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Study sets matching "neuro"

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Study sets matching "neuro"

14 terms
Neurology
Neuron
Axon
Dendrite
Action potential
Nerve cell
Extension of cell body, covered in myelin
Extensions of cell body that detect stimulus from environment
Electrical current that travels down the length of the axon
Neuron
Nerve cell
Axon
Extension of cell body, covered in myelin
30 terms
Neurology
cerebell/o
cerebr/o
encephal/o
medull/o
cerebellum
cerebro
brain
medulla oblongata
cerebell/o
cerebellum
cerebr/o
cerebro
39 terms
Neurology
migraine preventative
migraine abortive
atenolol
metoprolol
beta blocker, calcium channel blocker, antidepressant
serotonin 5-HT receptor agonist
beta blocker
beta blocker
migraine preventative
beta blocker, calcium channel blocker, antidepressant
migraine abortive
serotonin 5-HT receptor agonist
81 terms
Neurology
Nervous System Heirarchy
Motor Function Heirarchy
Brain Stem
Brain Stem dysfunction
- Central vs peripheral... - somatic vs autonomic... - Parasympathe…
Direct motor control... 1. Cerebral Cortex... 2. Brain Stem... 3. Spin…
- intermediate level of motor control... - integrates visual, ve…
- Can disconnect upper brain from spinal cord
Nervous System Heirarchy
- Central vs peripheral... - somatic vs autonomic... - Parasympathe…
Motor Function Heirarchy
Direct motor control... 1. Cerebral Cortex... 2. Brain Stem... 3. Spin…
18 terms
Neurology
Glasgow Coma Scale
MCI VS dementia VS delirium
Dementia comparison with delirium
Alzheimer Disease
EYE RESPONSE... 4 E Does not open eyes ... 3 Y Opens eyes in respo…
delirium: ... - acute confusional state which fluctuates through…
- most common type of dementia... - neurodegenerative disease ch…
Glasgow Coma Scale
EYE RESPONSE... 4 E Does not open eyes ... 3 Y Opens eyes in respo…
MCI VS dementia VS delirium
delirium: ... - acute confusional state which fluctuates through…
183 terms
Neurology
What is the TIA grading score?
What is the spinothalamic tract respon…
What is the dorsal column responsible…
'Thunderclap' Headache
ABCD2... Age >= 60 years old (1 point)... Blood pressure >= 140/90…
Pain and temperature
Fine touch, vibration proprioception
Subarachnoid Haemorrhage
What is the TIA grading score?
ABCD2... Age >= 60 years old (1 point)... Blood pressure >= 140/90…
What is the spinothalamic tract respon…
Pain and temperature
72 terms
Neurology
AIDS patient... Ring enhancing lesion on…
Neurfibrillary tangles - *hyperphospho…
Loss of pigmented dopaminergic neurons…
Normal pressure hydrocephalus treatment
Primary CNS lymphoma
Alzheimer's disease
Parkinson disease
Ventricular shunt - relieves CSF pressure
AIDS patient... Ring enhancing lesion on…
Primary CNS lymphoma
Neurfibrillary tangles - *hyperphospho…
Alzheimer's disease
185 terms
Neurology
Which part of the nervous system can b…
Where are Schwann Cells found?
Where are oligodendrocytes found?
What part of the neuron receives input…
The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
PNS
Central Nervous System (CNS)
The Dendrites
Which part of the nervous system can b…
The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
Where are Schwann Cells found?
PNS
262 terms
Neurology
What period of time does a pt have to…
T/F: Most seizures last <3 minutes.
What position would you put a person w…
Instances to call EMS if you see someo…
6-12mo
True
Turn person on side with head inclined toward ground to keep…
1. prolonged seizure... 2. person not awakening... 3. new onset sei…
What period of time does a pt have to…
6-12mo
T/F: Most seizures last <3 minutes.
True
15 terms
Neurology
Multiple Sclerosis- Definition and Epi…
Multiple Sclerosis- Subtypes
Multiple Sclerosis- Clinical Features
Multiple Sclerosis- Management
Autoimmune disorder involving demyelination of the central ne…
Relapsing-remitting- most common, involves acute attacks foll…
Can present with non-specific symptoms such as lethargy ... Vis…
MDT approach... Corticosteroids for accuse attacks... B-interferon…
Multiple Sclerosis- Definition and Epi…
Autoimmune disorder involving demyelination of the central ne…
Multiple Sclerosis- Subtypes
Relapsing-remitting- most common, involves acute attacks foll…
Neurology
Glasgow Coma Scale
Early signs of ICP
Late signs of ICP
Cushing's Triad
eye opening... verbal response... motor response
HA,blurry vision, NV, pupils not as reactive, dizziness, slig…
Cushing's triad... Bradycardia... Irregular RR... Fixed pupils... Loss of…
inc systolic BP... Bradycardia... irregular respiration pattern
Glasgow Coma Scale
eye opening... verbal response... motor response
Early signs of ICP
HA,blurry vision, NV, pupils not as reactive, dizziness, slig…
69 terms
Neurology
Define common migraine (w/o Aura)
Do migraines occur in families?
Migraine acute attack Tx
Migraine prophylaxis
unilateral, pulsatile, severe, increase with PE activity
yes
NSAID, Zofran... Triptans... Opiods
BB/CCB... TCA... Anticonvulsants... Methysergide
Define common migraine (w/o Aura)
unilateral, pulsatile, severe, increase with PE activity
Do migraines occur in families?
yes
9 terms
Neurology
Action potentials
central nervous system protective stru…
43 pairs of nerves originate from the
12 pars of cranial nerves originate wh…
jump down axon from node to node
The meninges
CNS to form PNS
brain
Action potentials
jump down axon from node to node
central nervous system protective stru…
The meninges
194 terms
Neurology
How can you distinguish between essent…
How does an essential tremor present?
What is a physiological tremor?
What causes an enhanced physiological…
Tremor with PD appears after a latent period of several secon…
Usually bilaterally, starting with arms and progresses to hea…
This is a very low amplitude (6-12 Hz) fine tremor that is ba…
Drugs and toxins
How can you distinguish between essent…
Tremor with PD appears after a latent period of several secon…
How does an essential tremor present?
Usually bilaterally, starting with arms and progresses to hea…
185 terms
Neurology
What is the TIA grading score?
What is the spinothalamic tract respon…
What is the dorsal column responsible…
'Thunderclap' Headache
ABCD2... Age >= 60 years old (1 point)... Blood pressure >= 140/90…
Pain and temperature
Fine touch, vibration proprioception
Subarachnoid Haemorrhage
What is the TIA grading score?
ABCD2... Age >= 60 years old (1 point)... Blood pressure >= 140/90…
What is the spinothalamic tract respon…
Pain and temperature
52 terms
Neurology
Fasciculus
Lemniscus
Peduncle
Forebrain
A collection of nerve fibers (white matter) that is Latin for…
A collection of nerve fibers (white matter) that forms a flat…
A collection of nerve fibers (white matter) that is Latin for…
Accounts for most of the CNS and is composed of the cerebral…
Fasciculus
A collection of nerve fibers (white matter) that is Latin for…
Lemniscus
A collection of nerve fibers (white matter) that forms a flat…
24 terms
Neurology
Neurotripsy
Neurology
Efferent
Afferent
Surgical crushing of nerve
Study of anatomy physiology and pathology of nerves
Carry nerve impulses away from the CNS to eat factors in the…
Carry nerve impulses from receptors in body towards central n…
Neurotripsy
Surgical crushing of nerve
Neurology
Study of anatomy physiology and pathology of nerves
18 terms
Neurology
Phrenic
Ependymal cells
The sodium gates close
Pia mater and arachnoid mater
The (blank) nerve innervate the diaphram?
What lines the centeal canal?
...when the voltage inside the neuron reaches +30mv.
The subarachnoid space is found between what layers?
Phrenic
The (blank) nerve innervate the diaphram?
Ependymal cells
What lines the centeal canal?
84 terms
Neurology
Symptoms of vertebrobasilar occlusions
Symptoms of a MCA stroke
Symptoms of a PCA stroke
Symptoms of a ACA stroke
Combination of symptoms:... Cerebellar DANISH... hemi/quadriplegia…
Contralateral hemipareisis (face/arms>legs)... Contralateral hem…
contralateral homonymous hemianopia (macular sparing)... thalamu…
Cognitive, executive functions... Weak, numb contralateral leg
Symptoms of vertebrobasilar occlusions
Combination of symptoms:... Cerebellar DANISH... hemi/quadriplegia…
Symptoms of a MCA stroke
Contralateral hemipareisis (face/arms>legs)... Contralateral hem…
23 terms
Neurology
Causes of Holoprosencephaly
Neural Tube defects Labs
Chiari II
Dany-Walker
mutations in sonic hedgehog signaling... Fetal alcohol syndrome…
increase alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)... increase AChE in amniotic fl…
herniation of cerebellar tonsils and vermis through foramen m…
Agenesis of vermis-- cystic enlargement of 4th ventricle... hydr…
Causes of Holoprosencephaly
mutations in sonic hedgehog signaling... Fetal alcohol syndrome…
Neural Tube defects Labs
increase alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)... increase AChE in amniotic fl…
95 terms
neurology
Neurology... • Mental status: aphasia... • C…
what receptive aphasia is and where it…
what expressive aphasia is and where i…
what is global aphasia?
...
= wernicke's... unable to understand language... localized in tempo…
= broca's... unable to speak but can understand language... localiz…
elements of both receptive and expressive aphasia
Neurology... • Mental status: aphasia... • C…
...
what receptive aphasia is and where it…
= wernicke's... unable to understand language... localized in tempo…
29 terms
Neurology
acetylcholine
dopamine
endorphins
epinephrine
Neurotransmitter in synapses between neurons of the parasympa…
Neurotransmitter in the synapses between neurons in the cereb…
Neuromodulators that are one of the several natural pain reli…
Neurotransmitter secreted by the adrenal gland and released i…
acetylcholine
Neurotransmitter in synapses between neurons of the parasympa…
dopamine
Neurotransmitter in the synapses between neurons in the cereb…
61 terms
Neurology
Central nervous system
Peripheral nervous system
Autonomic nervous system
Somatic nervous system
Consists of the brain and spinal cord
Is made up of the somatic nervous system and the autonomic ne…
Controls involuntary physiologic processes like bp and heart…
Governs voluntary functions
Central nervous system
Consists of the brain and spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system
Is made up of the somatic nervous system and the autonomic ne…
63 terms
Neurology
afferent neurons
efferent neurons
upper motor neurons
lower motor neurons
sensory info - carry it from peripheral receptors to CNS
motor info - carry it away from CNS
-neurons in CNS... -synapses with lower motor neuron... -corticospi…
-neurons originate in the nucleus of the brain stem (cranial…
afferent neurons
sensory info - carry it from peripheral receptors to CNS
efferent neurons
motor info - carry it away from CNS
189 terms
Neurology
ptosis
dysarthria
extraocular muscles
thrombolytic therapy
cholinesterase inhibitor
mechanical embolism removal
Electromyography
embolus
Drooping eyelid, where the upper eyelid falls to a position t…
a speech disorder that is due to a weakness or incoordination…
Include the superior rectus, inferior rectus, lateral rectus,…
a drug (enzyme) that breaks up or dissolves blood clots, whic…
In normal functioning, acetylcholine receptors open the sodiu…
catheter-based extraction of an embolus; this technique may b…
Also known as EMG, electromyography tests the electrical acti…
Something that travels through the bloodstream, lodges in a b…
ptosis
Drooping eyelid, where the upper eyelid falls to a position t…
dysarthria
a speech disorder that is due to a weakness or incoordination…
49 terms
Neurology
biceps reflex
triceps reflex
patella
achilles
C5
C7
L4
S1
biceps reflex
C5
triceps reflex
C7
Neurology
two basic categories of cells that mak…
neurons
Glial Cells
Nervous Central s System (CNS)
Neurons- functional unit of the nervous system... Glial Cells-…
functional unit of the nervous system
support cells of the nervous system
Brain & Spinal Cord
two basic categories of cells that mak…
Neurons- functional unit of the nervous system... Glial Cells-…
neurons
functional unit of the nervous system
60 terms
Neurology
Where is the spinal cord housed?
How many pairs of cranial nerves?
How many pairs of spinal nerves?
What makes up the central nervous syst…
In the vertebral/spinal canal
12
31
Brain and spinal cord
Where is the spinal cord housed?
In the vertebral/spinal canal
How many pairs of cranial nerves?
12
45 terms
Neurology
What is membrane potential
Where is potential found
Potentials can be "graded" - What does…
Action potentials (nerve impulses) are…
Slight excess of positively charged ions on the outside of th…
At the axon hillock
Changes in membrane potential that vary in size, as opposed t…
The membrane potential of a neuron that is conducting an impu…
What is membrane potential
Slight excess of positively charged ions on the outside of th…
Where is potential found
At the axon hillock
94 terms
Neurology
What are the levels of the neuroaxis?
What is the differential diagnosis for…
What is the differential diagnosis for…
What is the differential diagnosis for…
1. Supratentorial... 2. Posterior fossa... 3. Spinal canal and vert…
Stroke... Trauma
Inflammation, Hemorrhage... (e.g. abscess, myelitis)
Neoplasm - must be focal and progressive
What are the levels of the neuroaxis?
1. Supratentorial... 2. Posterior fossa... 3. Spinal canal and vert…
What is the differential diagnosis for…
Stroke... Trauma
128 terms
Neurology
common situation is a lumbar puncture…
Normal CSF findgins:... cells?... glucose?... p…
CSF findings in Bacterial meningitis:…
CSF findings viral/aseptic meningitis:…
setting of acute head trauma, signs of intracranial hypertens…
cells: 0-3... glucose: 50-100... protein: 20-45... pressure: 100-200
cells: 1,000+ PMNS... glucose: under 50... protein: ~100... pressure:…
cells: 100+ lymphocytes... glucose: normal... protein: Normal/sligh…
common situation is a lumbar puncture…
setting of acute head trauma, signs of intracranial hypertens…
Normal CSF findgins:... cells?... glucose?... p…
cells: 0-3... glucose: 50-100... protein: 20-45... pressure: 100-200
58 terms
Neurology
CSF
Axon
Myelin Sheath
Dendrite
Cerebral Spinal Fluid. A clear, colorless body fluid found in…
The long tail in a neuron cell, transmits impulses away from…
Speeds impulse transmission in PNS.
Transmit impulses to the neuron cell bodies, always in the be…
CSF
Cerebral Spinal Fluid. A clear, colorless body fluid found in…
Axon
The long tail in a neuron cell, transmits impulses away from…
37 terms
Neurology
3 Diseases that have onset usually mid…
Excessive alcohol consumption can caus…
Excess B6 can lead to...
B12 deficiency assoc. with malabsorpti…
Epilepsy: highest incidence is actually in the very young and…
B1- thiamin
Polyneuropathy
corticospinal and posterior column degeneration... dementia
3 Diseases that have onset usually mid…
Epilepsy: highest incidence is actually in the very young and…
Excessive alcohol consumption can caus…
B1- thiamin
207 terms
Neurology
edinger-westphal nucleus
cavernous sinus
Tolosa-Hunt syndrome
internuclear opthalmoplegial
parasympathetic preganglionic- iris sphincter and ciliary mus…
CN3, 4, 6, V1, V2, internal carotid
idiopathic granulomatous disease of the cavernous sinus
lesion of MLF (connects 3 and 6), seen in MS
edinger-westphal nucleus
parasympathetic preganglionic- iris sphincter and ciliary mus…
cavernous sinus
CN3, 4, 6, V1, V2, internal carotid
121 terms
Neurology
What are the two types of stokes?
What is the most significant and treat…
What is the most common type of stroke?
What are some s/s of strokes?
Ischemic and Hemorrhagic
Hypertension
Ischemic ... -specifically thrombotic
-aphasia ... -hemiparesis ... -apraxia ... -visual field loss ... -coma…
What are the two types of stokes?
Ischemic and Hemorrhagic
What is the most significant and treat…
Hypertension
427 terms
Neurology
What will the notochord become in adul…
What will become of the telencephalon?
What will become of the diencephalon?
What will become of the mesencephalon?
Nucleus pulposus of intervertebral disc
Cerebral hemispheres and lateral ventricles
Thalamus and third ventricle
Midbrain and aqueduct
What will the notochord become in adul…
Nucleus pulposus of intervertebral disc
What will become of the telencephalon?
Cerebral hemispheres and lateral ventricles
150 terms
Neurology
define central hypotonia?
define peripheral hypotonia?
what antenatal occurrence is associate…
what does hypotonia look like?
prob w/ upper motor neurons (which are in cortical pyramidal…
prob w/ lowe rmotor neurons (which are spinal motor neurons a…
breech position... neonatal seizures
weak cry, decreased movement, frog leg position (externally r…
define central hypotonia?
prob w/ upper motor neurons (which are in cortical pyramidal…
define peripheral hypotonia?
prob w/ lowe rmotor neurons (which are spinal motor neurons a…
26 terms
Neurology
Central Nervous System
Peripheral Nervous System
Neurons
Cell Body
Directs activity of the whole nervous system, made up of the…
Sensory receptors, (pain and tempterature)
Cells that transmit information in the form of nerve impulses…
The main part of a neuron, has a nucleus.
Central Nervous System
Directs activity of the whole nervous system, made up of the…
Peripheral Nervous System
Sensory receptors, (pain and tempterature)
111 terms
Neurology
What are the characteristics of Fetal…
What are the signs of congenital syphi…
What can cocaine use during pregnancy…
Why should benzodiazepines be used spa…
1. Body: Small body size and microcephaly ... 2. Hands: Digital…
1. Snuffles (rhinitis)... 2. hepatosplenomegaly ... 3. Skin lesions…
Placental abruption (leading to miscarriage) or CNS dysfuncti…
Elderly have an increased risk of adverse effects from benzos…
What are the characteristics of Fetal…
1. Body: Small body size and microcephaly ... 2. Hands: Digital…
What are the signs of congenital syphi…
1. Snuffles (rhinitis)... 2. hepatosplenomegaly ... 3. Skin lesions…
Neurology
CNS
Brain Structures
Brainstem structures
Reticular Activating System
brain & spinal cord
-brainstem ... -RAS, reticular activating system... -diencephalon…
-Midbrain - motor/sensory (posture/eyes/head), cnx to cerebel…
-integrates motor & sensory, located in brainstem, midbrain,…
CNS
brain & spinal cord
Brain Structures
-brainstem ... -RAS, reticular activating system... -diencephalon…
49 terms
Neurology
status epilepticus tx
partial seizure
simple seizure
complex seizure
1. lorazepam... 2. fosphenytoin- no AV block, no hypotension (un…
hand twitching for ex
awake
LOC
status epilepticus tx
1. lorazepam... 2. fosphenytoin- no AV block, no hypotension (un…
partial seizure
hand twitching for ex
119 terms
Neurology
What does the neural tube form? What d…
Describe what lab results you would ex…
Describe what you would expect to see…
What is the most common cause of hydro…
Neural tube: All of the CNS... Neural crest: all of the PNS... Lume…
-AFP is up... -low folate levels in mother prior to conception... -…
-anencephaly:absence of the skull and brain. Leads to a 'frog…
-congenital stenosis of the cerebral aqueduct. CSF can't drai…
What does the neural tube form? What d…
Neural tube: All of the CNS... Neural crest: all of the PNS... Lume…
Describe what lab results you would ex…
-AFP is up... -low folate levels in mother prior to conception... -…
15 terms
neurology
neurology
functions
Sensory Input
Integration
the study of nerves
sensory input... integration... homeostasis... mental activity... control…
Monitor internal and external stimuli
-brain & spinal cord process sensory input... -initiate responses
neurology
the study of nerves
functions
sensory input... integration... homeostasis... mental activity... control…
97 terms
Neurology
Neuropathic Pain
Neuralgia
Spinal Shock
Nocireceptors
Nerve fibers may be damaged, dysfunctional, or injured
Brief and severe attacks of lightening-like or throbbing pain
Hyporeflexia + autonomic dysfunction that accompanies spinal…
Activated by tissue injury
Neuropathic Pain
Nerve fibers may be damaged, dysfunctional, or injured
Neuralgia
Brief and severe attacks of lightening-like or throbbing pain
73 terms
Neurology
What are the important gross motor dev…
What are the fine motor development mi…
What are the social skill development…
What are the language development mile…
What are the important gross motor dev…
What are the fine motor development mi…
11 terms
Neurology
Guillain Barré syndrome definition
Guillain Barré syndrome pathophysiology
Guillain Barré syndrome clinical manif…
Guillain Barré syndrome diagnosis
1. Acute/subacute inflammatory demylinating polyradiculopathy…
Immune-mediated demyelination and axonal degeneration slows i…
Weakness and parasthesias (usually symmetric). Decreased DTR…
CSF: high protein with normal WBC. Usually seen p 1-3 weeks o…
Guillain Barré syndrome definition
1. Acute/subacute inflammatory demylinating polyradiculopathy…
Guillain Barré syndrome pathophysiology
Immune-mediated demyelination and axonal degeneration slows i…
352 terms
Neurology
Requirements of testing memory
Anatomy of memory function
Amnesia
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
awake... speak 5 numbers out loud
temporal lobe and thalamus... specifically: ... hippocampus-->forni…
-caused by bilateral thalamic and mammilary body lesions
-involves amnesia... -thiamine deficiency
Requirements of testing memory
awake... speak 5 numbers out loud
Anatomy of memory function
temporal lobe and thalamus... specifically: ... hippocampus-->forni…
65 terms
Neurology
Aphasia
Wernicke's aphasia
Broca's aphasia
Any right canal = which cerebellum
Language disorder affecting a persons ability to communicate
Language disorder: unable to understand written or spoken word
A language disorder affecting a persons ability to speak §
right
Aphasia
Language disorder affecting a persons ability to communicate
Wernicke's aphasia
Language disorder: unable to understand written or spoken word
31 terms
Neurology
Headache bandlike last 4-6hour normal…
Migraine headache treatment
Migraine headache prophylaxis
Cluster headache management
Tension headache... Treatment: NSAID, acetaminophen
Avoid triggers... NSAID... Tristan's
If 3 attacks per month... Propranolol... Sodium valproate
Sumatriptan... Octreotide... Oxygen
Headache bandlike last 4-6hour normal…
Tension headache... Treatment: NSAID, acetaminophen
Migraine headache treatment
Avoid triggers... NSAID... Tristan's
39 terms
Neurology
The following SE are seen with which a…
Testing for HLA B-1502 is recommended…
Which medication is used only for abse…
T or F... Unlike Phenytoin, fosphenytoin…
Carbamazepine
Carbamazepine
Ethosuximide... (Valproic acid is also a first line agent)
False... Fosphenytoin is a prodrug for phenytoin... Used in statu…
The following SE are seen with which a…
Carbamazepine
Testing for HLA B-1502 is recommended…
Carbamazepine
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