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Study sets matching "molecules of life"

54 terms
Molecules of Life
organic molecule
inorganic molecule
hydrocarbon
functional group
A molecule that contains only carbon and any of the following…
non-carbon based molecules such as water, oxygen, and ammonia
an organic compound containing only carbon and hydrogen
group of atoms within a molecule that interacts in predictabl…
organic molecule
A molecule that contains only carbon and any of the following…
inorganic molecule
non-carbon based molecules such as water, oxygen, and ammonia
23 terms
Molecules of Life
What is a carbohydrate?
Monosaccharide Examples
Monosaccharide formula
Glucose function
A molecule that contains Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen in appro…
Glucose, Fructose, Galactose
C6H12O6
Energy for cells (used to make ATP)
What is a carbohydrate?
A molecule that contains Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen in appro…
Monosaccharide Examples
Glucose, Fructose, Galactose
11 terms
molecules of life
glucose
glycerol
fatty acids
triglyceride
glucose
glycerol
24 terms
Molecules of Life
Polysaccharides (examples)
Carbohydrates (structure)
Protein (structure)
Carboxyl
1. Glycogen... 2. Starch... 3. Cellulose
C6H12O6
Polysaccharides (examples)
1. Glycogen... 2. Starch... 3. Cellulose
Carbohydrates (structure)
C6H12O6
15 terms
Organic Molecules: The Molecules of Life
macromolecule
sugar
ring
Carbon
a large and complex molecule, which are usually composed of s…
the single section, the monomer, of a complex carbohydrate st…
the generalized shape of a single-sugar molecule
the element that forms the backbone of all organic molecules
macromolecule
a large and complex molecule, which are usually composed of s…
sugar
the single section, the monomer, of a complex carbohydrate st…
20 terms
Molecules of life
inorganic substance
organic substance
mineral
carbohydrate
A substance that does not have a biological origin. Examples…
A substance that has a biological origin. Examples commonly f…
An inorganic substance needed in small amounts by organisms t…
An organic compound made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, w…
inorganic substance
A substance that does not have a biological origin. Examples…
organic substance
A substance that has a biological origin. Examples commonly f…
42 terms
Molecules of Life
Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates
Monomer
Monomer
Compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of…
Examples: Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, Polysaccharides
One part (building block) of a larger molecule
Examples: Monosaccharides, Amino Acids, Nucleotides, Fatty Ac…
Carbohydrates
Compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of…
Carbohydrates
Examples: Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, Polysaccharides
8 terms
Molecules of Life
lipids
fatty acid
saturated fat
unsaturated fat
organic compounds like fats, oils, and waxes,
chains of carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen atoms
fatty acids that have no double bonds
A lipid made from fatty acids with at least one double bond
lipids
organic compounds like fats, oils, and waxes,
fatty acid
chains of carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen atoms
18 terms
Molecules of Life
Made of CHON
Made of CH2O
Made of CHO
Made of CHONP
Proteins
Carbohydrates
LIPIDS
Nucleic Acid
Made of CHON
Proteins
Made of CH2O
Carbohydrates
28 terms
Molecules of Life: Molecules of Life
Sugars (or saccharides) are Polar, Hyd…
Also called Monosaccharides (one sugar…
Also called Disaccharides or Oligosacc…
What percentage of humans cannot diges…
Carbohydrates
Simple Sugars... ex. Glucose=C6H12O6, preferred food for brain a…
Short-chain Sugars... ex. Sucrose (table sugar), milk sugar (lac…
About 65%
Sugars (or saccharides) are Polar, Hyd…
Carbohydrates
Also called Monosaccharides (one sugar…
Simple Sugars... ex. Glucose=C6H12O6, preferred food for brain a…
23 terms
Molecules of Life
What is a carbohydrate?
Monosaccharide Examples
Monosaccharide formula
Glucose function
A molecule that contains Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen in appro…
Glucose, Fructose, Galactose
C6H12O6
Energy for cells (used to make ATP)
What is a carbohydrate?
A molecule that contains Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen in appro…
Monosaccharide Examples
Glucose, Fructose, Galactose
24 terms
Molecules of Life
How many valence electrons does ₈O have?
What does ₇N need to do to get a full…
How many neutrons are in ³H? Its atomi…
Which type of bond is the strongest in…
6. ... Why? Since its atomic number is given (8) and it has no c…
Gain 3 electrons. ... Why? It has 5 on its valence shell, so it…
2 Neutrons.... The 3 in the upper left is the mass number, which…
Covalent bond
How many valence electrons does ₈O have?
6. ... Why? Since its atomic number is given (8) and it has no c…
What does ₇N need to do to get a full…
Gain 3 electrons. ... Why? It has 5 on its valence shell, so it…
38 terms
Molecules of Life
Cells are...
Organic chemistry
Methane
Hydrocarbon
72% water... 3% salt... 25% carbon compound
Study of carbon components ... Carbon atoms= versatile building…
Nonpolar... Hydrogen... Gas at room temp... Hydrocarbon
Hydrogen covalently bonded with carbon ... Can form chains... Can c…
Cells are...
72% water... 3% salt... 25% carbon compound
Organic chemistry
Study of carbon components ... Carbon atoms= versatile building…
26 terms
Life & Molecules
6 characteristics of life
energy
atom
molecule
have cells, have life cycles, grow, respond to stimuli, obtai…
Ability to do work
Basic unit of matter.
A group of atoms bonded together
6 characteristics of life
have cells, have life cycles, grow, respond to stimuli, obtai…
energy
Ability to do work
Molecules Of Life
Carbohydrates
The 3 groups of Carbohydrates
Monosaccharides
Disaccharides
Their Main function is to provide energy
Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, Polysaccharides
Simple Sugars, EXAMPLES: Glucose, and Fructose
Double Sugars, EXAMPLES: Lactose, Maltose, and Sucrose
Carbohydrates
Their Main function is to provide energy
The 3 groups of Carbohydrates
Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, Polysaccharides
186 terms
Molecules of Life
Carbon, Liquid water
Structure... Energy... Means of exchanging i…
Organic Life
Structure
All organic life has a basis that has the fundamental require…
Life has 3 basic needs
Has the element carbon. All substances containing this elemen…
The physical arrangement of atoms that comprise a substance.
Carbon, Liquid water
All organic life has a basis that has the fundamental require…
Structure... Energy... Means of exchanging i…
Life has 3 basic needs
109 terms
Molecules of Life
organic
condensation
enzyme
functional group
a compound that consists primarily of carbon and hydrogen atoms
process by which enzymes build large molecules and forms wate…
a (usually protein) compound that speeds up a reaction withou…
a group of atoms bonded to the carbon of an organic compound…
organic
a compound that consists primarily of carbon and hydrogen atoms
condensation
process by which enzymes build large molecules and forms wate…
24 terms
The Molecules of Life
Glycine (G)
Alanine (A)
Serine (S)
Cysteine (C)
Glycine (G)
Alanine (A)
60 terms
Molecules of Life
DNA
Craig Venter
Nucleiod
Criteria for Life
The molecule of life
The scientist who tried to prove if RNA or DNA was the molecu…
Genomic DNA , also cell will die without it, BASE + SUGAR+ PH…
Movement and replication
DNA
The molecule of life
Craig Venter
The scientist who tried to prove if RNA or DNA was the molecu…
38 terms
Molecules of Life
acid
activation energy
active site
amino acid
any substance that forms hydrogen ions in water and has a pH…
the minimum amount of energy required to start a chemical rea…
region of an enzyme into which a particular substrate fits
monomer that makes up proteins; contains carboxyl and amino f…
acid
any substance that forms hydrogen ions in water and has a pH…
activation energy
the minimum amount of energy required to start a chemical rea…
9 terms
The Molecules of Life
Carbon
Dehydration Synthesis
Hydrolysis
Peptide Bond
six protons and six electrons, really good at bonding
A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to…
Breaking down complex molecules by the chemical addition of w…
The chemical bond that forms between the carboxyl group of on…
Carbon
six protons and six electrons, really good at bonding
Dehydration Synthesis
A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to…
39 terms
Molecules of Life
Adhesion
Cohesion
pH
Hydrogen Bond
attraction between molecules of the same substances
attraction between molecules of different substances
measure of the acidity of a substance
attraction between a hydrogen atom with a partial positive ch…
Adhesion
attraction between molecules of the same substances
Cohesion
attraction between molecules of different substances
8 terms
molecules of life
organic compounds
functional groups
carbonyl
hydroxyl
contain carbon and at least one hydrogen atom
lone atoms or clusters of atoms that are covalently bonded to…
in sugars, amino acids, nucleotides, water soluble ; an aldeh…
in alcohols (e.g. sugars, amino acids); water soluble
organic compounds
contain carbon and at least one hydrogen atom
functional groups
lone atoms or clusters of atoms that are covalently bonded to…
31 terms
The Molecules of Life
organic
inorganic
carbon bonds
monomer
contains carbon and hydrogen, larger and more complex
doesn't contain carbon and hydrogen, simple and less complex
bonds in 4 places, chains or rings
one unit structure
organic
contains carbon and hydrogen, larger and more complex
inorganic
doesn't contain carbon and hydrogen, simple and less complex
12 terms
Molecules of Life
Monomer
Polymer
Monosaccharides
How many bonds can Carbon form?
Single building block, glucose1 and fructose1= Surcrose2
Many building blocks(more than one), molecule with many parts…
Single sugars that are the building blocks of carbohydrates.…
Carbon can form 4 bonds
Monomer
Single building block, glucose1 and fructose1= Surcrose2
Polymer
Many building blocks(more than one), molecule with many parts…
11 terms
molecules of life
fat (saturated and unsaturated)
carbohydrate
amino acid
protein
amino acids linked together
fat (saturated and unsaturated)
carbohydrate
21 terms
Molecules of Life
Trace Elements
Bulk Elements
Atomic Number
Atomic Mass
less than 0.10 is required daily for life (iron, cobalt, copp…
large amounts are required daily for life (oxygen, hydrogen,…
the number of protons in an atom
number of protons and neutrons of an atom
Trace Elements
less than 0.10 is required daily for life (iron, cobalt, copp…
Bulk Elements
large amounts are required daily for life (oxygen, hydrogen,…
Molecules of life
organic molecules
inorganic molecules
hydrocarbon
monomer
carbon-based molecules
non-carbon based molecules
molecules with only carbon and hydrogen
smaller molecule units
organic molecules
carbon-based molecules
inorganic molecules
non-carbon based molecules
41 terms
Molecules of Life
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Nucleic Acids
Molecule of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
Fatty, oily, or waxy organic compound
Organic compound that consists of one or more polypeptide cha…
Single or double stranded chain of nucleotides joined by suga…
Carbohydrates
Molecule of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
Lipids
Fatty, oily, or waxy organic compound
Molecules of Life
mon, mono... example; monologue, monoton…
ose... example: glucose, sucrose
lip... example: lipids, liposuction
di... example: dialogue, dilemma, disacc…
one
sugar, starch
fat, oil, wax
two
mon, mono... example; monologue, monoton…
one
ose... example: glucose, sucrose
sugar, starch
20 terms
Molecules of Life
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Nucleic Acids
Protein
sugars , fiber, and starches
fats, waxes, and oils
DNA and RNA
enzymes/catalysts
Carbohydrates
sugars , fiber, and starches
Lipids
fats, waxes, and oils
51 terms
Molecules of Life
What 3 elements make up most of the hu…
What 2 elements mainly make up Earth's…
Parts of an atom
Electrons
1. Oxygen... 2. Carbon... 3. Hydrogen
1. Oxygen... 2. Silicon
1. electrons... 2. protons... 3. neutrons
negativity charged particles that orbit around the nucleus of…
What 3 elements make up most of the hu…
1. Oxygen... 2. Carbon... 3. Hydrogen
What 2 elements mainly make up Earth's…
1. Oxygen... 2. Silicon
50 terms
molecules of life
hydroxyl
carboxyl
carbonyl
phosphate
hydroxyl
carboxyl
15 terms
Molecules of Life
C
H
N
O
Carbon
Hydrogen
Nitrogen
Oxygen
C
Carbon
H
Hydrogen
20 terms
Molecules of Life
macromolecule
Organic molecules
Monomer
Polymer
A large molecule referring to carbohrydates, proteins, lipids…
Molecules formed by living organisms
Simple molecule that can form polymer
Large molecule formed into long chains of monomers
macromolecule
A large molecule referring to carbohrydates, proteins, lipids…
Organic molecules
Molecules formed by living organisms
124 terms
The Molecules of Life
what is an organic molecule
what 4 macromolecules
uses of organic molecules
protein help make (2 things)
molecule with carbon and hydrogen
carbs, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids
fuel for cells, fuels for machines, give energy, make cellulose
muscle synthesize hormones, enzyme etc
what is an organic molecule
molecule with carbon and hydrogen
what 4 macromolecules
carbs, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids
13 terms
Molecules of Life
all living thing are made of...
cell are...
carbon compounds
organic chemistry is the study of...
cells
72% water, 3% salts, and 25% carbon compounds
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
carbon compounds
all living thing are made of...
cells
cell are...
72% water, 3% salts, and 25% carbon compounds
21 terms
Molecules Of Life
Organic compounds contain _____ .
Monomers
Macromolecule
Micromolecule
Carbon
small single subunits that are put together to make really bi…
Big molecule
small molecule
Organic compounds contain _____ .
Carbon
Monomers
small single subunits that are put together to make really bi…
11 terms
The molecules of life
Functional groups
Seven chemical groups
Ketone
aldehyde
Functional groups: the components of organic molecules that a…
Hydroxyl ... carbonyl... carboxyl... amino group... phosphate... methyl... sulf…
Carbon in middle
carbon on end
Functional groups
Functional groups: the components of organic molecules that a…
Seven chemical groups
Hydroxyl ... carbonyl... carboxyl... amino group... phosphate... methyl... sulf…
46 terms
The Molecules of Life
Four Classes of Macromolecules
Polymer
Monomer
Dehydration Reaction
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
a long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monom…
the subunit that serves as the building block of a polymer
a chemical reaction in which two molecules become covalently…
Four Classes of Macromolecules
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
Polymer
a long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monom…
18 terms
Molecules of Life
amino acids
ATP
base pairs
DNA
Building blocks of protein
(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use fo…
Any of the pairs formed between complimentary bases in the tw…
a polymer of nucleotides with the bases adenosine, guanine, c…
amino acids
Building blocks of protein
ATP
(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use fo…
52 terms
Molecules of Life
All life depends on the properties and…
What are the 4 organic compounds respo…
How are biological molecules of life f…
Carbohydrates
Carbs, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids are the building b…
Carbs, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids are responsible fo…
Simple organic molecules can be joined together to form polym…
are made of monosaccharides... ex. glucose, galactose, and fruct…
All life depends on the properties and…
Carbs, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids are the building b…
What are the 4 organic compounds respo…
Carbs, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids are responsible fo…
44 terms
Molecules of Life
Draw the structure of pyridine
Draw the structure of pyrimidine
Draw the structure of purine
List the characteristics of aromaticity.
1. Planar... 2. Cyclic... 3. Conjugated double bonds... 4. delocalized…
Draw the structure of pyridine
Draw the structure of pyrimidine
16 terms
Molecules of Life
Monomer
Polymer
Monosaccharides
How many bonds can carbon form
The basic building block of macromolecules
Molecule with Multiple parts
A LARGE molecule made up of smaller molecules
Four bonds
Monomer
The basic building block of macromolecules
Polymer
Molecule with Multiple parts
Molecules of Life
Water
Carbohydrates ... Monomer=Monosaccharide
Lipids... Monomer=Fatty Acids
Proteins... Monomer=Amino Acids
Polar... Universal Solvent... Cohension... Adhension... Hydrogen Bonding…
Monosaccharides, Polysaccharides (many) & Disaccharides (2 Su…
Fatty Acids... Glycerol... Steroids... Fats, Waxes, & Oils... Saturated &…
Amino Acid... Enzyme, Catalyst, & Substrate... Peptide Bonds & Poly…
Water
Polar... Universal Solvent... Cohension... Adhension... Hydrogen Bonding…
Carbohydrates ... Monomer=Monosaccharide
Monosaccharides, Polysaccharides (many) & Disaccharides (2 Su…
31 terms
Bio A: Molecules of Life
Organic
Carbohydrate
Glucose
Glycogen
Compounds that contain Carbon and Hydrogen in combination
Organic molecule that functions in short term energy storage
Monosaccharide; C6H12O6
Polysaccharide; energy storage in animals
Organic
Compounds that contain Carbon and Hydrogen in combination
Carbohydrate
Organic molecule that functions in short term energy storage
18 terms
Molecules of Life
The four classes of organic compounds
Monomer
Monomer of Carbohydrates
Most common sugars/ monosaccrides
Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, Nucleic Acids
A simple compound whose molecules can join together to form p…
Monosaccrides
Glucose (cell energy)... Fructose (fruit sugar)... Galactose (milk…
The four classes of organic compounds
Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, Nucleic Acids
Monomer
A simple compound whose molecules can join together to form p…
35 terms
molecules of life
simple sugar
isomers
double sugar
Starch
glucose & fructose
molecules with same exact formula but different arrangement
a combination of two simple sugars ... ex: sucrose (cane sugar)
100's of GLUCOSE molecules bonded together... "storage molecule"…
simple sugar
glucose & fructose
isomers
molecules with same exact formula but different arrangement
15 terms
Molecules of Life
Condensation reaction
Lipid subunit
Lipids role in membrane
Polysaccharides examples
Breaking down a large macromolecule into smaller subunits. Re…
glycerol and 3 fatty acids
Lipid bilayer forms a barrier to the cell
Starch, Glycogen and Cellulose
Condensation reaction
Breaking down a large macromolecule into smaller subunits. Re…
Lipid subunit
glycerol and 3 fatty acids
38 terms
Molecules of Life
Nucleobases
Alcohol
Acid Anhydride
Aldehyde
Adenine (A) - Purine... Guanine (G) - Purine... Cytosine (C) - Pyri…
Nucleobases
Adenine (A) - Purine... Guanine (G) - Purine... Cytosine (C) - Pyri…
Alcohol
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