial Genetics
Genetics
Genome
Chromosome
Gene
- The study of what genes are & how they carry information…
All the genetic info in the cell
-Structure containing DNA ... -Physically carries *hereditary…
- A segment of DNA that Encodes a functional product ... - Us…
Genetics
- The study of what genes are & how they carry information…
Genome
All the genetic info in the cell
42 terms
microbiology: microbial genetics
genetics
gene
genotype
phenotype
science of heredity and genes
sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines…
Genetic makeup of an organism
physical characteristics of an organism
genetics
science of heredity and genes
gene
sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines…
77 terms
Microbiology - Microbial genetics
promoter region
codon
genotype
mutation
Region in DNA where RNA polymerase has to bind in order to be…
Composed of three adjacent bases on mRNA.
Genetic makeup of an organism.
Change in the nucleotide sequence of a DNA.
promoter region
Region in DNA where RNA polymerase has to bind in order to be…
codon
Composed of three adjacent bases on mRNA.
69 terms
Microbiology Chapter 7 Microbial Genetics
Genome
complementary base pairs
2 structures of prokaryotic genomes
chromosome in a prokaryote
the entire genetic complement of an organism; includes its ge…
G-C, A-T and A-U in RNA
Chromosomes... Plasmids
circular molecule of DNA in nucleoid
Genome
the entire genetic complement of an organism; includes its ge…
complementary base pairs
G-C, A-T and A-U in RNA
50 terms
Microbiology - Microbial Genetics
phenotype
enzyme
mutation
microorganisms
in molecular terms, this is a collection of proteins as enzym…
this must be processed or degraded by enzymes to manifest cel…
permanent change in the cell; new stable genotype inherited b…
_____ are often used for recombination due to:... easier to iden…
phenotype
in molecular terms, this is a collection of proteins as enzym…
enzyme
this must be processed or degraded by enzymes to manifest cel…
76 terms
Microbiology - Microbial Genetics
Coagulation of the protein
Translation
Feedback inhibition
End-product repression
Relationship between disinfection and transcription/translati…
Because of a similar ____ process, antimicrobial medicine can…
This process effects enzyme activity
This process affects enzyme synthesis
Coagulation of the protein
Relationship between disinfection and transcription/translati…
Translation
Because of a similar ____ process, antimicrobial medicine can…
63 terms
Microbiology Chapter 7 Microbial Genetics
Genome
complementary base pairs
2 structures of prokaryotic genomes
chromosome of a prokaryote
the entire genetic complement of an organism; includes its ge…
G-C, A-T and A-U in RNA
Chromosomes... Plasmids
it is made a circular molecule of DNA, located in the nucleoid
Genome
the entire genetic complement of an organism; includes its ge…
complementary base pairs
G-C, A-T and A-U in RNA
51 terms
Microbiology: Microbial Genetics
Metabolism
DNA
DNA molecules in the cells exist as
Two molecules form the double helix
Is the sum of all chemicals reactions that occur in living or…
Hold the information to build and maintain the cells pass gen…
A double-stranded helix
A hydrogen bonds with T (2 hydrogen bonds)... C hydrogen bonds w…
Metabolism
Is the sum of all chemicals reactions that occur in living or…
DNA
Hold the information to build and maintain the cells pass gen…
108 terms
Microbiology: Microbial Genetics
Genetics
Several levels
genetic material must be able to
Genome
the study of inheritance of living things.... 1. how are traits…
organismal, chromosomal and molecular
self replicate and it must be accurately duplicated and separ…
everything a cell would have. Example: 46 chromosomes in a hu…
Genetics
the study of inheritance of living things.... 1. how are traits…
Several levels
organismal, chromosomal and molecular
95 terms
Microbiology Chapter 9: Microbial Genetics
Genetic Code
Wobble Hypothesis
mRNA codons and amino acids
Translation
3 seq nucleotide code for one amino acid ... redundancy of the g…
In many cases, only the first 2 nucleotides are required to e…
read in triplets (codons) ... 4x4x4 = 64 possible ... 61 specify am…
all of the elements needed to synthesize a protein are brough…
Genetic Code
3 seq nucleotide code for one amino acid ... redundancy of the g…
Wobble Hypothesis
In many cases, only the first 2 nucleotides are required to e…
102 terms
Microbiology... Microbial Genetics
Genetics
the study of inheritance in living thi…
Where is DNA in Eukaryotes
Where is DNA in Prokaryotes
A.K.A heredity
heredity
Nucleus
Cytoplasm
Genetics
A.K.A heredity
the study of inheritance in living thi…
heredity
124 terms
Microbiology Chapter 8 (Microbial Genetics)
Structure of an Operon in DNA
Bacteria group genes in what?
Transcription DNA ---> RNA
4 Guidelines for Rolling Circle Replic…
P=Promoter (recognized by RNA Polymerase)... O=Operator (Gate to…
Operon
RNA Polymerase. DNA double strand ---> RNA single stand. Sens…
1. Single Origin of replication... 2. Bidirectional Replication…
Structure of an Operon in DNA
P=Promoter (recognized by RNA Polymerase)... O=Operator (Gate to…
Bacteria group genes in what?
Operon
58 terms
Microbiology: Microbial Genetics
How are protein synthesis and metaboli…
How are gene induction or repression c…
The Lac Operon
Operon
Gene induction or repression
An operon
an inducible operon
a set of operator and promoter sites and the structural genes…
How are protein synthesis and metaboli…
Gene induction or repression
How are gene induction or repression c…
An operon
37 terms
Medical Microbiology - Microbial Genetics
Microbial Evolution
Mutations
Mutation definition
Mutations are what?
All microbes evolve - allowing them to adapt to evade host im…
Seen in ALL pathogens
Changes in genetic sequence - can be beneficial or deleterious
Completely random! A given mutation may be repaired or not
Microbial Evolution
All microbes evolve - allowing them to adapt to evade host im…
Mutations
Seen in ALL pathogens
43 terms
IPAP Microbiology - Microbial Genetics
The entire compliment of genes on all…
One entire double-strand of DNA contai…
Segment of DNA that contains the genet…
The transfer of the genetic code on DN…
Genome
Chromosome
Gene
Transcription
The entire compliment of genes on all…
Genome
One entire double-strand of DNA contai…
Chromosome
54 terms
Microbiology lecture (microbial genetics)
genes
chromosome
genome
complementary base pairing
segments of DNA (codes for a protein/ functional product)
genes essential for survival
the entire genetic complement of an organism
how the nitrogen bases hydrogen bond together (g-c, a-t) RNA…
genes
segments of DNA (codes for a protein/ functional product)
chromosome
genes essential for survival
24 terms
Microbiology: Ch7 Microbial Genetics
genetics
Genome
Structure and function of genetic mate…
Structure or Prokayotic genomes
study of inheritance and inheritable traits as expressed in a…
the entire genetic completement of an organism; includes its…
1. DNA- deoxyribonucleic acid (double helix)... 2. RNA- rubonucl…
prokaryotic chromosomes: 1.main portion of DNA, along wit ass…
genetics
study of inheritance and inheritable traits as expressed in a…
Genome
the entire genetic completement of an organism; includes its…
39 terms
Microbiology Ch. 8 Microbial Genetics
Genome
Chromosomes
Genes
Nucleotides
Total of genetic material in a cell.
Large molecule that contain DNA.
Segments of DNA that code for protein.
Building blocks of DNA.
Genome
Total of genetic material in a cell.
Chromosomes
Large molecule that contain DNA.
22 terms
Microbiology Chapter 8 Microbial Genetics
DNA gyrase
Okazaki Fragments
Terminator Loop
Genetic Code
Known as topoisomerase II. Relax supercoiling
are short, newly synthesized DNA fragments that are formed on…
Site on DNA where genes end
the nucleotide triplets of DNA and RNA molecules that carry g…
DNA gyrase
Known as topoisomerase II. Relax supercoiling
Okazaki Fragments
are short, newly synthesized DNA fragments that are formed on…
124 terms
Microbiology ch. 9 Microbial Genetics
Operon
DNA
Where is DNA contained
Genome
In genetics, an operon is a functioning unit of genomic DNA c…
Contains information for all living organisms
In the chromosome
Complete cell DNA sequence
Operon
In genetics, an operon is a functioning unit of genomic DNA c…
DNA
Contains information for all living organisms
83 terms
Microbiology Chapter 7 Microbial Genetics
Genome
complementary base pairs
2 structures of prokaryotic genomes
chromosome in a prokaryote
the entire genetic complement of an organism; includes its ge…
G-C, A-T and A-U in RNA
Chromosomes... Plasmids
circular molecule of DNA in nucleoid (no membrane surrounding…
Genome
the entire genetic complement of an organism; includes its ge…
complementary base pairs
G-C, A-T and A-U in RNA
91 terms
Microbiology Chapter 8 : Microbial Genetics
Genetics
Genome
Chromosome
Gene
- The study of what genes are & how they carry information…
All the genetic info in the cell
-Structure containing DNA ... -Physically carries *hereditary…
- A segment of DNA that Encodes a functional product ... - Us…
Genetics
- The study of what genes are & how they carry information…
Genome
All the genetic info in the cell
54 terms
Microbiology Microbial Genetics
Heredity
chromosome(s)
Replication
plasmids
the transmission of genetic information from an organism to i…
structures composed of DNA and protein (structural), contains…
the copying of an organism's genetic material (always complet…
circular strands of DNA containing information helpful to but…
Heredity
the transmission of genetic information from an organism to i…
chromosome(s)
structures composed of DNA and protein (structural), contains…
67 terms
Microbiology - Chapter 9 - Microbial Genetics
Genetics
The science of genetics explores:
Genome
Genome of cells
The study of heredity. The inheritance of biological characte…
1. Transmission of biological traits from parent to offspring…
Sum total of genetic material of a cell. (Chromosomes + mitoc…
DNA - deoxyribonucleic acid ... Bacteria also have plasmids/chlo…
Genetics
The study of heredity. The inheritance of biological characte…
The science of genetics explores:
1. Transmission of biological traits from parent to offspring…
Microbiology: Microbial Genetics
A selective growth medium
A clever technique that streamlines th…
Chemical mutagens often act by alterin…
The material responsible for transform…
allows only certain bacteria to grow
replica plating
hydrogen bonding properties of the nitrogen bases
Avery, MacLeod and McCarthy
A selective growth medium
allows only certain bacteria to grow
A clever technique that streamlines th…
replica plating
43 terms
Microbiology - Microbial Genetics
Define genetics.
A genome is all of the __________.
What is a neatly packaged long strand…
Bacterial chromosomes are circular/ova…
The study of heredity
genetic material of a cell
a chromosome
circular, free
Define genetics.
The study of heredity
A genome is all of the __________.
genetic material of a cell
11 terms
Microbiology: microbial genetics
Chromosomes
Genes
Genome
Genotype
The structure that carries hereditary information, chromosome…
A segment of DNA (a sequence of nucleotides in DNA) encoding…
One complete copy of the genetic information in a cell
The genetic make up of an organism
Chromosomes
The structure that carries hereditary information, chromosome…
Genes
A segment of DNA (a sequence of nucleotides in DNA) encoding…
69 terms
Microbiology Chapter 7 Microbial Genetics
Genome
complementary base pairs
2 structures of prokaryotic genomes
chromosome in a prokaryote
the entire genetic complement of an organism; includes its ge…
G-C, A-T and A-U in RNA
Chromosomes... Plasmids
circular molecule of DNA in nucleoid
Genome
the entire genetic complement of an organism; includes its ge…
complementary base pairs
G-C, A-T and A-U in RNA
32 terms
Microbiology: Microbial Genetics and Viruses
Biological Evolution
Gene Expression
Transcription
Process of Transcription
Genetic make-up of population changes over time
bacteria controls which gene it will express
Synthesis of complementary RNA using ssDNA as a template
RNA polymerase binds to the promoter sequence of DNA in a 5'…
Biological Evolution
Genetic make-up of population changes over time
Gene Expression
bacteria controls which gene it will express
38 terms
Microbiology:Microbial Genetics
Nucleotides
Know information about ATP
Nucleic acids
5 Nitrogenous bases found in nucleic a…
A nitrogenous base a 5 carbon sugar and 1 or more phosphate g…
A nucleotidecontaining adenine, ribose, and three phosphates
Long polymers of nucleotides
Purines: Adenine and Guanine(these have double rings)... Pyramid…
Nucleotides
A nitrogenous base a 5 carbon sugar and 1 or more phosphate g…
Know information about ATP
A nucleotidecontaining adenine, ribose, and three phosphates
66 terms
Microbiology 175- Microbial Genetics
Genetics
Genome
Eukryotic chromosome
Prokaryotic chromosome
The study of the inheritance (heredity) of living things... -tra…
* the sum total of genetic material of a cell... * mostly in chr…
* DNA molecule tightly wound around histone proteins... * locate…
* condensed and secured by means of histone-like proteins... * s…
Genetics
The study of the inheritance (heredity) of living things... -tra…
Genome
* the sum total of genetic material of a cell... * mostly in chr…
51 terms
Microbiology: Microbial Genetics
Genome
Genomics
Genotype
Phenotype
Genetic info in cells, chromosomes, plasmids
The sequencing and molecular characterization of genomes
Cells genetic makeup represents potential properties
Expressed properties as result of genotype
Genome
Genetic info in cells, chromosomes, plasmids
Genomics
The sequencing and molecular characterization of genomes
76 terms
Microbiology: Microbial Genetics
genome
gene
nucleotides
chromosomes
a cell or virus' entire genetic complement, including both it…
specific sequences of nucleotides that code for RNA or polype…
nucleic acids that are polymers of building blocks.
prokaryotic cells contain a single copy and are called haploi…
genome
a cell or virus' entire genetic complement, including both it…
gene
specific sequences of nucleotides that code for RNA or polype…
24 terms
MICROBIOLOGY - MICROBIAL GENETICS
nucleic acid, nucleotide, phosphate, 5…
phosphodiester, weak, nitrogenous
genome, chromosomes, circular, one, li…
histones, proks,
DNA STRUCTURE... DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid... polymer: ______ ___…
BONDS OF DNA STRUCTURE... 1.) ___________ bonds: covalent bonds…
DNA ORGANIZATION... 1.) ________: all DNA in nucleus or nucleoi…
EUKARYOTIC DNA ORGANIZATION... chromatin: DNA wrapped around pro…
nucleic acid, nucleotide, phosphate, 5…
DNA STRUCTURE... DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid... polymer: ______ ___…
phosphodiester, weak, nitrogenous
BONDS OF DNA STRUCTURE... 1.) ___________ bonds: covalent bonds…
38 terms
Microbiology: Microbial Genetics 1
Major macromolecules associated with n…
Genome
Genotype
Phenotype
1. DNA... 2. RNA... 3. proteins and enzymes
All DNA present in a cell or virus
Genetic characteristic
Physical characteristic
Major macromolecules associated with n…
1. DNA... 2. RNA... 3. proteins and enzymes
Genome
All DNA present in a cell or virus
30 terms
Microbiology-Microbial Genetics
Replication
Gene Expression
Gene
DNA polymerase
Exact duplication of DNA molecule(s) in preparation for cell…
-Utilizing genetic material... -Using the code to make proteins,…
segment of DNA that codes for 1 protein
enzyme that synthesizes (replicates) DNA
Replication
Exact duplication of DNA molecule(s) in preparation for cell…
Gene Expression
-Utilizing genetic material... -Using the code to make proteins,…
43 terms
Microbiology Microbial Genetics
Microbial Genome
What do cells do with their DNA?
The "Central Dogma"
Transcription
All nucleic acids or genetic material in a cell.
Replication:... - Exact duplication of DNA molecule(s) in prepar…
DNA --(Transcirption)->mRna --(Translation)-> Protein
DNA is the permanent copy and the code is transferred to the…
Microbial Genome
All nucleic acids or genetic material in a cell.
What do cells do with their DNA?
Replication:... - Exact duplication of DNA molecule(s) in prepar…
Microbial genetics and applied microbiology
Mutations in Prokaryotes
Horizontal gene transfer
Transformation
Griffith's transformation experiment
Prokaryotes produce using binary fission creating 2 identical…
Transfer of genetic material between organisms in the same ge…
Competent cells take up DNA from the environment. DNA binding…
Smooth S cells have a capsule to avoid the host's immune syst…
Mutations in Prokaryotes
Prokaryotes produce using binary fission creating 2 identical…
Horizontal gene transfer
Transfer of genetic material between organisms in the same ge…
97 terms
Microbial Genetics and Applied Microbiology
Spores
Strategies to generate diversity
Mutation
Transformation
Natures way to preserve Genomes
Mutation, Tranformation, transduction, conjugation
Change in single nucleotide, occurs spontaneously, may be ind…
Exchange of DNA fragments... DNA exchange increased by electropo…
Spores
Natures way to preserve Genomes
Strategies to generate diversity
Mutation, Tranformation, transduction, conjugation
51 terms
Microbial genetics and Applied Microbiology
What is a Genome
What is genomics
Mutation
Transformation
The total complement of genetic... information of a cell or a vi…
Study of all the genes of a cell, or... tissue, at the DNA (geno…
• Change in single nucleotide... (Substitution, Deletion, Addit…
• Exchange of DNA fragments... • DNA exchange increased by elec…
What is a Genome
The total complement of genetic... information of a cell or a vi…
What is genomics
Study of all the genes of a cell, or... tissue, at the DNA (geno…
42 terms
Ch. & Microbiology Microbial Genetics
___Heredity ... ___Chromosome ... ___Phe…
How many chromosomes are found in a ty…
Without the action of DNA ligase, cell…
___Semiconservative replication... ___…
c)Involves the transmission of information from an organism t…
1
binds DNA sequence together to generate a
c) Each chromosome consists of one strand of old (parental) D…
___Heredity ... ___Chromosome ... ___Phe…
c)Involves the transmission of information from an organism t…
How many chromosomes are found in a ty…
1
36 terms
Microbiology: Microbial Genetics and Biotechnology
Genetics
4 things genetics explores:
How prokaryotic genes are different fr…
Genes
the study of heredity
1) the transmission of traits from parent to offspring... 2) var…
haploid, plasmids, no histones, operons, coupled transcriptio…
unit of heredity
Genetics
the study of heredity
4 things genetics explores:
1) the transmission of traits from parent to offspring... 2) var…
33 terms
Microbiology 221- Microbial Genetics
Genetics
Single celled organisms reproduce by?
Any change in generic material causes
Genome
the study of inheritance, or heredity of living things
binary fission
mutation
sum of total genetic material inside cell
Genetics
the study of inheritance, or heredity of living things
Single celled organisms reproduce by?
binary fission
84 terms
Microbial genetics and applied microbiology:
Outline the properties of the bacteria…
Symbiotic associations that occur betw…
Large genome vs Small genome:
Outline the difference between vertica…
- small (200-8,000 bases)... - VERY EFFICIENT- large # genes rel…
Mutualism... Commensalism... Parasitism
LARGE GENOME:... more diversified function within the organism (…
VERTICAL GENE TRANSFER:... - passing DOWN of genes to the next g…
Outline the properties of the bacteria…
- small (200-8,000 bases)... - VERY EFFICIENT- large # genes rel…
Symbiotic associations that occur betw…
Mutualism... Commensalism... Parasitism
33 terms
Microbial Genetics Microbiology Final
Transformation
Transformation in vivo
Transformation in vitro
3 fates of DNA after being taken up by…
Most Frequent... DNA from dead donor enters competent living cel…
During the stationary phase or late log phase, cell becomes c…
add CaCl2 during late log phase to make cell membrane compete…
1. incorporated into chromosome... 2. exists as a plasmid... 3. los…
Transformation
Most Frequent... DNA from dead donor enters competent living cel…
Transformation in vivo
During the stationary phase or late log phase, cell becomes c…
78 terms
Microbiology: Microbial Genetics
List the 6 enzymes that are involved i…
Why is DNA replication characterized a…
What is a genome?
What are 2 possible definitions of a g…
Helicase, primase, DNA polymerase III, DNA polymerase I, liga…
Each strand of the DNA is made as a template to synthesize it…
The sum total of genetic material of a cell.
Classical genetics refers to the fundamental unit of heredita…
List the 6 enzymes that are involved i…
Helicase, primase, DNA polymerase III, DNA polymerase I, liga…
Why is DNA replication characterized a…
Each strand of the DNA is made as a template to synthesize it…
22 terms
Microbiology- Microbial genetics review
UAA, UAG, and UGA are known as what ??
in DNA replication the strand that is…
in DNA replication the strand that is…
virus that infects bacteria
stop codons
leading strand
lagging strand
bacteriophage
UAA, UAG, and UGA are known as what ??
stop codons
in DNA replication the strand that is…
leading strand
44 terms
Microbiology 10 - Microbial Genetics
True or False. Plasmids are necessary…
Plasmids tend to have many __________…
Describe Stringent Plasmid (3)
Describe Relaxed Plasmid (3)
False, they are NOT necessary but can increase a host's adapt…
Virulence factors and antibiotic resistance
- replication is closely tied with chromosomal replication... -…
- replication is NOT tied to chromosomal replication ... - many…
True or False. Plasmids are necessary…
False, they are NOT necessary but can increase a host's adapt…
Plasmids tend to have many __________…
Virulence factors and antibiotic resistance
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