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11 terms
Unit 4 Molecular Biology
Replication
Transcription
Translation
Mutation
Makes DNA, process in which DNA is duplicated and two identic…
Makes mRNA, process in which part of the DNA is copied into R…
Makes proteins; process in which a polypeptide (protein) is m…
Change in the DNA information (sequence of bases); may or may…
Replication
Makes DNA, process in which DNA is duplicated and two identic…
Transcription
Makes mRNA, process in which part of the DNA is copied into R…
22 terms
biology: Molecular and Cellular 4
DNA
RNA
Messenger RNA
Ribosomal RNA
Phosphate group - Deoxyribose - nitrogen base. Its a double h…
Phosphate group - ribose - nitrogen bases. single stranded. b…
Carries instructions from polypeptide synthesis from nucleus…
Forms an important part of both subunits of the ribosome.
DNA
Phosphate group - Deoxyribose - nitrogen base. Its a double h…
RNA
Phosphate group - ribose - nitrogen bases. single stranded. b…
82 terms
Chapter 4 Molecular Biology
Nucleotide
nucleoside
nucleic acid polymerization
Pyrimidines
-sugar ... -base ... -phosphates
sugar + base
-5' to 3' synthesis and base sequence ... -antiparallel and comp…
-one ring (CUT)... Cytosine ... Thymine ... Uracil
Nucleotide
-sugar ... -base ... -phosphates
nucleoside
sugar + base
10 terms
Vocabulary 4 (Molecular Biology)
ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)
Mitosis
Meiosis
Carbohydrates
energy used for cellular reactions
division of body cells that results in two identical daughter…
division of sex cells resulting in four cells
organic compounds such as starch and sugar that can be broken…
ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)
energy used for cellular reactions
Mitosis
division of body cells that results in two identical daughter…
189 terms
CH4: Molecular Biology
Adenine, Guanine, 2
Thymine, Cytosine, Uracil, 1
G-C, 3
Phosphodiester bond btwn, 3' hydroxy a…
Purines? How many rings?
Pyramidines? How many rings?
Which bond between base pairs is stronger? How many bonds?
How are nucleotides connected?
Adenine, Guanine, 2
Purines? How many rings?
Thymine, Cytosine, Uracil, 1
Pyramidines? How many rings?
21 terms
Molecular Biology: Lecture 4
What is depurination and how often doe…
What is deamination and how often does…
How does UV radiation from the sun inj…
What are the 4 types of DNA repair?
Spontaneous loss of purine base pairs.... ~5,000/day
Spontaneous swapping of C to U.... ~100/day
Produces covalent linkages between adjacent pyrimidines
Base excision.... Nucleotide excision.... Transcription-coupled.... Do…
What is depurination and how often doe…
Spontaneous loss of purine base pairs.... ~5,000/day
What is deamination and how often does…
Spontaneous swapping of C to U.... ~100/day
98 terms
Molecular Biology Exam #4
Transition versus transversion, and ho…
Missense versus nonsense point mutations
Sickle cell anemia, progeria, and cyst…
How often are errors observed in bacte…
A transition is a pyrimidine to pyrimidines or purine to puri…
Missense - creates an amino acid substitution. Nonsense - cre…
Sickle cell anemia is an A to T transversion (glutamic acid c…
One error in 100-1000 bacterial cells. Humans see one mutatio…
Transition versus transversion, and ho…
A transition is a pyrimidine to pyrimidines or purine to puri…
Missense versus nonsense point mutations
Missense - creates an amino acid substitution. Nonsense - cre…
177 terms
Molecular Biology 4
What are 6 differences b/w DNA replica…
List the 3 phases of prokaryotic and e…
Describe prokaryotic transcription ini…
Describe prokaryotic transcription elo…
- whole genome is replicated; transcription = only parts.... - t…
Initiation... Elongation... Termination
RNAp binds the Promoter in DNA.... - conformational change... - "tr…
(after RNAp makes ~10 nucleotides)... - dsDNA enters the pincers…
What are 6 differences b/w DNA replica…
- whole genome is replicated; transcription = only parts.... - t…
List the 3 phases of prokaryotic and e…
Initiation... Elongation... Termination
45 terms
Molecular Biology
double helix
nucleotide
adenine
thymine
determined by watson and crick; structure of DNA
sub unit of nucleic acid (monomer) made of 5 carbon sugar, ph…
purine that pairs with thymine
pyrimidine (single ring) that pairs with adenine
double helix
determined by watson and crick; structure of DNA
nucleotide
sub unit of nucleic acid (monomer) made of 5 carbon sugar, ph…
17 terms
Molecular Biology- 2.4 Proteins
What amino acids form when they underg…
dipeptide
oligopeptides
What is the structural feature of a po…
polypeptides
a molecule consisting of many amino acids linked by peptide b…
a polypeptide that has fewer than 20 amino acids
carbon atom in the centre bonded to an amine group, a carboxy…
What amino acids form when they underg…
polypeptides
dipeptide
a molecule consisting of many amino acids linked by peptide b…
Molecular Biology, Lecture 4
CREB
CBP
Histone Acetyltransferase (HAT)
Nucleosome
(cAMP Response Element Binging protein)... binds to cAMP respons…
(CREB Binding Protein) - similar to P300... binds to CREB in ord…
enzyme that acyetylates Lysine amino acids on histone (and so…
building block of chromatin... DNA wound around 8 histones. 2 ea…
CREB
(cAMP Response Element Binging protein)... binds to cAMP respons…
CBP
(CREB Binding Protein) - similar to P300... binds to CREB in ord…
44 terms
Molecular Biology, Lecture 4
CREB
CBP
Histone Acetyltransferase (HAT)
Nucleosome
(cAMP Response Element Binging protein)... binds to cAMP respons…
(CREB Binding Protein) - similar to P300... binds to CREB in ord…
enzyme that acyetylates Lysine amino acids on histone (and so…
building block of chromatin... DNA wound around 8 histones. 2 ea…
CREB
(cAMP Response Element Binging protein)... binds to cAMP respons…
CBP
(CREB Binding Protein) - similar to P300... binds to CREB in ord…
31 terms
Molecular biology lecture 4
amino group
carboxyl group
R group, side chain
L conformation
most amino acids are in this form... have to be in this conforma…
amino group
carboxyl group
36 terms
Cell & Molecular Biology #4
enzyme-globular protein
structural protein-fibrous protein
transport protein
motor protein
any protein in which the polypeptide chain folds into a compa…
a protein with an elongated, rodlike shape, such as a collage…
membrane transport protein that moves a solute across a cell…
protein such as myosin or kinesin that uses energy derives fr…
enzyme-globular protein
any protein in which the polypeptide chain folds into a compa…
structural protein-fibrous protein
a protein with an elongated, rodlike shape, such as a collage…
76 terms
Unit #4: Molecular Biology
Doc Griffith
Hershey & Chase
Chargoff
James Watson and Francis Crick
In the 1920's he used pathogenic bacteria as well as harmless…
Determined that DNA was the most important part of the nucleu…
Discovered the ratios of nucleotides in DNA, almost equal rat…
Knew pieces of DNA like how it was composed of a 5Carbon suga…
Doc Griffith
In the 1920's he used pathogenic bacteria as well as harmless…
Hershey & Chase
Determined that DNA was the most important part of the nucleu…
9 terms
Molecular Biology - 2.4
Peptide bonds are
There are _____ types of amino acids
____ amino acids are encoded by the ge…
Proteins are synthesized by
bonds between amino acids
22
20
ribosomes
Peptide bonds are
bonds between amino acids
There are _____ types of amino acids
22
29 terms
Molecular biology 4
How is mRNA exported from the nucleus?
Describe the genetic code
What are the important codons to take…
What is meant by the degenerate code?
1. Nuclear pore complex ... 2. Basket traps mRNA in pore... 3. Reco…
1. 4 bases code for 20 different aas... 2. a.a.s are in triplets
1. UGG - only codon for Trp... 2. AUG - Met = always start codon…
More than one codon can code for the same aa
How is mRNA exported from the nucleus?
1. Nuclear pore complex ... 2. Basket traps mRNA in pore... 3. Reco…
Describe the genetic code
1. 4 bases code for 20 different aas... 2. a.a.s are in triplets
56 terms
Chapter 4: Molecular Biology
genetics
a gene
a gene is composed of
linear sequence of bases in DNA conver…
study that deals with the mechanisms by which traits are pass…
element of information that specifies the sequences of amino…
DNA
linear sequence of bases in RNA
genetics
study that deals with the mechanisms by which traits are pass…
a gene
element of information that specifies the sequences of amino…
22 terms
Molecular Biology L4
RNA synthesized in the ..... direction.
The polarity of RNA is ...... to DNA t…
RNA Polymerase catalyzes....
RNA polymerase begins at the...
5' to 3'
Opposite
Phosphodiester bond formation.
Transcription start site (designated +1 moving downstream).
RNA synthesized in the ..... direction.
5' to 3'
The polarity of RNA is ...... to DNA t…
Opposite
11 terms
Molecular Biology
DNA
DNA replication
RNA
mRNA
double stranded double helix, ATCG bases, nucleic acid
to copy DNA
single stranded, AUCG bases, nucleic acid
messenger RNA, copies the DNA code and moves it to the ribosome
DNA
double stranded double helix, ATCG bases, nucleic acid
DNA replication
to copy DNA
11 terms
2.4 Molecular Biology
polypeptides
dipeptide
oligopeptides
lysozyme
chains of amino acids linked via condensation reactions
two amino acids linked by a peptide bond
amino acid chains with fewer than 20 amino acids
1 polypeptide, kills bacteria by digesting peptidoglycan in t…
polypeptides
chains of amino acids linked via condensation reactions
dipeptide
two amino acids linked by a peptide bond
33 terms
Molecular Biology Lecture 4
Can unwind DNA and can start DNA synth…
Protein folding is slightly different…
Antibiotics
A promoter sequence
Unlike DNA dependent DNA polymerases, RNA polymerases (RNAP)…
RNAP activity is exactly the same as that of DNA polymerases…
RNA polymerase inhibitors can be used as
Transcription stars when an RNAP binds at _____
Can unwind DNA and can start DNA synth…
Unlike DNA dependent DNA polymerases, RNA polymerases (RNAP)…
Protein folding is slightly different…
RNAP activity is exactly the same as that of DNA polymerases…
43 terms
Molecular Biology (unit 4)
how many base pairs of DNA are in a hu…
base pair
Nanometer
how many nanometers exist between each…
6 billion
1 rung on the latter of DNA
1 billion nanometers= 1 meter
.34 nm
how many base pairs of DNA are in a hu…
6 billion
base pair
1 rung on the latter of DNA
70 terms
Molecular Biology Exam 4
RecA protein is required for:
When is homology-directed repair (HDR)…
__________ make up the heterodimer tha…
The D-loop is the structure formed whe…
Recombination (repair) and SOS repair
During G1, because repair template is usually a homologous ch…
Ku70 and Ku80
The non-template duplex does not base pair with the damaged d…
RecA protein is required for:
Recombination (repair) and SOS repair
When is homology-directed repair (HDR)…
During G1, because repair template is usually a homologous ch…
135 terms
Molecular Biology Unit 4
Plasmid DNA
Plasmids can encode for:
Plasmids can be shared with
Ori: Definition and Function
A DNA molecule that replicates the same way the host genome d…
Antibiotic Resistance... Antibiotic Synthesis... Virulence
Other bacteria
Origin of replication, it allows plasmids to replicate outsid…
Plasmid DNA
A DNA molecule that replicates the same way the host genome d…
Plasmids can encode for:
Antibiotic Resistance... Antibiotic Synthesis... Virulence
24 terms
Molecular Biology
molecule
organic
monomer
polymer
2 or more atoms bonded together
Contains carbon
A molecule that can combine with others to form a polymer.
A long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monom…
molecule
2 or more atoms bonded together
organic
Contains carbon
61 terms
Molecular Biology Test 4
Linked Genes
Sex Linked Genes
Aneuploidy
Disjunction
- Do not follow the law of independent assortment... - Dependent…
Genes are attached to X or Y chromosome, sometimes making one…
- Having the wrong number of chromosomes, which can result in…
Proper separation of chromosomes during cell division
Linked Genes
- Do not follow the law of independent assortment... - Dependent…
Sex Linked Genes
Genes are attached to X or Y chromosome, sometimes making one…
27 terms
Molecular Biology: Exam 4
Which DNA & MRNA nitrogen bases always…
Two kinds of bonds in & where each occur
What does the sequence of bases in a D…
What is a gene?
A-T (U)... C-G
peptide
individual proteins aka genes
proteins formed through DNA coding
Which DNA & MRNA nitrogen bases always…
A-T (U)... C-G
Two kinds of bonds in & where each occur
peptide
67 terms
Molecular Biology Ch 4
all eukaryotic cells have what type of…
what are defining characteristics of e…
the number of sets of identical chromo…
the membrane enclosed organelle in euk…
linear
number of chromosomes and size of chromosomes
ploidy
mitochondria
all eukaryotic cells have what type of…
linear
what are defining characteristics of e…
number of chromosomes and size of chromosomes
75 terms
molecular biology 4
protein motifs
frameshifts
Svedberg units
transfer RNAs
common sequences of amino acids that provide a certain qualit…
shifting reading frame one RNA base which will produce prelim…
measure of sedimentation velocity, determined by analytical c…
recognize codons and specific amino acid
protein motifs
common sequences of amino acids that provide a certain qualit…
frameshifts
shifting reading frame one RNA base which will produce prelim…
21 terms
Molecular Biology Ch. 4
Nucleotide
2'-deoxyribose
Nucleoside
Phosphodiester Linkage
The fundamental building block of DNA, consisting of a Phosph…
Sugar used in DNA to which a nitrogenous base is attached.
The sugar and base together
Bond in which the phosphoryl group between the two nucleotide…
Nucleotide
The fundamental building block of DNA, consisting of a Phosph…
2'-deoxyribose
Sugar used in DNA to which a nitrogenous base is attached.
41 terms
Molecular Biology 4
Nuclear pore complex
Cap binding protein
The genetic code
Triplet code
- A large complex of dozens of proteins lining a nuclear pore…
- When mRNA needs to leave the nucleus, the mRNA is "tagged"…
- 4 bases (A G T C) to encode 20 different amino acids.... - Seq…
3 bases of DNA that code for a single amino acid.
Nuclear pore complex
- A large complex of dozens of proteins lining a nuclear pore…
Cap binding protein
- When mRNA needs to leave the nucleus, the mRNA is "tagged"…
13 terms
Unit 4 Molecular Biology
mRNA
tRNA
Ribosome
Nucleotide
Molecule that carries the message to make a protein from the…
Molecule that carries in each amino acid to build a protein
The organelle where proteins are made
Monomers or units that makeup a strand of DNA or RNA
mRNA
Molecule that carries the message to make a protein from the…
tRNA
Molecule that carries in each amino acid to build a protein
13 terms
Molecular Biology
carbohydrates
lipids
proteins
amino acids
carbon compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; us…
broad class of carbon compounds that are insoluble in water;…
carbon compounds composed of one or more chains of amino acids
subunits of proteins; composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, a…
carbohydrates
carbon compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; us…
lipids
broad class of carbon compounds that are insoluble in water;…
35 terms
Molecular biology 4
DNA library
Genomic library
cDNA
Metagenome
A collection of DNA clones each containing a different piece…
Represents the entire genome of an organism
Represents sequences that have been converted to RNA sequence…
Genome of a sample of the environment e.g. human gut genome
DNA library
A collection of DNA clones each containing a different piece…
Genomic library
Represents the entire genome of an organism
10 terms
Molecular Biology (Week 4)
separase
silencers
spliceosome
splicing
The enzyme that cleaves the cohesin linkage that binds sister…
DNA sequences that reduce transcription in a position- and or…
A complex of proteins and RNA molecules that catalyses mRNA s…
The process by which introns are removed from the primary mRN…
separase
The enzyme that cleaves the cohesin linkage that binds sister…
silencers
DNA sequences that reduce transcription in a position- and or…
20 terms
Molecular Biology: Lecture 4
What is the one gene/ one enzyme hypot…
Define core enzyme
Define sigma factor
Define holoenzyme
One gene is responsible for making one enzyme
find out
a transcription factor in prokaryotic cells
a complete enzyme
What is the one gene/ one enzyme hypot…
One gene is responsible for making one enzyme
Define core enzyme
find out
26 terms
Molecular Biology Test 4
Totipotent Cell
Where did all the different cell types…
Pluripotent Cells
Multipotent Cells
A zygote is a totipotent cell. This means it has the ability…
All the different types of cells (nerve cells, skin cells, li…
Are cells in the early embryo (inner cell mass of the blastoc…
Cells that can form a range of related cell types, but not al…
Totipotent Cell
A zygote is a totipotent cell. This means it has the ability…
Where did all the different cell types…
All the different types of cells (nerve cells, skin cells, li…
308 terms
4: Molecular Biology
DNA & RNA name/structure
Purine vs. pyrimidine
nucleoside vs. tide
backbone of DNA?
-deoxyribonucleoside 5' triphosphate... -ribonucleoside 5' triph…
purine: A & G (larger)... pyrimidine: C, T, U (smaller)
side = just sugar & base... tide = phosphate group + sugar & base
sugar + phosphate portion... (base = variable portion)
DNA & RNA name/structure
-deoxyribonucleoside 5' triphosphate... -ribonucleoside 5' triph…
Purine vs. pyrimidine
purine: A & G (larger)... pyrimidine: C, T, U (smaller)
16 terms
Introduction to Molecular Biology 4
codons
start/initiation codon
stop codons
nonsense/framshift mutations
triplets of bases that encodes the sequence of amino acids in…
methionine AUG... the starting point to read information
UAG UAA UGA... the ending point to read the informaiton
deletion and insertion
codons
triplets of bases that encodes the sequence of amino acids in…
start/initiation codon
methionine AUG... the starting point to read information
45 terms
Cell & Molecular Biology 4
5 50
plasma membrane
lipids proteins
liposome
A membrane is about __ nm or __ atoms thick (numbers)
____ functions: protection, selective penetration (import/exp…
____ in the membrane determine basic structure/permeability;…
an artificially-prepared spherical vesicle composed of a lipi…
5 50
A membrane is about __ nm or __ atoms thick (numbers)
plasma membrane
____ functions: protection, selective penetration (import/exp…
46 terms
molecular biology week 4
Replication
Semiconservative replication
Dispersive replication
Conservative replication
Copying process by which a cell duplicates its DNA
The way DNA replicates, each double helix separates and forms…
the parent molecule is cut into sections such that the daught…
original strands reform double helix; two new strands form a…
Replication
Copying process by which a cell duplicates its DNA
Semiconservative replication
The way DNA replicates, each double helix separates and forms…
37 terms
4 Molecular Biology in Medicine
amniocentesis
amniotic fluid
antibodies
antigens
procedure in which a sample is obtained of amniotic fluid tha…
fluid surrounding and protecting the embryo or fetus in the a…
proteins produced by animals in response to antigens and whic…
compounds, usually proteins, that can trigger the immune syst…
amniocentesis
procedure in which a sample is obtained of amniotic fluid tha…
amniotic fluid
fluid surrounding and protecting the embryo or fetus in the a…
23 terms
4. Molecular Biology (Kandpal)
Why health professionals should care a…
Humans vs Chimps - Malaria strains
Longevity of a drug depends on...
Cytochrome P450 (CYP)
Treatment options... Rational basis for treatment outcomes... bette…
Humans do not have CMAH... Chimps do have CMAH... CMAH is an enzyme…
absorption ... distribution ... metabolism... excretion
enzyme that carries out several reactions ... ex: hydroxylation…
Why health professionals should care a…
Treatment options... Rational basis for treatment outcomes... bette…
Humans vs Chimps - Malaria strains
Humans do not have CMAH... Chimps do have CMAH... CMAH is an enzyme…
Cell & Molecular Biology Chapter 4
Cytoplasm
Microfilament
Bacteria
Pseudopodia
The plasma membrane and cell contents with the exception of t…
Thin fibers consisting of actin protein subunits; form part o…
Prokaryotic organisms that have peptidoglycan in their cell w…
A temporary extension of an amoeboid cell that is used for fe…
Cytoplasm
The plasma membrane and cell contents with the exception of t…
Microfilament
Thin fibers consisting of actin protein subunits; form part o…
44 terms
Microbiology Ch 4 "Molecular Biology"
Gene
3 Informational macromolecules in a cell
3 Stages of flow for genetic information
Replication
Functional unit of genetic information
DNA, RNA, Protein
Replication, Transcription, translation
DNA is duplicated
Gene
Functional unit of genetic information
3 Informational macromolecules in a cell
DNA, RNA, Protein
Molecular Biology Lecture 4
Amino acid
L confirmation
Non-polar amino acids
Polar amino acids
Structure is C attached to:... COOH (carboxyl group)... Hydrogen... NH…
Used to make proteins from mRNA
Side chains are made of C and H... Glycine is the smallest and h…
Negative, positive, and neutral charges... Cysteine (neutral) ca…
Amino acid
Structure is C attached to:... COOH (carboxyl group)... Hydrogen... NH…
L confirmation
Used to make proteins from mRNA
102 terms
Molecular Biology Exam #4
eukaryotic RNA polymerases
control regions for eukaryotic transcr…
detection of protein binding to DNA
transcription factors
I, II, III, IV, V... --> focusing on pol II
- DNA sequences that proteins can bind to get a response... 1. p…
- mobility shift assay (gel-shift, retardation assay)... - DNase…
- factor = protein... - some do not bind to DNA, some bind to ot…
eukaryotic RNA polymerases
I, II, III, IV, V... --> focusing on pol II
control regions for eukaryotic transcr…
- DNA sequences that proteins can bind to get a response... 1. p…
46 terms
Molecular Biology Ch. 4
Primary
Why are there peptide bonds and disulf…
Secondary
peptide bond
- the sequence of amino acids that make up the polypeptide ch…
...
- refers to regularly repeating ele- ments within a protein,…
The covalent link between two adjacent amino acids... - creates…
Primary
- the sequence of amino acids that make up the polypeptide ch…
Why are there peptide bonds and disulf…
...
48 terms
Chapter 4 Molecular Biology
Dr. Ian ______________ announced the f…
What 2 processes refer to cloning in t…
Restriction endonucleases, using the p…
________________ cleave DNA at interna…
Ian Wilmut... a sheep Dolly... Mice, cattle and cats
Reproduction of daughter cells by fission or mitotic division
Immune... Enzyme... Foreign DNA
Endonucleases ... Exonucleases... A methyl group to a nucleotide
Dr. Ian ______________ announced the f…
Ian Wilmut... a sheep Dolly... Mice, cattle and cats
What 2 processes refer to cloning in t…
Reproduction of daughter cells by fission or mitotic division
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