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Study sets matching "molecular biology chapter 2"

77 terms
Chapter 2 - Molecular Biology
Theory of Vitalism
Molecular Biology
Synthesis of Urea
Atom
It was thought that living organisms were composed of organic…
Aims to explain living process in terms of the chemical subst…
Urea was discovered in human urine in the 18th century. It is…
A single particle of an element, consisting of a positively c…
Theory of Vitalism
It was thought that living organisms were composed of organic…
Molecular Biology
Aims to explain living process in terms of the chemical subst…
Chapter 2 Molecular Biology
Atom
Molecule
Covalent bond
Metabolism
a single particle of an element, consisting of positively cha…
a group of two or more atoms held together
the bond by which molecules are held together
the web of all enzyme-catalyzed reactions in a cell or organism
Atom
a single particle of an element, consisting of positively cha…
Molecule
a group of two or more atoms held together
78 terms
Chapter 2: molecular biology
organic molecules
inorganic molecule
Carbon atom
Metabolism
molecules containing carbon bonded to hydrogen
A molecule that do not have carbon bonded to hydrogen
-can form 4 covalent bonds... -made of protons, neutrons, and el…
The sum total of all chemical reactions within a cell or orga…
organic molecules
molecules containing carbon bonded to hydrogen
inorganic molecule
A molecule that do not have carbon bonded to hydrogen
45 terms
Biology - Chapter 2 Molecular Biology
Urea
Cell cycle
Lipids
Proteins
A chemical that comes from the breakdown of proteins
series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide
Energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes,…
Chains of amino acids
Urea
A chemical that comes from the breakdown of proteins
Cell cycle
series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide
21 terms
Chapter 2 - Molecular biology
Water
Glucose
Ribose
Saturated fatty acids
Water is a Polar molecule ... Oxygen and Hydrogen are bonded by…
- Glucose is the building block of carbohydrates such as star…
- Monomers of nucleic acids... Hydrogen and oxygen atom is in th…
- Monomers of lipids respectively... -Presence of -COOH attached…
Water
Water is a Polar molecule ... Oxygen and Hydrogen are bonded by…
Glucose
- Glucose is the building block of carbohydrates such as star…
163 terms
Chapter 2 - Molecular and Cellular Biology
Chemistry
Matter
Elements
Atomic Number
The study of matter as it changes
Anything that takes up space
The building blocks of matter and is unable to be broken down…
The number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom
Chemistry
The study of matter as it changes
Matter
Anything that takes up space
23 terms
Chapter 2: Molecular Biology
Carbon Dioxide Life Bases
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Carbohydrates, Proteins, Nucleic Acid
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
insoluble in water
made up of amino acids
Carbon Dioxide Life Bases
Carbohydrates, Proteins, Nucleic Acid
Carbohydrates
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
18 terms
Biology; Chapter 2 MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
carbohydrate
lipids
protein
nucleic acids
A molecular classification; ie. Glucose (Monosaccharide), lac…
Fats (Triglycerides), cell bilayer (phospho...), hormones (st…
enzymes, antibodies, peptide hormones
DNA, RNA and ATP
carbohydrate
A molecular classification; ie. Glucose (Monosaccharide), lac…
lipids
Fats (Triglycerides), cell bilayer (phospho...), hormones (st…
102 terms
molecular biology chapter 2
Which of the following contributed sig…
Mendel's law of independent assortment…
The process by which the amino acid se…
Two genes are linked if
-his choice of model system... -his careful quantitative records…
true
translation
they do not assort independently
Which of the following contributed sig…
-his choice of model system... -his careful quantitative records…
Mendel's law of independent assortment…
true
65 terms
Biology Chapter 2 - Molecular Biology
What are the four key carbon compounds…
What are carbohydrates?
What are lipids?
What are proteins?
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
Contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. They are organic molecu…
A group of organic molecules that are insoluble in water but…
Contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. They are large…
What are the four key carbon compounds…
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
What are carbohydrates?
Contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. They are organic molecu…
78 terms
Molecular Biology Chapter 2
macromolecules
anabolism
catabolism
anabolism short
are large organic molecules that are crucial to the structure…
dehydration sythntheis: its the process of using building blo…
hydration;oxidation; its the process of cells digisting/break…
chemical rxn used to break down macromolecules
macromolecules
are large organic molecules that are crucial to the structure…
anabolism
dehydration sythntheis: its the process of using building blo…
47 terms
Molecular Biology Chapter 2
What did Miescher isolate nuclei from?
What is nuclein?
who characterized basic composition of…
what is difference between avirulent a…
pus- white blood cells
a novel phosphorous-bearing substance, mostly chromatin.
Levene, Jacobs, et al.
avirulent ( R ) rough colonies, bacteria without capsules.... vi…
What did Miescher isolate nuclei from?
pus- white blood cells
What is nuclein?
a novel phosphorous-bearing substance, mostly chromatin.
24 terms
Chapter 2: Molecular Biology
Cellular Respiration
Glycolysis
Metabolism
Anabolism
The controlled release of energy from organic compounds to pr…
The first stage of cellular respiration, in which glucose is…
The web of all enzyme-catalyzed reactions within all cells of…
Synthesis of compel molecules from simpler molecules includin…
Cellular Respiration
The controlled release of energy from organic compounds to pr…
Glycolysis
The first stage of cellular respiration, in which glucose is…
144 terms
Cell and Molecular Biology, Chapter 2
Functional groups
Methyl
Hydroxyl
Carboxyl
Groups of atoms giving organic molecules different characteri…
CH3
OH
COOH
Functional groups
Groups of atoms giving organic molecules different characteri…
Methyl
CH3
20 terms
CHAPTER 2 MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
What is molecular biology
Metabolism
Anabolism
Catabolism
Investigate biological activity at molecular level: structure…
The sum of all reactions that occur in a organism in order to…
-Build up of complex molecules from simpler ones ... -Uses ATP... -…
-Breaking of complex molecules into simpler ones ... -Releases e…
What is molecular biology
Investigate biological activity at molecular level: structure…
Metabolism
The sum of all reactions that occur in a organism in order to…
59 terms
Biology SL - Chapter 2 - Molecular Biology
Theory of vitalism
Molecular biology
Natural selection
Synthesis of urea
- Theory that living organisms only used organic chemicals av…
- Aims to explain living processes in terms of the chemical s…
- What distinguishes living organisms from non-living matter
- Friedrich Wöhler synthesised urea in 1828 using silver isoc…
Theory of vitalism
- Theory that living organisms only used organic chemicals av…
Molecular biology
- Aims to explain living processes in terms of the chemical s…
Chapter 2: Molecular Biology
The atomic number indicates how many o…
These high-energy particles have littl…
These lack an electrical charge.
These are located in the nucleus of an…
protons
electrons
neutron
Neutron and protons
The atomic number indicates how many o…
protons
These high-energy particles have littl…
electrons
IB Biology Chapter 2 Molecular Biology
Most common elements found in living o…
Organic molecules
Inorganic molecules
Monomers
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen.
Compounds that contain atleast two Carbon
Compounds that do not contain Carbon
Small subunits
Most common elements found in living o…
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen.
Organic molecules
Compounds that contain atleast two Carbon
56 terms
IB Biology Chapter 2 Molecular Biology
Theory of Vitalism
Atom
Molecule
Metabolic pathways
The idea that living things and nonliving things were made of…
A single particle of an element
A group of two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
Chains of enzyme catalyzed reactions in a cell or organism
Theory of Vitalism
The idea that living things and nonliving things were made of…
Atom
A single particle of an element
16 terms
Chapter 2 Molecular Biology
Define Proteins
Define Fats
Define Carbohydrates
What is the difference between a-gluco…
...
...
...
...
Define Proteins
...
Define Fats
...
125 terms
Chapter 2: Molecular Biology
What is metabolism?
What is anabolism?
What is catabolism?
Is water a polar molecule and why?
It is the web of all catalysed reactions in a cell organism.
It is the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler molecul…
It is the breakdown of complex molecules into simpler molecul…
Water is a polar molecule because the bond between electrons…
What is metabolism?
It is the web of all catalysed reactions in a cell organism.
What is anabolism?
It is the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler molecul…
59 terms
Molecular Biology Chapter 2 Vocab
matter
mass
weight
element
anything that occupies space and has mass
the quantity of matter that an object has
the force produced by gravity acting on mass
Substances that cannot be broken down chemically into simpler…
matter
anything that occupies space and has mass
mass
the quantity of matter that an object has
28 terms
Biology chapter2 Molecular biology
monosaccharide
monomer
disaccharide
polysaccharide
単糖類、単糖
重合を行う際の基質のこと
二糖類
多糖類
monosaccharide
単糖類、単糖
monomer
重合を行う際の基質のこと
24 terms
Molecular biology chapter 2 (standard)
Glucose
Fructose
Ribose
Monosaccharides
sugar
...
Glucose
sugar
Fructose
64 terms
BSCS Molecular Biology Chapter 2
abiotic
active site
ADP
ATP
refers to a physical or nonliving component of an ecosystem
the portion of an enzyme that attaches to the substrate throu…
adenosine diphosphate
adenosine triphosphate; a nucleotide a nucleotide of adenine…
abiotic
refers to a physical or nonliving component of an ecosystem
active site
the portion of an enzyme that attaches to the substrate throu…
43 terms
Chapter 2 Molecular Biology
Allele
Locus
Linkage
One gene: one enzyme hypothesis
One of several alternative forms of a gene occupying a given…
The position on a chromosome at which the gene for a particul…
The tendency of genes to be inherited together as a result of…
Beadle and Tatum's hypothesis that a gene is responsible for…
Allele
One of several alternative forms of a gene occupying a given…
Locus
The position on a chromosome at which the gene for a particul…
5 terms
Chapter 2: Molecular Biology
monosaccharide
disaccharide
polysaccharide
cohesion
a single glucose molecule
two glucose molecules linked together
chains of monosaccharides
force of attraction cause by hydrogen bonding between water m…
monosaccharide
a single glucose molecule
disaccharide
two glucose molecules linked together
33 terms
Chapter 2: Molecular Biology
biochemistry
metabolism
catabolism
anabolism
branch of organic chemistry that attempts to explain the chem…
reactions controlled by enzymes ... catabolism + anabolism = ___…
enzyme reactions that convert large, complex molecules like f…
enzyme reactions that convert small, simple molecules into la…
biochemistry
branch of organic chemistry that attempts to explain the chem…
metabolism
reactions controlled by enzymes ... catabolism + anabolism = ___…
38 terms
Chapter 2: Molecular Biology
biochemistry
metabolism
Catabolism
anabolism
branch of organic chemistry that attempts to explain the chem…
all of the reactions within all of the cells when molecules c…
enzyme reactions that convert large complex molecules like fo…
enzyme reactions that convert small, simple molecules into a…
biochemistry
branch of organic chemistry that attempts to explain the chem…
metabolism
all of the reactions within all of the cells when molecules c…
20 terms
Chapter 2: Molecular Biology
molecular biology
why carbon
carbohydrates
lipids
structure and function of macromolecules essential to life, w…
4 valence electrons, allows formation of strong covalent bonds
neutral substances containing CH2O... ex. sugars, starches, cell…
broad class of molecules insoluble in water ... ex. waxes, stero…
molecular biology
structure and function of macromolecules essential to life, w…
why carbon
4 valence electrons, allows formation of strong covalent bonds
43 terms
Molecular Biology- Chapter 2
matter
element
compound
emergent properties
anything that takes up space and has mass; organisms are comp…
a substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by…
a substance consisting of two or more different elements comb…
a compound has characteristics different from those of its el…
matter
anything that takes up space and has mass; organisms are comp…
element
a substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by…
35 terms
Chapter 2. Molecular biology
Nucleic acid
Proteins
Covalent bond
Carbohydrates
A carbon compound. One of the most complex molecule. Comprise…
A carbon compound.Varied in structure and carry out a huge ra…
When two adjacent atoms share a pair of electrons, with one e…
A type of carbon compound. Consist of carbon, hydrogen and ox…
Nucleic acid
A carbon compound. One of the most complex molecule. Comprise…
Proteins
A carbon compound.Varied in structure and carry out a huge ra…
18 terms
Chapter 2: Molecular Biology
carbohydrates
lipids
proteins
nucleic acids
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen w/ oxygen and hydrogen in ratio…
insoluble to water (steroids, waxes, fatty acids)
composed of one or more chains of amino acids that contain ni…
chains of nucleotides containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, ni…
carbohydrates
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen w/ oxygen and hydrogen in ratio…
lipids
insoluble to water (steroids, waxes, fatty acids)
46 terms
Molecular Biology Chapter 2
energy
chemical energy
free energy
nutrients
the capacity to do work or to cause change
energy stored in the organic molecules from which the organis…
energy that is released during chemical reactions
raw materials
energy
the capacity to do work or to cause change
chemical energy
energy stored in the organic molecules from which the organis…
77 terms
chapter 2: Molecular Biology
What happens to carbon atoms?
amino acids
lipids
when are hydrogen atoms used?
Much of what we get from the macromolecules will be eliminate…
lego blocks that make proteins
fats and oils
In the active transport,photosynthesis, and cell respiration(…
What happens to carbon atoms?
Much of what we get from the macromolecules will be eliminate…
amino acids
lego blocks that make proteins
42 terms
Molecular Biology Chapter 2
Atom
Nucleus
Electron
Element
the basic unit of matter
the centre of an atom, which contains the protons and neutrons
the negatively charged particle (rotates around nucleus)
pure substance that consists entirely of one type of atom
Atom
the basic unit of matter
Nucleus
the centre of an atom, which contains the protons and neutrons
25 terms
Molecular Biology (Chapter 2- Molecules)
Properties of water
What dissolves in water and what does…
Why are Weak bonds/interactions import…
Know different types of Weak bonds/int…
1. Polar... 2. Charged... 3. Acidic or Alkaline (releases and remov…
1. Polar- dissolves... 2. Charged- dissolves... 3. Non-Polar- does…
Important for:... - folding of protein and RNA... -protein-protein…
Hydrogen bonds... Ionic Bond - ... Hydrophobic interaction
Properties of water
1. Polar... 2. Charged... 3. Acidic or Alkaline (releases and remov…
What dissolves in water and what does…
1. Polar- dissolves... 2. Charged- dissolves... 3. Non-Polar- does…
95 terms
Biology: Chapter 2: Molecular Biology
Covalent bonds
Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, Polysa…
Monosaccharide
Monosaccharide
Carbon is connected by...
Subunits of Carbohydrates
Glucose is a...
Galactose is a...
Covalent bonds
Carbon is connected by...
Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, Polysa…
Subunits of Carbohydrates
65 terms
Molecular Biology Chapter 2
What did the research on mold Neurospo…
Information in genes must specify the…
Carbohydrates:
Chromosomes made of
supported Garrod hypothesis that genes work by controlling th…
20 different amino acids within the polypeptide chain(s) of t…
typically homopolymers or repetitive heteropolymers
nucleic acids and... proteins
What did the research on mold Neurospo…
supported Garrod hypothesis that genes work by controlling th…
Information in genes must specify the…
20 different amino acids within the polypeptide chain(s) of t…
63 terms
Chapter 2 Molecular Biology
What are covalent bonds?
What are noncovalent bonds
What are hydrogen bonds
What are ionic bonds
share electrons... with polar (happy in water) and non-polar( do…
hydrogen bond, ionic bonds, and hydrophobic/hydrophillic inte…
Weaker bonds (but alot will stabilize) that have a H+ and som…
Negatively charged atoms and positively charged atoms interac…
What are covalent bonds?
share electrons... with polar (happy in water) and non-polar( do…
What are noncovalent bonds
hydrogen bond, ionic bonds, and hydrophobic/hydrophillic inte…
116 terms
Biology Chapter 2: Molecular Biology
DNA
RNA
ATP
ADP
Deoxyribonucleic Acid
Ribonucleic Acid
Adenosine Triphosphate
Adenosine Diphosphate
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic Acid
RNA
Ribonucleic Acid
54 terms
BSCS Molecular Biology Chapter 2
abiotic
active site
ADP
ATP
refers to a physical or nonliving component of an ecosystem
the portion of an enzyme that attaches to the substrate throu…
adenosine diphosphate
adenosine triphosphate; a nucleotide a nucleotide of adenine…
abiotic
refers to a physical or nonliving component of an ecosystem
active site
the portion of an enzyme that attaches to the substrate throu…
53 terms
Molecular biology I Chapter 2
Central dogma of Molecular Biology
Mutation rate in humans
Mutation rate in bacteria
What did Beadle and tatum do?
Duplication of DNA... Transcribed into RNA... Translated into Protein
~1 every million bp... ~300 per generation of humans
~1 in every 100-1000 cells
Researched on mold (Neurospora) which supported Archibald Gar…
Central dogma of Molecular Biology
Duplication of DNA... Transcribed into RNA... Translated into Protein
Mutation rate in humans
~1 every million bp... ~300 per generation of humans
57 terms
Chapter 2 Cell and molecular biology
Covalent bonds
Polar molecules
Nonpolar molecules
Ionization
bonds between atoms with shared pairs of electrons, requires…
have asymmetric distributions of electrical charge
lack polarized bonds
result when strongly electronegative nuclei capture electrons
Covalent bonds
bonds between atoms with shared pairs of electrons, requires…
Polar molecules
have asymmetric distributions of electrical charge
55 terms
Cell & Molecular Biology Chapter 2
Atoms
Matter
Protons
Neutrons
Nature's building material
Anything that occupies space and has mass
Positive, found in nucleus, same number as electrons (mass)
Neutral, found in nucleus, number can vary (mass). Isotopes h…
Atoms
Nature's building material
Matter
Anything that occupies space and has mass
70 terms
Chapter 2: Molecular Biology (SL)
Anabolism
Catabolism
Carbohydrates
Covalent bonds
is the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler molecules…
is the breakdown of complex molecules into simpler molecules…
any of a large group of organic compounds occurring in foods…
a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs b…
Anabolism
is the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler molecules…
Catabolism
is the breakdown of complex molecules into simpler molecules…
40 terms
Chapter 2: Cellular and Molecular Biology
What is the smallest and most basic un…
What are the two main types of cells?
Which of the following are characteris…
Which of the following are characteris…
cell
eukaryotes and prokaryotes
b
a
What is the smallest and most basic un…
cell
What are the two main types of cells?
eukaryotes and prokaryotes
135 terms
bio chapter 2- molecular biology
reductionist in biology
what is wrong with reductionists?
why are covalent bonds used
how are covalent bonds formed?
considering the various biochemical processes of a living org…
when component parts are combined there are emergent properti…
because they are the strongest type of bond betwen atoms so s…
when two adjacent atoms share a pair of electrons, with one e…
reductionist in biology
considering the various biochemical processes of a living org…
what is wrong with reductionists?
when component parts are combined there are emergent properti…
50 terms
IB HL Biology Chapter 2 Molecular Biology
Metabolism
Anabolism
Catabolism
chemical reaction (word) for urea
the web of all the enzyme catalyzed reactions in a cell or or…
the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler molecules inc…
the breakdown of complex molecules into simpler molecules inc…
ammonia + carbon dioxide --> ammonium carbonate --> urea + wa…
Metabolism
the web of all the enzyme catalyzed reactions in a cell or or…
Anabolism
the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler molecules inc…
110 terms
IB Biology HL Chapter 2 Molecular Biology
Molecular Biology
When was the discovery of the structur…
What did the discovery of the structur…
What are nucleic acids comprised of?
Explains living processes in terms of the chemical substancse…
1953
It raised the possibility of explaining biological processes…
DNA and RNA, chemicals used to make genes
Molecular Biology
Explains living processes in terms of the chemical substancse…
When was the discovery of the structur…
1953
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