Study sets matching "molecular biology sec 4"

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Study sets matching "molecular biology sec 4"

108 terms
Bio Sec.1: Molecular Biology
Macromolecules
Polymers
Carbohydrates
Monosaccharide
Four main classes of large biological molecules (carbohydrate…
Large compound formed from combinations of many monomers.
Composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Main source of ener…
A single sugar molecule such as glucose or fructose, the simp…
Macromolecules
Four main classes of large biological molecules (carbohydrate…
Polymers
Large compound formed from combinations of many monomers.
22 terms
Molecular Biology 2.4
Amino acids and polypeptides
Amino acid general formula
Polypeptides
Dipeptide
Amino acids are linked together by condensation to form polyp…
Chains of amino acids. Happens on ribosomes by condensation r…
Molecule consisting of 2 amino acids linked by peptide bond.
Amino acids and polypeptides
Amino acids are linked together by condensation to form polyp…
Amino acid general formula
14 terms
Molecular Biology 2.4
Protiens
Polypeptides
Polypeptides on ribosomes
Amino acids
Made of amino acids.... Amino acid diversity.... Most organisms use…
IMPORTANT!... Amino acids are linked together by condensation to…
There are 20 different amino acids in polypeptides synthesise…
Can be linked together in any sequence giving a huge range of…
Protiens
Made of amino acids.... Amino acid diversity.... Most organisms use…
Polypeptides
IMPORTANT!... Amino acids are linked together by condensation to…
biology: Molecular and Cellular 4
DNA
RNA
Messenger RNA
Ribosomal RNA
Phosphate group - Deoxyribose - nitrogen base. Its a double h…
Phosphate group - ribose - nitrogen bases. single stranded. b…
Carries instructions from polypeptide synthesis from nucleus…
Forms an important part of both subunits of the ribosome.
DNA
Phosphate group - Deoxyribose - nitrogen base. Its a double h…
RNA
Phosphate group - ribose - nitrogen bases. single stranded. b…
11 terms
Unit 4 Molecular Biology
Replication
Transcription
Translation
Mutation
Makes DNA, process in which DNA is duplicated and two identic…
Makes mRNA, process in which part of the DNA is copied into R…
Makes proteins; process in which a polypeptide (protein) is m…
Change in the DNA information (sequence of bases); may or may…
Replication
Makes DNA, process in which DNA is duplicated and two identic…
Transcription
Makes mRNA, process in which part of the DNA is copied into R…
82 terms
Chapter 4 Molecular Biology
Nucleotide
nucleoside
nucleic acid polymerization
Pyrimidines
-sugar ... -base ... -phosphates
sugar + base
-5' to 3' synthesis and base sequence ... -antiparallel and comp…
-one ring (CUT)... Cytosine ... Thymine ... Uracil
Nucleotide
-sugar ... -base ... -phosphates
nucleoside
sugar + base
CH4: Molecular Biology
Adenine, Guanine, 2
Thymine, Cytosine, Uracil, 1
G-C, 3
Phosphodiester bond btwn, 3' hydroxy a…
Purines? How many rings?
Pyramidines? How many rings?
Which bond between base pairs is stronger? How many bonds?
How are nucleotides connected?
Adenine, Guanine, 2
Purines? How many rings?
Thymine, Cytosine, Uracil, 1
Pyramidines? How many rings?
21 terms
Molecular Biology: Lecture 4
What is depurination and how often doe…
What is deamination and how often does…
How does UV radiation from the sun inj…
What are the 4 types of DNA repair?
Spontaneous loss of purine base pairs.... ~5,000/day
Spontaneous swapping of C to U.... ~100/day
Produces covalent linkages between adjacent pyrimidines
Base excision.... Nucleotide excision.... Transcription-coupled.... Do…
What is depurination and how often doe…
Spontaneous loss of purine base pairs.... ~5,000/day
What is deamination and how often does…
Spontaneous swapping of C to U.... ~100/day
33 terms
Molecular Biology Lecture 4
Can unwind DNA and can start DNA synth…
Protein folding is slightly different…
Antibiotics
A promoter sequence
Unlike DNA dependent DNA polymerases, RNA polymerases (RNAP)…
RNAP activity is exactly the same as that of DNA polymerases…
RNA polymerase inhibitors can be used as
Transcription stars when an RNAP binds at _____
Can unwind DNA and can start DNA synth…
Unlike DNA dependent DNA polymerases, RNA polymerases (RNAP)…
Protein folding is slightly different…
RNAP activity is exactly the same as that of DNA polymerases…
Molecular biology lecture 4
amino group
carboxyl group
R group, side chain
L conformation
most amino acids are in this form... have to be in this conforma…
amino group
carboxyl group
17 terms
Molecular Biology- 2.4 Proteins
What amino acids form when they underg…
dipeptide
oligopeptides
What is the structural feature of a po…
polypeptides
a molecule consisting of many amino acids linked by peptide b…
a polypeptide that has fewer than 20 amino acids
carbon atom in the centre bonded to an amine group, a carboxy…
What amino acids form when they underg…
polypeptides
dipeptide
a molecule consisting of many amino acids linked by peptide b…
Molecular Biology Exam #4
Transition versus transversion, and ho…
Missense versus nonsense point mutations
Sickle cell anemia, progeria, and cyst…
How often are errors observed in bacte…
A transition is a pyrimidine to pyrimidines or purine to puri…
Missense - creates an amino acid substitution. Nonsense - cre…
Sickle cell anemia is an A to T transversion (glutamic acid c…
One error in 100-1000 bacterial cells. Humans see one mutatio…
Transition versus transversion, and ho…
A transition is a pyrimidine to pyrimidines or purine to puri…
Missense versus nonsense point mutations
Missense - creates an amino acid substitution. Nonsense - cre…
Molecular Biology, Lecture 4
CREB
CBP
Histone Acetyltransferase (HAT)
Nucleosome
(cAMP Response Element Binging protein)... binds to cAMP respons…
(CREB Binding Protein) - similar to P300... binds to CREB in ord…
enzyme that acyetylates Lysine amino acids on histone (and so…
building block of chromatin... DNA wound around 8 histones. 2 ea…
CREB
(cAMP Response Element Binging protein)... binds to cAMP respons…
CBP
(CREB Binding Protein) - similar to P300... binds to CREB in ord…
44 terms
Molecular Biology, Lecture 4
CREB
CBP
Histone Acetyltransferase (HAT)
Nucleosome
(cAMP Response Element Binging protein)... binds to cAMP respons…
(CREB Binding Protein) - similar to P300... binds to CREB in ord…
enzyme that acyetylates Lysine amino acids on histone (and so…
building block of chromatin... DNA wound around 8 histones. 2 ea…
CREB
(cAMP Response Element Binging protein)... binds to cAMP respons…
CBP
(CREB Binding Protein) - similar to P300... binds to CREB in ord…
DAT biology thooooo: Sec. 7 (Molecular Genetics)
DNA codes for ____, which regulate che…
both DNA and RNA are polymers of ___
a nucleotide monomer consists of: (3 p…
this type of RNA provides the instruct…
enzymes
nucleotides
—nitrogen base... —sugar... —phosphate
mRNA
DNA codes for ____, which regulate che…
enzymes
both DNA and RNA are polymers of ___
nucleotides
Unit 4 - Molecular Biology
Monomer
Polymer
Macromolecule
Carbohydrates
A molecule that can bind to other molecules to form a polymer
A long chain of repeating molecules
A large molecule
Fast energy source
Monomer
A molecule that can bind to other molecules to form a polymer
Polymer
A long chain of repeating molecules
10 terms
Vocabulary 4 (Molecular Biology)
ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)
Mitosis
Meiosis
Carbohydrates
energy used for cellular reactions
division of body cells that results in two identical daughter…
division of sex cells resulting in four cells
organic compounds such as starch and sugar that can be broken…
ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)
energy used for cellular reactions
Mitosis
division of body cells that results in two identical daughter…
43 terms
Molecular Biology (unit 4)
how many base pairs of DNA are in a hu…
base pair
Nanometer
how many nanometers exist between each…
6 billion
1 rung on the latter of DNA
1 billion nanometers= 1 meter
.34 nm
how many base pairs of DNA are in a hu…
6 billion
base pair
1 rung on the latter of DNA
Molecular Biology Unit 4
Plasmid DNA
Plasmids can encode for:
Plasmids can be shared with
Ori: Definition and Function
A DNA molecule that replicates the same way the host genome d…
Antibiotic Resistance... Antibiotic Synthesis... Virulence
Other bacteria
Origin of replication, it allows plasmids to replicate outsid…
Plasmid DNA
A DNA molecule that replicates the same way the host genome d…
Plasmids can encode for:
Antibiotic Resistance... Antibiotic Synthesis... Virulence
70 terms
Molecular Biology Exam 4
RecA protein is required for:
When is homology-directed repair (HDR)…
__________ make up the heterodimer tha…
The D-loop is the structure formed whe…
Recombination (repair) and SOS repair
During G1, because repair template is usually a homologous ch…
Ku70 and Ku80
The non-template duplex does not base pair with the damaged d…
RecA protein is required for:
Recombination (repair) and SOS repair
When is homology-directed repair (HDR)…
During G1, because repair template is usually a homologous ch…
67 terms
Molecular Biology Ch 4
all eukaryotic cells have what type of…
what are defining characteristics of e…
the number of sets of identical chromo…
the membrane enclosed organelle in euk…
linear
number of chromosomes and size of chromosomes
ploidy
mitochondria
all eukaryotic cells have what type of…
linear
what are defining characteristics of e…
number of chromosomes and size of chromosomes
16 terms
Biology Sec 1.4
microscope
electron microscope
scanning electron microscope
transmission electron microscope
provides an enlarged image of an object
uses beams of electron instead of light to magnify objects
scans surface with electrons which are bounced back by metal…
transmits electrons through slice of specimen/ 2-d image
microscope
provides an enlarged image of an object
electron microscope
uses beams of electron instead of light to magnify objects
53 terms
Bio-U4: Molecular Biology
Nucleotide
DNA
RNA
Chargaff's experiment
- Monomers that make up Nucleic Acid ... - A building block of…
○ DNA molecule made of two linked chains of nucleotides ... ○ s…
- Nucleobases of RNA: U, A, G, C... - Sugar in RNA: Ribose ... - si…
- Chargaff discovered two rules that helped lead to the disco…
Nucleotide
- Monomers that make up Nucleic Acid ... - A building block of…
DNA
○ DNA molecule made of two linked chains of nucleotides ... ○ s…
177 terms
Molecular Biology 4
What are 6 differences b/w DNA replica…
List the 3 phases of prokaryotic and e…
Describe prokaryotic transcription ini…
Describe prokaryotic transcription elo…
- whole genome is replicated; transcription = only parts.... - t…
Initiation... Elongation... Termination
RNAp binds the Promoter in DNA.... - conformational change... - "tr…
(after RNAp makes ~10 nucleotides)... - dsDNA enters the pincers…
What are 6 differences b/w DNA replica…
- whole genome is replicated; transcription = only parts.... - t…
List the 3 phases of prokaryotic and e…
Initiation... Elongation... Termination
21 terms
Molecular Biology Ch. 4
Nucleotide
2'-deoxyribose
Nucleoside
Phosphodiester Linkage
The fundamental building block of DNA, consisting of a Phosph…
Sugar used in DNA to which a nitrogenous base is attached.
The sugar and base together
Bond in which the phosphoryl group between the two nucleotide…
Nucleotide
The fundamental building block of DNA, consisting of a Phosph…
2'-deoxyribose
Sugar used in DNA to which a nitrogenous base is attached.
36 terms
Cell & Molecular Biology #4
enzyme-globular protein
structural protein-fibrous protein
transport protein
motor protein
any protein in which the polypeptide chain folds into a compa…
a protein with an elongated, rodlike shape, such as a collage…
membrane transport protein that moves a solute across a cell…
protein such as myosin or kinesin that uses energy derives fr…
enzyme-globular protein
any protein in which the polypeptide chain folds into a compa…
structural protein-fibrous protein
a protein with an elongated, rodlike shape, such as a collage…
46 terms
molecular biology week 4
Replication
Semiconservative replication
Dispersive replication
Conservative replication
Copying process by which a cell duplicates its DNA
The way DNA replicates, each double helix separates and forms…
the parent molecule is cut into sections such that the daught…
original strands reform double helix; two new strands form a…
Replication
Copying process by which a cell duplicates its DNA
Semiconservative replication
The way DNA replicates, each double helix separates and forms…
20 terms
Molecular Biology: Lecture 4
What is the one gene/ one enzyme hypot…
Define core enzyme
Define sigma factor
Define holoenzyme
One gene is responsible for making one enzyme
find out
a transcription factor in prokaryotic cells
a complete enzyme
What is the one gene/ one enzyme hypot…
One gene is responsible for making one enzyme
Define core enzyme
find out
13 terms
Unit 4 Molecular Biology
mRNA
tRNA
Ribosome
Nucleotide
Molecule that carries the message to make a protein from the…
Molecule that carries in each amino acid to build a protein
The organelle where proteins are made
Monomers or units that makeup a strand of DNA or RNA
mRNA
Molecule that carries the message to make a protein from the…
tRNA
Molecule that carries in each amino acid to build a protein
UNIT 4-MOLECULAR BIOLOGY STUDY GUIDE
Photosynthesis equation (know equation…
Cellular respiration equation (know eq…
Organisms that do photosynthesis
Organisms that do aerobic respiration
Carbon dioxide + water with sunlight energy yields glucose an…
Glucose + oxygen yields carbon dioxide and water and ATP energy
Autotrophs (producers)
ALL
Photosynthesis equation (know equation…
Carbon dioxide + water with sunlight energy yields glucose an…
Cellular respiration equation (know eq…
Glucose + oxygen yields carbon dioxide and water and ATP energy
27 terms
Molecular Biology: Exam 4
Which DNA & MRNA nitrogen bases always…
Two kinds of bonds in & where each occur
What does the sequence of bases in a D…
What is a gene?
A-T (U)... C-G
peptide
individual proteins aka genes
proteins formed through DNA coding
Which DNA & MRNA nitrogen bases always…
A-T (U)... C-G
Two kinds of bonds in & where each occur
peptide
26 terms
Molecular Biology Test 4
Totipotent Cell
Where did all the different cell types…
Pluripotent Cells
Multipotent Cells
A zygote is a totipotent cell. This means it has the ability…
All the different types of cells (nerve cells, skin cells, li…
Are cells in the early embryo (inner cell mass of the blastoc…
Cells that can form a range of related cell types, but not al…
Totipotent Cell
A zygote is a totipotent cell. This means it has the ability…
Where did all the different cell types…
All the different types of cells (nerve cells, skin cells, li…
9 terms
Molecular Biology - 2.4
Peptide bonds are
There are _____ types of amino acids
____ amino acids are encoded by the ge…
Proteins are synthesized by
bonds between amino acids
22
20
ribosomes
Peptide bonds are
bonds between amino acids
There are _____ types of amino acids
22
66 terms
biology: molecular bio. ch. 4 sec. 1-3 judd honors 1
subatomic particle
atom
element
molecule
...
the smallest unit of matter that cannot be broken down; build…
a substance made up of atoms that have the same number of pro…
a group of atoms held together by covalent bonds
subatomic particle
...
atom
the smallest unit of matter that cannot be broken down; build…
49 terms
Unit 4 Molecular Biology
nucleotide
DNA vs RNA
Chargaff's experiment
nitrogenous bases
Consists of a sugar, phosphate, and a base.
- The sugar within DNA is deoxyribose and the sugar in RNA is…
- Define the percentage of four nitrogenous bases in DNA.... - D…
The strands of both DNA and RNA are held together by hydrogen…
nucleotide
Consists of a sugar, phosphate, and a base.
DNA vs RNA
- The sugar within DNA is deoxyribose and the sugar in RNA is…
Cell & Molecular Biology Chapter 4
Cytoplasm
Microfilament
Bacteria
Pseudopodia
The plasma membrane and cell contents with the exception of t…
Thin fibers of actin protein subunits; from part of the cytos…
Prokaryotic organisms that have peptidoglycan in their cell w…
A temporary extension of an amoeboid cell that is used for fe…
Cytoplasm
The plasma membrane and cell contents with the exception of t…
Microfilament
Thin fibers of actin protein subunits; from part of the cytos…
23 terms
4. Molecular Biology (Kandpal)
Why health professionals should care a…
Humans vs Chimps - Malaria strains
Longevity of a drug depends on...
Cytochrome P450 (CYP)
Treatment options... Rational basis for treatment outcomes... bette…
Humans do not have CMAH... Chimps do have CMAH... CMAH is an enzyme…
absorption ... distribution ... metabolism... excretion
enzyme that carries out several reactions ... ex: hydroxylation…
Why health professionals should care a…
Treatment options... Rational basis for treatment outcomes... bette…
Humans vs Chimps - Malaria strains
Humans do not have CMAH... Chimps do have CMAH... CMAH is an enzyme…
112 terms
Unit 4 Molecular Biology
DNA Fingerprinting
GMOs
Human gene therapy
Restriction enzyme
a technique used especially for identification by extracting…
an organism whose genetic material has been altered using tec…
a form of therapy that involves inserting one or more correct…
a protein produced by bacteria that cleaves DNA at specific s…
DNA Fingerprinting
a technique used especially for identification by extracting…
GMOs
an organism whose genetic material has been altered using tec…
Molecular Biology Lecture 4
Amino acid
L confirmation
Non-polar amino acids
Polar amino acids
Structure is C attached to:... COOH (carboxyl group)... Hydrogen... NH…
Used to make proteins from mRNA
Side chains are made of C and H... Glycine is the smallest and h…
Negative, positive, and neutral charges... Cysteine (neutral) ca…
Amino acid
Structure is C attached to:... COOH (carboxyl group)... Hydrogen... NH…
L confirmation
Used to make proteins from mRNA
46 terms
Molecular Biology Ch. 4
Primary
Why are there peptide bonds and disulf…
Secondary
peptide bond
- the sequence of amino acids that make up the polypeptide ch…
...
- refers to regularly repeating ele- ments within a protein,…
The covalent link between two adjacent amino acids... - creates…
Primary
- the sequence of amino acids that make up the polypeptide ch…
Why are there peptide bonds and disulf…
...
Chapter 4. Molecular Biology
nucleic acids
purines
pyrimidines
nucleoside
Ex. Dna/Rna... -named bc they are found in the nucleus and posse…
precursor for Guanine and Adenine
-cytosine, thymine, uracil
ribose or deoxyribose with a purine or pyrimidine linked to t…
nucleic acids
Ex. Dna/Rna... -named bc they are found in the nucleus and posse…
purines
precursor for Guanine and Adenine
11 terms
2.4 Molecular Biology
polypeptides
dipeptide
oligopeptides
lysozyme
chains of amino acids linked via condensation reactions
two amino acids linked by a peptide bond
amino acid chains with fewer than 20 amino acids
1 polypeptide, kills bacteria by digesting peptidoglycan in t…
polypeptides
chains of amino acids linked via condensation reactions
dipeptide
two amino acids linked by a peptide bond
13 terms
Chapter 4 molecular biology
Interrupted gene
Primary RNA transcript
RNA splicing
Intron
A gene in which the coding sequence is not continuous due to…
The original unmodified RNA product corresponding to a transc…
The process of exercising introns from RNA and connecting the…
A segment of DNA that is transcribed but later removed from w…
Interrupted gene
A gene in which the coding sequence is not continuous due to…
Primary RNA transcript
The original unmodified RNA product corresponding to a transc…
22 terms
Molecular Biology L4
RNA synthesized in the ..... direction.
The polarity of RNA is ...... to DNA t…
RNA Polymerase catalyzes....
RNA polymerase begins at the...
5' to 3'
Opposite
Phosphodiester bond formation.
Transcription start site (designated +1 moving downstream).
RNA synthesized in the ..... direction.
5' to 3'
The polarity of RNA is ...... to DNA t…
Opposite
Quiz 4 molecular biology
RNA in cells differ from DNA in that...
Transcription is similar to DNA replic…
Which of the following statements is f…
You have a piece of DNA that includes…
it is single stranded and can fold up into variety of structu…
Nucleotide plymerization occurs only in the 5' to 3' direction
(d) Unlike DNA, RNA uses a uracil base and a deoxyribose sugar
5′-AUAGGCAUUCGAUCCGGAUAGCAU-3′
RNA in cells differ from DNA in that...
it is single stranded and can fold up into variety of structu…
Transcription is similar to DNA replic…
Nucleotide plymerization occurs only in the 5' to 3' direction
Chapter 4 Molecular Biology
Interrupted gene
Exon
Intron
RNA splicing
A gene in which the coding sequence is not continuous due to…
Any segment of an interrupted gene that is represented in the…
A segment of DNA that is transcribed but later removed from w…
The process of excising introns from RNA and connecting the e…
Interrupted gene
A gene in which the coding sequence is not continuous due to…
Exon
Any segment of an interrupted gene that is represented in the…
Chapter 4 - Molecular Biology
CELL
CELLS
ROBERT HOOKE
ANTON VAN LEEWENHOEK
A _____ is the smallest unit that can carry out all life proc…
______ make up all living things.
________________ first discovered cells and gave them the nam…
______________ was the first to see living cells, specificall…
CELL
A _____ is the smallest unit that can carry out all life proc…
CELLS
______ make up all living things.
13 terms
chapter 4 molecular biology
enzymes
prob with bond formation
molecules that donate energy
larger amt of free energy
often involved in the breaking of covalent bonds, doesnt alte…
small to form large = + dela g... thought for the longest time t…
unstable
molecule will if linked together by weak cov bonds... stronger b…
enzymes
often involved in the breaking of covalent bonds, doesnt alte…
prob with bond formation
small to form large = + dela g... thought for the longest time t…
34 terms
Molecular Biology Chapter 4
Interrupted gene
Primary (RNA) transcripts
RNA splicing
transcriptome
A gene in which the coding sequence is not continuous due to…
The original unmodified RNA product corresponding to a transc…
The process of excising introns from RNA and connected the eo…
the complete set of RNA present within a cell tissue or organ…
Interrupted gene
A gene in which the coding sequence is not continuous due to…
Primary (RNA) transcripts
The original unmodified RNA product corresponding to a transc…
48 terms
Chapter 4 Molecular Biology
Dr. Ian ______________ announced the f…
What 2 processes refer to cloning in t…
Restriction endonucleases, using the p…
________________ cleave DNA at interna…
Ian Wilmut... a sheep Dolly... Mice, cattle and cats
Reproduction of daughter cells by fission or mitotic division
Immune... Enzyme... Foreign DNA
Endonucleases ... Exonucleases... A methyl group to a nucleotide
Dr. Ian ______________ announced the f…
Ian Wilmut... a sheep Dolly... Mice, cattle and cats
What 2 processes refer to cloning in t…
Reproduction of daughter cells by fission or mitotic division
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