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Study sets matching "molecular chapter 4"

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Study sets matching "molecular chapter 4"

62 terms
Molecular Chapter 4
Genome
What you do and don't want for your ge…
Early experiment to figure out where o…
DNA
All of your DNA needed for organisms or cells to function. ... A…
mistake free, be able to pass on information (translation), d…
EXPERIMENT 1: Smooth A strain covered with mucus (pathogenic…
Linear structure consisting of a backbone, 2 polynucleotide c…
Genome
All of your DNA needed for organisms or cells to function. ... A…
What you do and don't want for your ge…
mistake free, be able to pass on information (translation), d…
20 terms
Molecular Bio, chapter 4
Packaging of DNA in each cell= 24 mile…
A) Chromatin isolated during interphas…
unpacked/decondensed chromatin= ... beeds…
EACH HISTONE = NOT IDENTICAL... 1 HISTON…
NUCLEOSOME=LINKER REGION +DNA WRAPPED AROUND HISTONES... NUCLEA…
Packaging of DNA in each cell= 24 mile…
A) Chromatin isolated during interphas…
27 terms
Molecular chapter 4
Specimen preparation for bone marrow a…
Specimen preparation for tissue
Specimen preparation for plants/fungi
Most preferred for DNA PCR (liquid)
density gradient centrifugation, differential osmolysis
freeze/crush, mince, enzymatic digestion
homogenize, vortex with glass beads
acetone
Specimen preparation for bone marrow a…
density gradient centrifugation, differential osmolysis
Specimen preparation for tissue
freeze/crush, mince, enzymatic digestion
Cell & Molecular Biology Chapter 4
Cytoplasm
Microfilament
Bacteria
Pseudopodia
The plasma membrane and cell contents with the exception of t…
Thin fibers consisting of actin protein subunits; form part o…
Prokaryotic organisms that have peptidoglycan in their cell w…
A temporary extension of an amoeboid cell that is used for fe…
Cytoplasm
The plasma membrane and cell contents with the exception of t…
Microfilament
Thin fibers consisting of actin protein subunits; form part o…
Molecular Diagnostics Chapter 4
Which whole blood fraction is the most…
Which specimen will yield the best DNA…
What is the first step in DNA isolatio…
Phenol/chloroform and an aqueous solut…
Buffy Coat
Fresh Blood
Lysis of cells
Emulsion
Which whole blood fraction is the most…
Buffy Coat
Which specimen will yield the best DNA…
Fresh Blood
43 terms
Chapter 4 molecular compounds
Ionic bond Review
Molecular substances have Covalent bonds
Optimum distance for bond formation
electrons are transferred from one atom to another.... to achiev…
Covalent bonds:... -electrons are shared between atoms.... -still i…
Based on attraction vs repulsion.... One distance where attracti…
Ionic bond Review
electrons are transferred from one atom to another.... to achiev…
Molecular substances have Covalent bonds
Covalent bonds:... -electrons are shared between atoms.... -still i…
82 terms
Chapter 4 Molecular Biology
Nucleotide
nucleoside
nucleic acid polymerization
Pyrimidines
-sugar ... -base ... -phosphates
sugar + base
-5' to 3' synthesis and base sequence ... -antiparallel and comp…
-one ring (CUT)... Cytosine ... Thymine ... Uracil
Nucleotide
-sugar ... -base ... -phosphates
nucleoside
sugar + base
Cell & Molecular Biology Chapter 4
Cytoplasm
Microfilament
Bacteria
Pseudopodia
The plasma membrane and cell contents with the exception of t…
Thin fibers of actin protein subunits; from part of the cytos…
Prokaryotic organisms that have peptidoglycan in their cell w…
A temporary extension of an amoeboid cell that is used for fe…
Cytoplasm
The plasma membrane and cell contents with the exception of t…
Microfilament
Thin fibers of actin protein subunits; from part of the cytos…
Molecular Chapter 4
What bonds are important in primary
what are the main driving forces in pr…
Most flexible
Three secondary structures
peptide bonds (Covalent bonds) and sulfide bridges
Hydrophobicity. Non-polar wants to be in the middle
alanine and glycine
alpha helix, beta sheets, and loops/turns
What bonds are important in primary
peptide bonds (Covalent bonds) and sulfide bridges
what are the main driving forces in pr…
Hydrophobicity. Non-polar wants to be in the middle
56 terms
Chapter 4: Molecular Biology
genetics
a gene
a gene is composed of
linear sequence of bases in DNA conver…
study that deals with the mechanisms by which traits are pass…
element of information that specifies the sequences of amino…
DNA
linear sequence of bases in RNA
genetics
study that deals with the mechanisms by which traits are pass…
a gene
element of information that specifies the sequences of amino…
127 terms
Chapter 4: Molecular Microbiology
3 informational macromolecules in a cell
Replication
Transcription
mRNA
1. DNA... 2. RNA... 3. Protein
DNA is replicated
info from DNA is transferred to RNA
encodes polypeptides
3 informational macromolecules in a cell
1. DNA... 2. RNA... 3. Protein
Replication
DNA is replicated
46 terms
Chapter 4 - Molecular Microbiology
Amino Acid
Anticodon
Antiparallel
Chaperonin (or molecular chaperone)
one of the 22 different monomers that make up proteins; chemi…
a sequence of three bases in a tRNA molecule that base-pairs…
in reference to double-stranded DNA, the two strains run in o…
a protein that helps other proteins fold or refold from a par…
Amino Acid
one of the 22 different monomers that make up proteins; chemi…
Anticodon
a sequence of three bases in a tRNA molecule that base-pairs…
20 terms
Chapter 4: Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life
Organic Chemistry
4 Major organic elements
What makes carbon such a diverse part…
Hydrocarbons
The study of compounds that contain carbon which are organic…
1) Hydrogen (H)... 2) Oxygen (O)... 3) Nitrogen (N)... 4) Carbon (C)
A carbon atom can be an intersection for a molecule to branch…
Organic molecules that are formed of only hydrogen and carbon…
Organic Chemistry
The study of compounds that contain carbon which are organic…
4 Major organic elements
1) Hydrogen (H)... 2) Oxygen (O)... 3) Nitrogen (N)... 4) Carbon (C)
49 terms
Molecular Bio Chapter 4
Proteins are polymers of what?
What are the components of amino acids?
What is the only difference among Amin…
How do you tell if an amino acid is Ac…
amino acids
Amino group, carboxyl group, a-carbon, R group
The R group
It is negatively charged or has a carboxyl group (COO-)
Proteins are polymers of what?
amino acids
What are the components of amino acids?
Amino group, carboxyl group, a-carbon, R group
83 terms
Chapter 4 - Molecular Microbiology
What is the central dogma of life?
Which two macromolecules are considere…
What are the three components of a nuc…
Which nitrogen bases are purines?
- essential biological information flows from DNA to RNA to s…
- nucleic acids and proteins... - the sequence of monomers in th…
- a pentose sugar... - a nitrogen base... - a molecule of phosphate
- adenine and guanine... - contain two fused heterocyclic rings
What is the central dogma of life?
- essential biological information flows from DNA to RNA to s…
Which two macromolecules are considere…
- nucleic acids and proteins... - the sequence of monomers in th…
24 terms
Molecular Diagnostics Chapter 4
Which whole blood fraction is the most…
Which specimen will yield the best DNA…
What is the first step in DNA isolatio…
Phenol/chloroform and an aqueous solut…
Buffy Coat
Fresh Blood
Lysis of cells
Emulsion
Which whole blood fraction is the most…
Buffy Coat
Which specimen will yield the best DNA…
Fresh Blood
Chapter 4: Carbon and Molecular Diversity
Organic Chemistry
Carbon
Carbon Skeleton
Hydroxyl Group
The study of carbon compounds; the study of compounds unique…
Carbon has four valence electrons... each atom can form bonds…
Many organic compounds have a unique carbon skeleton. The pos…
Organic Chemistry
The study of carbon compounds; the study of compounds unique…
Carbon
Carbon has four valence electrons... each atom can form bonds…
14 terms
Chapter 4: Carbon & Molecular Diversity
Carbon Atoms
Hydrocarbons
Isomers
Structural Isomers
- Versatile building blocks of molecules... - tetra valence by c…
- Organic molecules consisting of only carbon and hydrogen... -…
- Compounds that have the same numbers of atoms of the same e…
- Isomers differ in the covalent arrangement of their atoms... -…
Carbon Atoms
- Versatile building blocks of molecules... - tetra valence by c…
Hydrocarbons
- Organic molecules consisting of only carbon and hydrogen... -…
82 terms
Chapter 4 Molecular Biology (other)
Nucleotide
nucleoside
nucleic acid polymerization
Pyrimidines
-sugar ... -base ... -phosphates
sugar + base
-5' to 3' synthesis and base sequence ... -antiparallel and comp…
-one ring (CUT)... Cytosine ... Thymine ... Uracil
Nucleotide
-sugar ... -base ... -phosphates
nucleoside
sugar + base
79 terms
Chapter 4: Fundamentals of Molecular Biology
Mol. bio:
Recombinant DNA:
Heredity:
Gregor Mendel & Genes:
-focuses on the mechanisms of transmission and expression of…
-Recombinant DNA technology allowed principles and experiment…
-All organisms inherit genetic info specifying their structur…
-The classical principles of genetics were deduced by Gregor…
Mol. bio:
-focuses on the mechanisms of transmission and expression of…
Recombinant DNA:
-Recombinant DNA technology allowed principles and experiment…
25 terms
BIO CHAPTER 4: Molecular Biology
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
Purines
Pyrimidines
Nucleoside(s)
a nucleic acid found exclusively in the nucleus that codes fo…
sugar group + base only, no phosphates
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
a nucleic acid found exclusively in the nucleus that codes fo…
Purines
14 terms
Carbon and Molecular Diversity (Chapter 4)
Organic Chemistry
Vitalism
Miller-Urey Experiment
Hyrdocarbon
Study of carbon compounds
Organic compounds only arise in organisms (Disproved)
Complex organic molecules could arise under conditions though…
Made from hydrogen and carbon, Can form single-double-triple…
Organic Chemistry
Study of carbon compounds
Vitalism
Organic compounds only arise in organisms (Disproved)
32 terms
Chapter 4: Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life
Organic Chemistry
Hydrocarbons
Isomers
Enantiomers
study of carbon compounds (organic compounds).
-an organic molecule made up of only carbon and hydrogen atom…
compounds that have the same numbers of atoms of the same ele…
Isomers that are mirror images of each other
Organic Chemistry
study of carbon compounds (organic compounds).
Hydrocarbons
-an organic molecule made up of only carbon and hydrogen atom…
42 terms
Chapter 4: Carbon and Molecular Diversity
they differ in length
The hydrocarbon on the right is branch…
The hydrocarbon on the right has a dou…
The hydrocarbon on the right has a rin…
How do these hydrocarbons differ?
How do these hydrocarbons differ?
How do these hydrocarbons differ?
How do these hydrocarbons differ?
they differ in length
How do these hydrocarbons differ?
The hydrocarbon on the right is branch…
How do these hydrocarbons differ?
109 terms
Cell and Molecular Biology, Chapter 4
Plasma membrane
Plasma membrane is not detectable with…
The 2 dark-staining layers in the elec…
All membranes examined closely from pl…
The outer boundary of the cell that separates it from the wor…
..light microscope; need electron microscope
...the inner and outer polar surfaces of the bilayer
...the same ultrastructure
Plasma membrane
The outer boundary of the cell that separates it from the wor…
Plasma membrane is not detectable with…
..light microscope; need electron microscope
26 terms
Chapter 4: Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life
organic chemistry
tetravalence
hydrocarbon
variations in carbon skeletons
the study of carbon compounds
The state of an atom with four electrons available for covale…
an organic compound composed only of carbon and hydrogen
length, double bonds, branching, and rings
organic chemistry
the study of carbon compounds
tetravalence
The state of an atom with four electrons available for covale…
20 terms
Chapter 4: Carbon & Molecular Diversity
Most organic molecules contain carbon…
Stanley Miller's 1953 experiments supp…
How many hydrogen does carbon want...
L-dopa deals with...
hydrogen
organic molecules can be synthesized abiotically under condit…
4
Parkinson's disease
Most organic molecules contain carbon…
hydrogen
Stanley Miller's 1953 experiments supp…
organic molecules can be synthesized abiotically under condit…
34 terms
Cell and Molecular: Chapter 4
outer membrane structure
7 functions
history of studies on plasma membrane
Chemical composition of membranes***
-membrane 5-10 nm wide ... -outer boundary of the cell that sepa…
-1. Compartamentalize - continuous unbroken sheets that enclo…
-Overton studied membranes and found they are mostly made of…
-Membrane lipids are amphipathic with 3 main types... 1. Phospho…
outer membrane structure
-membrane 5-10 nm wide ... -outer boundary of the cell that sepa…
7 functions
-1. Compartamentalize - continuous unbroken sheets that enclo…
14 terms
Cell Molecular Chapter 4
Primary
Secondary
Tertiary
Quaternary
covalent bonds link amino acids into polypeptide bonds
hydrogen bonds form alpha-helix and beta sheet
hydrogen, Van der Waals, ionic, and non polar bonds complete…
interactions between protein subunits
Primary
covalent bonds link amino acids into polypeptide bonds
Secondary
hydrogen bonds form alpha-helix and beta sheet
17 terms
Chapter 4: Molecular Compounds
covalent bond
molecule
bond length
diatomic molecules
non-ionic compounds formed by the sharing of electrons (rat…
group of atoms held together by covalent bonds
optimum distance between nuclei where net attractive forces a…
Nitrogen, Oxygen, Hydrogen, Chlorine, Fluorine, Bromine, and…
covalent bond
non-ionic compounds formed by the sharing of electrons (rat…
molecule
group of atoms held together by covalent bonds
54 terms
Molecular Microbiology - Chapter 4
Gene
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
Denaturation
The Escherichia Coli Chromosome
Functional unit of genetic information... Composed of deoxyribon…
Chain of nucleotides = polynucleotide ... Is a double helix mole…
The breaking of hydrogen due to high heat ... Guanine/Cytosine D…
Model organism... Average protein is approx. 300 amino acids = 9…
Gene
Functional unit of genetic information... Composed of deoxyribon…
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
Chain of nucleotides = polynucleotide ... Is a double helix mole…
48 terms
Chapter 4 Molecular Biology
Dr. Ian ______________ announced the f…
What 2 processes refer to cloning in t…
Restriction endonucleases, using the p…
________________ cleave DNA at interna…
Ian Wilmut... a sheep Dolly... Mice, cattle and cats
Reproduction of daughter cells by fission or mitotic division
Immune... Enzyme... Foreign DNA
Endonucleases ... Exonucleases... A methyl group to a nucleotide
Dr. Ian ______________ announced the f…
Ian Wilmut... a sheep Dolly... Mice, cattle and cats
What 2 processes refer to cloning in t…
Reproduction of daughter cells by fission or mitotic division
21 terms
Chapter 4: Molecular Compounds
covalent bond
molecule
bond length
molecular compound
bond formed by sharing electrons between atoms
group of atoms held together by covalent bonds
optimum distance between nuclei in a covalent bond
compound of molecules
covalent bond
bond formed by sharing electrons between atoms
molecule
group of atoms held together by covalent bonds
13 terms
Chapter 4 molecular biology
Interrupted gene
Primary RNA transcript
RNA splicing
Intron
A gene in which the coding sequence is not continuous due to…
The original unmodified RNA product corresponding to a transc…
The process of exercising introns from RNA and connecting the…
A segment of DNA that is transcribed but later removed from w…
Interrupted gene
A gene in which the coding sequence is not continuous due to…
Primary RNA transcript
The original unmodified RNA product corresponding to a transc…
172 terms
Chapter 4 - Molecular System
what are the three types of muscle tis…
smooth muscle tissue
cardiac muscle tissue
skeletal muscle tissue
1. smooth muscle... 2. cardiac... 3. skeletal
- contributes to the wall of the blood vessels... - hollow visce…
- exclusively found in heart... - causes the rhythmic involuntar…
- required for locomotion... - typically attach to the bones... - c…
what are the three types of muscle tis…
1. smooth muscle... 2. cardiac... 3. skeletal
smooth muscle tissue
- contributes to the wall of the blood vessels... - hollow visce…
32 terms
Chapter 4 - Molecular Cloning
Boyer and Cohen
Gene cloning steps.
Usefulness of gene cloning
DNA restriction endonucleases
Combinded plasmids ... Cut plasmids with echo R1... After exposure…
1. Cut host DNA (vector) at defined positions with DNA restri…
1. Make large quantities of gene of interest... 2. Determine gen…
Enzymes recognize double stranded DNA and cut both strands.…
Boyer and Cohen
Combinded plasmids ... Cut plasmids with echo R1... After exposure…
Gene cloning steps.
1. Cut host DNA (vector) at defined positions with DNA restri…
13 terms
Chapter 4 Molecular Shapes
Linear (2 domains)
Trigonal Planar (3 domains)
Bent (3 domains)
Tetrahedral (4 domains)
2 bonding domains, no lone pairs, AX2, 180 degrees
3 bonding domains, no lone pairs, AX3, 120 degrees
2 bonding domains, 1 lone pair, AX2E
4 bonding domains, no lone pairs, AX4, 109.5 degrees
Linear (2 domains)
2 bonding domains, no lone pairs, AX2, 180 degrees
Trigonal Planar (3 domains)
3 bonding domains, no lone pairs, AX3, 120 degrees
14 terms
Chapter 4: Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life
Amino
Carbonyl
Carboxyl
cis-trans isomer
One of several compounds that have the same molecular formula…
Amino
Carbonyl
14 terms
Chapter 4 Molecular Biology
Interrupted gene
Exon
Intron
RNA splicing
A gene in which the coding sequence is not continuous due to…
Any segment of an interrupted gene that is represented in the…
A segment of DNA that is transcribed but later removed from w…
The process of excising introns from RNA and connecting the e…
Interrupted gene
A gene in which the coding sequence is not continuous due to…
Exon
Any segment of an interrupted gene that is represented in the…
70 terms
Chapter 4 - Molecular Movement
Simple Diffusion
Net flux
What affects net flux?
Diffusion equilibrium
Solutes move down a concentration gradient, from high concent…
The difference between 2 one-way fluxes (difference between b…
-temperature... -mass of solute... -surface area between 2 regions…
Evenly distributed concentration of molecules
Simple Diffusion
Solutes move down a concentration gradient, from high concent…
Net flux
The difference between 2 one-way fluxes (difference between b…
34 terms
Molecular Biology Chapter 4
Interrupted gene
Primary (RNA) transcripts
RNA splicing
transcriptome
A gene in which the coding sequence is not continuous due to…
The original unmodified RNA product corresponding to a transc…
The process of excising introns from RNA and connected the eo…
the complete set of RNA present within a cell tissue or organ…
Interrupted gene
A gene in which the coding sequence is not continuous due to…
Primary (RNA) transcripts
The original unmodified RNA product corresponding to a transc…
13 terms
chapter 4 molecular biology
enzymes
prob with bond formation
molecules that donate energy
larger amt of free energy
often involved in the breaking of covalent bonds, doesnt alte…
small to form large = + dela g... thought for the longest time t…
unstable
molecule will if linked together by weak cov bonds... stronger b…
enzymes
often involved in the breaking of covalent bonds, doesnt alte…
prob with bond formation
small to form large = + dela g... thought for the longest time t…
109 terms
Chapter 4 - Molecular Biology
CELL
CELLS
ROBERT HOOKE
ANTON VAN LEEWENHOEK
A _____ is the smallest unit that can carry out all life proc…
______ make up all living things.
________________ first discovered cells and gave them the nam…
______________ was the first to see living cells, specificall…
CELL
A _____ is the smallest unit that can carry out all life proc…
CELLS
______ make up all living things.
46 terms
Chapter 4: Molecular Biology
Gene
Replication
Transcription
mRNA
functional unit of genetic information
DNA is duplicated
information from DNA is transferred to RNA; carried out by RN…
encodes polypeptides
Gene
functional unit of genetic information
Replication
DNA is duplicated
38 terms
Molecular Bio Chapter 4
RNA World Hypothesis
nucleic acid
nucleotide
ribonucleotide
Proposal that chemical evolution produced RNAs that could cat…
A macromolecule composed of nucleotide monomers. Generally us…
A molecule consisting of a five-carbon sugar (ribose or deoxy…
A molecule consisting of a five-carbon sugar (ribose or deoxy…
RNA World Hypothesis
Proposal that chemical evolution produced RNAs that could cat…
nucleic acid
A macromolecule composed of nucleotide monomers. Generally us…
21 terms
Chapter 4 - Molecular Biology
cell membrane
cytoplasm
ribosomes
endoplasmic riticulum
barrier between the cell and its external enviornment
watery type material that fills the cell
produces proteins for cells
membrane system of folded sacs and tunnels
cell membrane
barrier between the cell and its external enviornment
cytoplasm
watery type material that fills the cell
18 terms
Chapter 4 - molecular microbiology
Supercoiled DNA
Relaxed DNA
DNA gyrase
Plasmids
DNA is further twisted to save space
DNA had number of turns predicted by number of base pairs
Introduces supercoils into DNA
Replicate separately from chromosome; majority are double str…
Supercoiled DNA
DNA is further twisted to save space
Relaxed DNA
DNA had number of turns predicted by number of base pairs
69 terms
Chapter 4: Molecular Microbiology
Amino acid
Aminoacly-tRNA synthetase
Anticodon
Antiparallel
one of 22 different monomers that make up proteins; chemicall…
An enzyme that catalyzes attachment of an amino acid to its c…
A sequence of three bases in a tRNA molecules that base-pairs…
In reference to double-stranded DNA, the two strands run in o…
Amino acid
one of 22 different monomers that make up proteins; chemicall…
Aminoacly-tRNA synthetase
An enzyme that catalyzes attachment of an amino acid to its c…
13 terms
Molecular Geometry - Chapter 4
Triangular Planar
Linear
Bent or V-shaped
Tetrahedral
3 Electron Domains - 120º
2 Electron Domains - 180º
3 Electron Domains (one lone pair) - 117º
4 Electron Domains (no lone pairs) - 109.5º
Triangular Planar
3 Electron Domains - 120º
Linear
2 Electron Domains - 180º
62 terms
Chapter 4 - Molecular Shape and Structure
Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion…
Linear
Bent
Trigonal planar
- vsepr model extends Lewis's theory of bonding to account fo…
120 bond angles
Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion…
- vsepr model extends Lewis's theory of bonding to account fo…
Linear
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