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Study sets matching "microbiology test 4"

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Study sets matching "microbiology test 4"

207 terms
Microbiology Test 4
Restriction Enzyme
Prokaryotes ; eukaryotes
Defense
Methylation
recognize specific base sequences within DNA (recognition seq…
recognition enzymes are common in _________, rare in ________…
restriction enzymes are a ___________ mechanism against hosti…
Restriction enzymes sense the __________ at specific base pai…
Restriction Enzyme
recognize specific base sequences within DNA (recognition seq…
Prokaryotes ; eukaryotes
recognition enzymes are common in _________, rare in ________…
57 terms
test 4 microbiology
1st line of defense
2nd line of defense(non-specific)
3rd line of defense(specific)
Intact skin
-intact skin... -mucous membranes & their secretions
-phagocytic white blood cells ... -inflammation -complement... -fev…
-B & T lymphocytes... -antibodies
formidable barrier made of tightly packed epithelial cells (t…
1st line of defense
-intact skin... -mucous membranes & their secretions
2nd line of defense(non-specific)
-phagocytic white blood cells ... -inflammation -complement... -fev…
124 terms
Microbiology Test 4
Gene
RNA polymerase, mRNA, tRNA, rRNA
False (Only rRNA and tRNA molecules ar…
True
Region of genome that codes for a protein OR functional RNA
DNA is transcribed by ________to produce ______, _______, ___…
(True or False) mRNA molecules are processed in bacteria, alb…
(True or False) rRNA and tRNA molecules are processed in bact…
Gene
Region of genome that codes for a protein OR functional RNA
RNA polymerase, mRNA, tRNA, rRNA
DNA is transcribed by ________to produce ______, _______, ___…
69 terms
Test 4 Microbiology Terms
Pathogen
Immunity
Pathogenicity
Portal of Entry
disease causing agent
-production of Abs or chemicals that destroy pathogens... -the p…
Variable concept; the ability of an organism to cause disease…
-Route of entry, how pathogen gets into the body... - Dependent…
Pathogen
disease causing agent
Immunity
-production of Abs or chemicals that destroy pathogens... -the p…
28 terms
Microbiology Test 4 Diagrams
Primary exposure to pathogen
Anamnestic exposure to pathogen (memory)
Basophil
IgE Ab
A
B
A (cell type)
B (be specific)
Primary exposure to pathogen
A
Anamnestic exposure to pathogen (memory)
B
190 terms
Microbiology Test 4 Vocabulary
A-B toxins
adaptive immunity
Adenoviridae
Adhesins
consist of an active component that inhibits a cellular proce…
the ability to recognize and remember specific antigens and m…
single linear dsDNA, one of causes of the cold, spread via re…
Molecules on the surfaces of pathogens that are able to recog…
A-B toxins
consist of an active component that inhibits a cellular proce…
adaptive immunity
the ability to recognize and remember specific antigens and m…
270 terms
MICROBIOLOGY TEST 4
A) Lactobacillus.
A) Escherichia coli.
E) All of the above.
D) Opa attaches to CD4+ T lymphocytes
1) Normal microbiota of the adult vagina consist primarily of…
2) Cystitis is most often caused by... A) Escherichia coli.... B)…
3) Pyelonephritis may result from... A) Urethritis.... B) Cystiti…
4) All of the following result from N. gonorrhoeae infection.…
A) Lactobacillus.
1) Normal microbiota of the adult vagina consist primarily of…
A) Escherichia coli.
2) Cystitis is most often caused by... A) Escherichia coli.... B)…
207 terms
Microbiology Test 4
Restriction Enzyme
Prokaryotes ; eukaryotes
Defense
Methylation
recognize specific base sequences within DNA (recognition seq…
recognition enzymes are common in _________, rare in ________…
restriction enzymes are a ___________ mechanism against hosti…
Restriction enzymes sense the __________ at specific base pai…
Restriction Enzyme
recognize specific base sequences within DNA (recognition seq…
Prokaryotes ; eukaryotes
recognition enzymes are common in _________, rare in ________…
26 terms
Microbiology test 4
DNA microarrays
uses of microarrays
natural methods of inserting DNA
transformation
-consist of molecules of immobilized single-stranded DNA... -Flo…
-monitoring gene expression ... -diagnosis of infection ... -identi…
-transformation ... -transduction ... -conjunction
When DNA is absorbed from the environment
DNA microarrays
-consist of molecules of immobilized single-stranded DNA... -Flo…
uses of microarrays
-monitoring gene expression ... -diagnosis of infection ... -identi…
149 terms
Microbiology Test 4
Sterilization
disinfection
decontamination/sanitation
antisepsis/degermation
process that destroys or removes all life forms and viruses;…
physical process or a chemical agent to destroy vegetative pa…
cleansing technique that mechanically removes microorganisms…
reduces the number of microbes on the human skin; a form of d…
Sterilization
process that destroys or removes all life forms and viruses;…
disinfection
physical process or a chemical agent to destroy vegetative pa…
101 terms
Microbiology Test 4
Mutualism
Commensalism
Parasitism
Normal Microbiota
Both organisms benefit... Ex) Termites and cellulose digesting b…
One organism benefits the other is left unharmed... ex) Bacteria…
Harms host
Also termed normal flora and indigenous microbiota... Two types…
Mutualism
Both organisms benefit... Ex) Termites and cellulose digesting b…
Commensalism
One organism benefits the other is left unharmed... ex) Bacteria…
66 terms
Microbiology Test 4
Innate immunity
All of the following protect the skin…
The function of the "ciliary escalator…
Which of the following exhibits the hi…
is nonspecific and present at birth.
HCl.
trap inhaled dust and microorganisms in mucous and propel it…
macrophages
Innate immunity
is nonspecific and present at birth.
All of the following protect the skin…
HCl.
270 terms
MICROBIOLOGY TEST 4
B) Glucose
C) Use of broad-spectrum antibiotics.
D) The mortality rate is high.
C) Shigella dysenteriae
1) Which one of the following is NOT required for tooth decay…
2) Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea is usually prece…
3) Which of the following statements about salmonellosis is f…
4) Which of the following does NOT produce a gastrointestinal…
B) Glucose
1) Which one of the following is NOT required for tooth decay…
C) Use of broad-spectrum antibiotics.
2) Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea is usually prece…
63 terms
Microbiology Test 4
Sugar or salt
Eggs
Oxygen
Nicholas Appert
To control microbial growth in a food, one can decrease water…
Lysozyme is an important antimicrobial substance found at hig…
The use of plastic film to wrap meat products can result in i…
The first person to use heating processes to preserve foods was
Sugar or salt
To control microbial growth in a food, one can decrease water…
Eggs
Lysozyme is an important antimicrobial substance found at hig…
74 terms
Microbiology: Test 4
handwashing
chicken pox
RSV (respiratory syncytial virus)
1- Headache... 2- painful/stiff neck... 3- f…
best defense against viral airborne diseases (2nd to vaccines)
- caused by HHV-3... - transmitted by droplet contact
most prevalent respiratory infection in newborns
3 symptoms common with meningitis
handwashing
best defense against viral airborne diseases (2nd to vaccines)
chicken pox
- caused by HHV-3... - transmitted by droplet contact
95 terms
Test 4 - OCCC microbiology
endotoxins
exotoxins
neurotoxins
hemotoxins
systemic... released by dead/dying cells ... effective at high dose…
target specific tissues ... released by living cells... effective a…
nervous system
blood
endotoxins
systemic... released by dead/dying cells ... effective at high dose…
exotoxins
target specific tissues ... released by living cells... effective a…
29 terms
Microbiology Test 4
Environmental Selective Pressure
Endemic
Granulomas
Exotoxin
continued and heavy use of antibiotics
disease that exhibits relatively steady frequency over long p…
spherical collection of immune cells
toxin secreted by living bacterial cell into infected tissue
Environmental Selective Pressure
continued and heavy use of antibiotics
Endemic
disease that exhibits relatively steady frequency over long p…
47 terms
Microbiology Test 4
Impetigo
Pseudomonas dermatitis
Otitis Externa
Acne
Nonbullous impetigo is the most common. ... the pathogen usuall…
Pathogen: pseudomonas aeruginosa... Portal of entry: skin abrasi…
Pathogen: pseudomonas aeruginosa... Portal of entry: ear... Symptom…
Pathogen: propioni bacterium acnes... Portal of entry: sebum cha…
Impetigo
Nonbullous impetigo is the most common. ... the pathogen usuall…
Pseudomonas dermatitis
Pathogen: pseudomonas aeruginosa... Portal of entry: skin abrasi…
microbiology test 4
human immune system
dual system
humoral I.S
cellular I.S
non-specific and specific I.S
humoral and cellular components
b cells
t cells
human immune system
non-specific and specific I.S
dual system
humoral and cellular components
8 terms
Microbiology Test 4
Folliculitis
Staphyloccal Scalded Skin Syndrome (SS…
Impetigo (Pyoderma) + Erysipelas
Necrotizing Fasciitis
SYMPTOMS: Infection of hair follicle. Pimples. STY when close…
SYMPTOMS: Skin becomes red + wrinkled + forms blisters. Outer…
SYMPTOMS: Impedigo: Red patches on face + limbs... Erysipelas: I…
SYMPTOMS: Redness, intense pain, swelling at site of infectio…
Folliculitis
SYMPTOMS: Infection of hair follicle. Pimples. STY when close…
Staphyloccal Scalded Skin Syndrome (SS…
SYMPTOMS: Skin becomes red + wrinkled + forms blisters. Outer…
92 terms
Microbiology test 4
clade
random mutation
natural selection
reductive (degenerative) evolution
a group of species that share a common ancestor
as the chromosome replicates, errors result in mutations
in an environment, some genes are under selection pressure
loss or mutation of DNA encoding unselected traits
clade
a group of species that share a common ancestor
random mutation
as the chromosome replicates, errors result in mutations
Microbiology Test 4 terms
Type I
Type II
Type III
Type IV
anaphylactic, hay fever
cytotoxic, hemolytic disease of newborn
immune complex, glomeruonephritis
delayed cell mediated, poison ivy
Type I
anaphylactic, hay fever
Type II
cytotoxic, hemolytic disease of newborn
141 terms
Microbiology Test 4
Antimicrobial Agents
Chemotherapeutic agents
Paul Ehrlich
Alexander Fleming
Drugs that treat infections
Drugs that act against diseases
"Magic bullets"... Arsenic compounds that killed microbes... who c…
Penicillin released from Penicillium (1929)... who invented it
Antimicrobial Agents
Drugs that treat infections
Chemotherapeutic agents
Drugs that act against diseases
124 terms
Microbiology Test 4
Integument
Integument consist of
Skin
Sebum
forms the boundary between the human and the environment.
hair, skin, nails, sweat glands, and oil glands--NO BLOOD VES…
total surface area of 1.5 to 2 meters. Thickness ranges from…
low pH makes the skin inhospitable to microorganisms HAS LYSO…
Integument
forms the boundary between the human and the environment.
Integument consist of
hair, skin, nails, sweat glands, and oil glands--NO BLOOD VES…
37 terms
Microbiology Test 4
Point Mutations
Missense Mutation
Nonsense Mutation
Silent Mutation
A change in a base pair that leads to a change of the amino a…
Changing to a different amino acid that leads to a faulty pro…
Changes to a stop codon that which will lead to an incomplete…
Changes a base pair that changes an amino acid but does not a…
Point Mutations
A change in a base pair that leads to a change of the amino a…
Missense Mutation
Changing to a different amino acid that leads to a faulty pro…
76 terms
Microbiology Test 4
Gram Negative Rods
opportunists
Genus Pseudomonas
Ps. Aeruginosa infections
numerous genera and species. both opportunists and strict pat…
common in the environment. usually from soil, water, sewage.
numerous species.... major pathogen: Ps. aeruginosa. ... in soil,…
burn patients, patients with underlying respiratory disease,…
Gram Negative Rods
numerous genera and species. both opportunists and strict pat…
opportunists
common in the environment. usually from soil, water, sewage.
20 terms
Microbiology Test 4 Review
D
Antibody
Chemotaxis
Opsonization
Skin and mucous membranes ... a) are the first line of innate i…
Which is not a component of innate immunity?... Skin, inflammati…
The movement of phagocytes in the direction of an infection d…
Complement and immunoglobulins can coat the outer surface of…
D
Skin and mucous membranes ... a) are the first line of innate i…
Antibody
Which is not a component of innate immunity?... Skin, inflammati…
128 terms
Microbiology Test 4
Virus
How small is a virus?
Are Viruses alive?
Characteristics to define living organ…
-Genetic material in a protein package ... -is a small obligate…
-Eukaryotic cell= 10,000 nm... -Cell nucleus= 2,800 nm... -Bacteriu…
-Scientists are still arguing ... -Its an ongoing debate
-Grow and develop... -Reproduce... -Establish complex organization…
Virus
-Genetic material in a protein package ... -is a small obligate…
How small is a virus?
-Eukaryotic cell= 10,000 nm... -Cell nucleus= 2,800 nm... -Bacteriu…
276 terms
Microbiology Test 4
a cytokine released when mast cells an…
natural human chemical that inhibits v…
a chemical substance produced by white…
elevated host body temperature. can be…
histamine
interferon
cytokine
fever
a cytokine released when mast cells an…
histamine
natural human chemical that inhibits v…
interferon
107 terms
Microbiology Test 4
1) Live with it forever- HIV, herpes,…
1) nucleic acid... 2) symmetry... 3) whether…
Virology
What are 3 possible outcomes of a virus?***
Name 3 things to classify viruses***
Study of viruses
1) Live with it forever- HIV, herpes,…
What are 3 possible outcomes of a virus?***
1) nucleic acid... 2) symmetry... 3) whether…
Name 3 things to classify viruses***
25 terms
Microbiology Test 4
Stromatolites
Cyanobacteria hopanoids
Biosignatures
Banded iron formations (BIFs)
-the earliest form of life for which we have clear fossil evi…
steriod-like membrane molecules that are particularly durable
Chemical indicators of life... --isotope ratios:if the rations b…
-an extraordinary event in the planet's history was the evolu…
Stromatolites
-the earliest form of life for which we have clear fossil evi…
Cyanobacteria hopanoids
steriod-like membrane molecules that are particularly durable
161 terms
Microbiology test 4
Susceptibility
Immunity
Innate immunity
Adaptive immunity
Lack of resistance to a disease
Ability to ward off diseases
Defenses against any pathogen. We are born with.... First and se…
Immunity, resistance to a specific pathogen.
Susceptibility
Lack of resistance to a disease
Immunity
Ability to ward off diseases
58 terms
microbiology test 4
Define immunopathology, and describe t…
Identify the four major categories of…
Summarize the nature of allergens and…
Identify three conditions caused by Ig…
the study of disease states associated with overreactivity or…
a) Immediate hypersensitivity: Anaphylaxis... , asthma, allergie…
Proteins are more allergenic than carbs, fats or nucleic acid…
a) Hay fever... b) Allergenic asthma... c) eczema
Define immunopathology, and describe t…
the study of disease states associated with overreactivity or…
Identify the four major categories of…
a) Immediate hypersensitivity: Anaphylaxis... , asthma, allergie…
21 terms
Microbiology Test 4
Pseudomonas
Staph
SSS scalded skin syndrome
Strep strep pyogenes
pyocyanin (blue-green pus); pseudomonas aeruginosa
boils, carbuncles, pimples; staph aureus
requires phage for toxin;
scarlet fever-erythrogenic toxin produces a rash, post-strep…
Pseudomonas
pyocyanin (blue-green pus); pseudomonas aeruginosa
Staph
boils, carbuncles, pimples; staph aureus
106 terms
Microbiology Test 4
fungi basic characteristics
yeast
mold
superficial fungi infections
-cells walls made of chitin or cellulose... -eukaryotic cells... -e…
-unicellular... -facultative anaerobe... -oval or spherical shape... -…
-multicellular... -aerobic... -hyphae form mycelium... -mycelium form…
-localized to skin and hair... -no cellular response... -usually co…
fungi basic characteristics
-cells walls made of chitin or cellulose... -eukaryotic cells... -e…
yeast
-unicellular... -facultative anaerobe... -oval or spherical shape... -…
147 terms
Microbiology Test 4
Stye... Faruncle... Carbuncle... Boils... Pimples…
Pneumonia... Carditis... Meningitis... TSS... Scal…
Coagulase
TSS toxin... Exfoliating toxin A and B... En…
Staphylococcus skin diseases... S aureus... S pyogenes
Staph aureus diseases
Enzyme that Staph aureus secretes... Makes fibrin clots and secr…
Superantigens from staph aureus... Enterotoxins cause food poiso…
Stye... Faruncle... Carbuncle... Boils... Pimples…
Staphylococcus skin diseases... S aureus... S pyogenes
Pneumonia... Carditis... Meningitis... TSS... Scal…
Staph aureus diseases
84 terms
Microbiology Test 4
MDR
XDR
Selective Toxicity
Chemotherapy
Multi Drug Resistance
Extensive Drug Resistance
selectively finding and destroying pathogens without damaging…
The use of chemicals to treat a disease
MDR
Multi Drug Resistance
XDR
Extensive Drug Resistance
96 terms
Microbiology Test 4
A teenager with lupus has:
Three potential sequelae of measles are:
HIV causes:
West Nile Fever and West Nile Meningit…
autoimmune disease
subacute sclerosis panencephalitis (SSPE) up to 6 years later…
immune deficiency and a lack of immune system response
false
A teenager with lupus has:
autoimmune disease
Three potential sequelae of measles are:
subacute sclerosis panencephalitis (SSPE) up to 6 years later…
47 terms
Microbiology Test 4
First Line of Defense
Second Line of Defense
Third Line of Defense
Functions of Inflamation
Intact skin & Tears ... Mucous Membranes & their Secretions... Norm…
Phagocytes... Neutrophils... Eosinophils... Dendric cells... Macrophages…
Specialized Lymphocytes: T&B cells ... Antibodies
Destroy and Remove & Wall Off an Injurious Agent ... Repair Tiss…
First Line of Defense
Intact skin & Tears ... Mucous Membranes & their Secretions... Norm…
Second Line of Defense
Phagocytes... Neutrophils... Eosinophils... Dendric cells... Macrophages…
90 terms
Microbiology Test 4
Burkholderia. cepacia
Burkholderia. pseudomallei
Acinetobacter
Stenotrophomonas. maltophila
-multi-drug resistant opportunist, causing UTI's and ... respira…
-found in soil and water of tropical S.E. Asia, causing wound…
-soil and water opportunist... -problem in hospitals... -multi-drug…
-in water and soil... -one of the most drug-resistant species, e…
Burkholderia. cepacia
-multi-drug resistant opportunist, causing UTI's and ... respira…
Burkholderia. pseudomallei
-found in soil and water of tropical S.E. Asia, causing wound…
103 terms
Microbiology Test 4
Baltimore Classification Scheme
Viruses
Virus Structure
Capsid
A classification system based on the nucleic acid metabolism…
Not free-living... Not cellular... Smaller than living cells... Small…
Genome protected by protein coat
Protein coat that surrounds the viral genome... Composed of caps…
Baltimore Classification Scheme
A classification system based on the nucleic acid metabolism…
Viruses
Not free-living... Not cellular... Smaller than living cells... Small…
179 terms
Microbiology Test 4
Three general groups of Gram + Bacilli
Spore-forming Bacilli
Characteristics of Genus Bacillus
Bacillus anthracis virulence factors
Endospore forming ... Non-endospore forming... Irregular shaped and…
Bacillus ... Clostridium
Gram +... Endospore forming ... Motile rods ... Soil habitat ... 2 specie…
Polypeptide capsule... Exotoxins
Three general groups of Gram + Bacilli
Endospore forming ... Non-endospore forming... Irregular shaped and…
Spore-forming Bacilli
Bacillus ... Clostridium
208 terms
Microbiology Test 4
Medically Important Gram-Positive Baci…
Endospore-formers
Non-endospore-formers
Irregular Shape & Staining Properties
-endospore-formers... -non-endospore-formers... -irregular shape &s…
Bacillus, Clostridium
Listeria, Erysipelothrix
Corynebacterium, Actinomyces, Mycobacterium, Proprionibacteri…
Medically Important Gram-Positive Baci…
-endospore-formers... -non-endospore-formers... -irregular shape &s…
Endospore-formers
Bacillus, Clostridium
214 terms
Microbiology Test 4
Normal Flora... 1. Resident... 2. Transient
skin
the gut
vagina in females
What are microorganisms that occupy human bodies in a mutuali…
Where does Staphylococcus aureus occur at in the body?
Where does Escherichia coli occur on the body?
Where does Micrococcus luteus occur on the body?
Normal Flora... 1. Resident... 2. Transient
What are microorganisms that occupy human bodies in a mutuali…
skin
Where does Staphylococcus aureus occur at in the body?
154 terms
Microbiology test 4
Antimicrobial chemotherapy
Paul Ehrlich
Selective toxicity
Antibiotic
Use of chemicals to treat diseases caused by microorganisms;…
Father of chemotherapy, salvarsan was discovered to fight syp…
Must do more harm to pathogen than to host to have medical use
Secretion from a bacterium or fungus that is antibacterial in…
Antimicrobial chemotherapy
Use of chemicals to treat diseases caused by microorganisms;…
Paul Ehrlich
Father of chemotherapy, salvarsan was discovered to fight syp…
19 terms
Microbiology Test 4
Genetics
Genome
Central Dogma
DNA Replication
The study of inheritance and inheritable traits as expressed…
The entire genetic complement of an organism that includes it…
Main principle of molecular biology that follows DNA to RNA a…
Ordered and regulated process that involves the duplication o…
Genetics
The study of inheritance and inheritable traits as expressed…
Genome
The entire genetic complement of an organism that includes it…
Test 4 Microbiology
What is the integumentary system is co…
The skin's chemical defenses
Main microbes associated with skin
Acne
Skin, hair, nails, sweat, and oil glands
oils and sweat... Antimicrobial substances- sebum has low pH. Sw…
Pseudomonas, gram negative cells, staphylococcus, rich divers…
A mass of sebum and dead cells trapping pores associated with…
What is the integumentary system is co…
Skin, hair, nails, sweat, and oil glands
The skin's chemical defenses
oils and sweat... Antimicrobial substances- sebum has low pH. Sw…
24 terms
microbiology test 4
an example of microbial ______ is the…
When nitrobacter utilizes nitrate prod…
microorganisms that can cause disease…
Gnotobiotic animals are:... a) vectors fo…
c
a
a
b
an example of microbial ______ is the…
c
When nitrobacter utilizes nitrate prod…
a
90 terms
Microbiology - Test 4
Healthcare-associated infections
Community-associated infections
iatrogenic infections
Medical asepsis
Infections acquired within the hospital or another healthcare…
Infections acquired outside of the healthcare facility; infec…
Infections due to medical or surgical treatment (UTI)
clean technique; involves procedures and practices that reduc…
Healthcare-associated infections
Infections acquired within the hospital or another healthcare…
Community-associated infections
Infections acquired outside of the healthcare facility; infec…
73 terms
Microbiology Test 4
Innate Immunity (non specific resistan…
First line of defense
Types of blood cells
Cilia
First and second line of defense
Intact skin, mucous membrane and their secretions, and normal…
Leukocytes (white blood cells)... 1) Neutrophiles- (60-70% of Le…
First line of defense... In respiratory tract and traps invaders…
Innate Immunity (non specific resistan…
First and second line of defense
First line of defense
Intact skin, mucous membrane and their secretions, and normal…
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