Study sets matching "neurophysiology"

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Study sets matching "neurophysiology"

Neurophysiology
integration
processing
sensory (afferent) information
motor (efferent) information
summing together multiple inputs arising from multiple sources
conversion of nervous inputs into outputs
continuous reporting for the current state of the body, and o…
nervous commands that control functioning of muscles, both so…
integration
summing together multiple inputs arising from multiple sources
processing
conversion of nervous inputs into outputs
Neurophysiology
Leakage (nongated) channels
Ligand-gated channels
Voltage-gated channels
Mechanically gated ion channels
are always open
Opens and closes in response to stimulus
respond to a direct change in the membrane potential.
respond to mechanical vibration or pressure.
Leakage (nongated) channels
are always open
Ligand-gated channels
Opens and closes in response to stimulus
Neurophysiology
Basic neuron types
Soma or Cell body
Dendrites
Axon
tree-like structures increase area to make connections(synaps…
- only one per neuron, part of the cell that can transmit sig…
Basic neuron types
Soma or Cell body
Neurophysiology
resting neuron
stimulus threshold
depolarization
repolarization
neuron that is not conducting electrical signal not firing, -…
membrane potential moves in a positive direction ... when the th…
becoming more positive... another type of sodium channel called…
voltage gated sodium channels close around +30mV ... what happen…
resting neuron
neuron that is not conducting electrical signal not firing, -…
stimulus threshold
membrane potential moves in a positive direction ... when the th…
234 terms
neurophysiology
ABC group fiberrs have what type of fi…
pathway for analgesic effect
three classes of endogenous opiod pept…
major classes of opiate receptors
sensory and motor
DBS (in Rostroventromedial medula)-->PAG-->raphe magnus-->ser…
beta-endorphins... enkephalins... dynorphin (least)
mu ... delta... kappa
ABC group fiberrs have what type of fi…
sensory and motor
pathway for analgesic effect
DBS (in Rostroventromedial medula)-->PAG-->raphe magnus-->ser…
Neurophysiology
Threshold
Hyperpolarization
Absolute refractory period
Relative refractory period
-55mV
-90mV
even strong stimuli will not begin another AP
a strong stimulus will be able to start an AP
Threshold
-55mV
Hyperpolarization
-90mV
115 terms
neurophysiology
retrograde transport
anterograde transport
wallerian degeneration
chromatolysis
mediated by dynein
mediated by kinesin
this is anterograde degeneration characterized by the disappe…
-result of degeneration in the neurons of the CNS & PNS
retrograde transport
mediated by dynein
anterograde transport
mediated by kinesin
530 terms
Neurophysiology
Blood supply of Frontal lobe
Blood supply of Parietal lobe
Blood supply of Temporal lobe
Blood supply of Occipital lobe
Anterior cerebral artery... Middle cerebral artery... - higher men…
Anterior cerebral artery... Middle cerebral artery... - sensory in…
Middle cerebral artery... Posterior cerebral artery... - Auditory…
Posterior cerebral artery... - visual processing center = visual…
Blood supply of Frontal lobe
Anterior cerebral artery... Middle cerebral artery... - higher men…
Blood supply of Parietal lobe
Anterior cerebral artery... Middle cerebral artery... - sensory in…
39 terms
Neurophysiology
Electrical Signaling in Neurons
Graded Potentials
Action Potentials
Excitatory
- Unidirectional... - begin in dendrites in response to a stimul…
- occur in dendrites... - generated in response to external stim…
- only along the axon... - generated in response to graded poten…
Makes it more likely that a neuron will produce and action po…
Electrical Signaling in Neurons
- Unidirectional... - begin in dendrites in response to a stimul…
Graded Potentials
- occur in dendrites... - generated in response to external stim…
30 terms
Neurophysiology
Na+ / K+ ATPase
Voltage Gated Na+ Channel
Voltage Gated K+ Channel
Threshold Potential
active transport antiport pump; moves 3Na+ out of neuron, and…
opens at Threshold potential of -55mV, but inactivates at +30mV
opens at +30mV, closes slowly around -90mV
-55mV to -50mV
Na+ / K+ ATPase
active transport antiport pump; moves 3Na+ out of neuron, and…
Voltage Gated Na+ Channel
opens at Threshold potential of -55mV, but inactivates at +30mV
19 terms
Neurophysiology
resting potential
graded potential
action potential
electrochemical gradient
...
...
...
...
resting potential
...
graded potential
...
34 terms
Neurophysiology
Optic nerve
optic chiasm
optic tract
meninges
Optic nerve
optic chiasm
166 terms
Neurophysiology
Capacitance depends on
Does a larger cell have more capacitan…
Resistance depends on
What does a larger diameter axon mean?
C=A/d... the larger the area, the higher capacitance. ... the larg…
Larger cell has more capacitance because it has a larger surf…
R=length/Area... increasing length of membrane increases resist…
It means that Rm will be smaller (R=l/A) and capacitance will…
Capacitance depends on
C=A/d... the larger the area, the higher capacitance. ... the larg…
Does a larger cell have more capacitan…
Larger cell has more capacitance because it has a larger surf…
19 terms
Neurophysiology
Principles of Electricty
Action potential
Graded potential
Membrane Ion Channels
1. Opposite charges attract... 2. Energy is required to separate…
Long distance signals of axons, nerve impulses
Incoming short distance signal
Proteins in the membrane
Principles of Electricty
1. Opposite charges attract... 2. Energy is required to separate…
Action potential
Long distance signals of axons, nerve impulses
neurophysiology
When this occurs to a membrane the exc…
Passage of this into the synaptic clef…
results from the presence of myelinate…
Occurs when a neuron is excited suffic…
depolarization
neurotransmitter
saltatory conduction
action potential
When this occurs to a membrane the exc…
depolarization
Passage of this into the synaptic clef…
neurotransmitter
39 terms
Neurophysiology
The nervous system processes and coord…
Central nervous system components (3)
gray vs. white matter
Two primary cell types of the nervous…
-sensory data from inside/outside the body... -motor fxn to cont…
-brain and spinal cord ... -sensory receptors of sense organs= e…
G= cell bodies not myelinated ... W= regions of cns tissue conta…
Neurons= send and receive electrical and chemical signals (ex…
The nervous system processes and coord…
-sensory data from inside/outside the body... -motor fxn to cont…
Central nervous system components (3)
-brain and spinal cord ... -sensory receptors of sense organs= e…
58 terms
Neurophysiology
Four types of glial cells in the CNS
Major function of astrocytes
These cells are essential to the role…
These cells promote insulation and for…
astrocytes... oligodendrocytes... microglial cells... ependymal cells
-support for neurons, metabolic and nutritive functions... -have…
Ependymal cells, that line the roof of the 3rd and 4th ventri…
Oligodendrocytes
Four types of glial cells in the CNS
astrocytes... oligodendrocytes... microglial cells... ependymal cells
Major function of astrocytes
-support for neurons, metabolic and nutritive functions... -have…
56 terms
Neurophysiology
Neural Tissue
Neuron
Cell Body in Neuron
Dendrites in Neuron
Cell of nervous system
Cell that do the signaling in nervous system
Has nucleus and organelles. Does cell metabolism. Can receive…
Receive signals from other cells
Neural Tissue
Cell of nervous system
Neuron
Cell that do the signaling in nervous system
27 terms
neurophysiology
description that descirbe a resting ne…
hyper polarization
depolarization
polarization
- inside is neg... - cytoplasm contains more k & less na then do…
corresponds to the period of repolarization of the neuron
process by which the resting potential is decreased as Na ion…
state of unstimulated neuron's membrane
description that descirbe a resting ne…
- inside is neg... - cytoplasm contains more k & less na then do…
hyper polarization
corresponds to the period of repolarization of the neuron
35 terms
Neurophysiology
Anion
cation
Ion channels
Leakage channels
Negativity charged ion
Positively charged Ion
protein in the membrane
always open
Anion
Negativity charged ion
cation
Positively charged Ion
13 terms
Neurophysiology
irritibility
conductivity
polarized neuron
depolarization
the ability of a nerve to respond to a stimulus
the ability of a nerve to transmit an impulse to other nerves…
a neuron that is maintaining a resting potential, having a hi…
the process during the action potential when sodium is rushin…
irritibility
the ability of a nerve to respond to a stimulus
conductivity
the ability of a nerve to transmit an impulse to other nerves…
236 terms
Neurophysiology
Where are PANS ganglia located?
Where are the SANS ganglia located?
Where are the pre-ganglionic neurons f…
Where do pre-ganglionic neurons for th…
near the effector organ
paravertebral chain
Preganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system origi…
Preganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic nervous system o…
Where are PANS ganglia located?
near the effector organ
Where are the SANS ganglia located?
paravertebral chain
69 terms
Neurophysiology
What are the four main functions of th…
What is Transduction?
What is Transmission?
What is the Perception?
Transduction, Transmission, Perception and Interpretation.
Refers to the process whereby energy and forces acting on the…
Refers to the process whereby is carried from the receptor to…
is the process of experiencing a particular stimulus
What are the four main functions of th…
Transduction, Transmission, Perception and Interpretation.
What is Transduction?
Refers to the process whereby energy and forces acting on the…
Neurophysiology
Autonomic
Somatic
Sympathetic
Parasympathetic
visceral receptors, not aware of
Somatic receptors
nicotinic, ACh then muscarinic, noradrenaline
nicotinic, ACh, then muscarinic, ACh
Autonomic
visceral receptors, not aware of
Somatic
Somatic receptors
52 terms
neurophysiology
Central Nervous System
Peripheral Nervous System
Sensory Neurons (afferent)
Motor Neurons (efferent)
brain and spinal cord within dorsal body cavity
nerves outside of the dorsal body cavity
information to the central nervous system
information from the central nervous system
Central Nervous System
brain and spinal cord within dorsal body cavity
Peripheral Nervous System
nerves outside of the dorsal body cavity
11 terms
Neurophysiology
Neurophysiology
Resting Membrane Potential
Graded Potentials
hyperpolarization... Inhibitory Post Syna…
study of electrical changes
1) inside is more negative than the outside... 2) cell is "leaky…
vary in size due to the fluctuation of ions
efflux of K+ ... influx of Cl-... resting membrane potential is mor…
Neurophysiology
study of electrical changes
Resting Membrane Potential
1) inside is more negative than the outside... 2) cell is "leaky…
38 terms
Neurophysiology
Overview of Nervous System Organization
Neuron
Specialized Types of Neurons
Action Potential
Central Nervous System (CNS): brain and spinal cord... Periphera…
special cells of the nervous system that carry messages in th…
1. Sensory neurons - respond to touch, sound, ... 2. Sensory neu…
Electrical, nerve impulses. Many different types of potential…
Overview of Nervous System Organization
Central Nervous System (CNS): brain and spinal cord... Periphera…
Neuron
special cells of the nervous system that carry messages in th…
26 terms
Neurophysiology
Afferent Neurons
Somatic Receptors
Visceral Receptors
Internuerons
input; primarily connected to sensory receptors of some kind
afferent nuerons; extero-receptors; at/near the surface of th…
afferent neurons; intero-receptors; from within the body
integration; make connections between neurons afferent and ef…
Afferent Neurons
input; primarily connected to sensory receptors of some kind
Somatic Receptors
afferent nuerons; extero-receptors; at/near the surface of th…
108 terms
Neurophysiology
Glutamate
Voltage Gated Sodium Channels
Domains of Voltage Gated Sodium Channels
Acetylcholine (AcH)
An amino acid that acts as a major excitatory neurotransmitte…
Where voltage crosses a membrane 6 times in 4 different domai…
These consist of 6 S-segments. Segment S4 has many t-charges…
A neurotransmitter that is very prominent in the neuro-muscul…
Glutamate
An amino acid that acts as a major excitatory neurotransmitte…
Voltage Gated Sodium Channels
Where voltage crosses a membrane 6 times in 4 different domai…
Neurophysiology
After receiving a cut, developed jaw s…
Semipermeable Membrane
Diffusion
Electrostatic Pressure
Tetanus with opisthotonus (hyperextension and spacisity) and…
membrane of neurons, screen door
causes ions to flow from areas of high to low concentration,…
causes ions to flow towards oppositely charged areas (electri…
After receiving a cut, developed jaw s…
Tetanus with opisthotonus (hyperextension and spacisity) and…
Semipermeable Membrane
membrane of neurons, screen door
Neurophysiology
microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes
schwann cells
protoplasmic, gray
fibrous, white
the neuroglia of the CNS
neuroglia of the PNS
these kinds of astrocytes are big and puffy, and found in ___…
these kinds of astrocytes extend to nodes, and found in ____…
microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes
the neuroglia of the CNS
schwann cells
neuroglia of the PNS
14 terms
Neurophysiology
Pacinian corpuscle
Meissner corpuscle
Ruffini corpuscle
Merkel Disk
onion like structure in sq skin surrounding unmyelinated nerv…
found in nonhairy skin... Sense velocity... Rapidly adapting
encapsulated... senses pressure... Slowly adapting
transducer is on epithelial skin... senses location... Slowly ada…
Pacinian corpuscle
onion like structure in sq skin surrounding unmyelinated nerv…
Meissner corpuscle
found in nonhairy skin... Sense velocity... Rapidly adapting
52 terms
Neurophysiology
Soma
Dendrites
Axon
Presynaptic terminals
Cell body, synthesizes material
branch-like extensions that serve as the main input site for…
output unit
finger-like projections that are the transmitting elements of…
Soma
Cell body, synthesizes material
Dendrites
branch-like extensions that serve as the main input site for…
43 terms
Neurophysiology
3 types of glial cells
function of microglia
function of oligodendrocytes
function of astrocytes
microglia... oligodendrocytes... astrocytes
cleanup functions - similar to macrophages in the immune system
support and myelinization (insulation) of neural axons (simil…
maintenance of blood/brain barrier, getting nutrients in, mod…
3 types of glial cells
microglia... oligodendrocytes... astrocytes
function of microglia
cleanup functions - similar to macrophages in the immune system
Neurophysiology
Na+ / K+ ATPase
Voltage Gated Na+ Channel
Voltage Gated K+ Channel
Threshold Potential
active transport antiport pump; moves 3Na+ out of neuron, and…
opens at Threshold potential of -55mV, but inactivates at +30mV
opens at +30mV, closes slowly around -90mV
-55mV to -50mV
Na+ / K+ ATPase
active transport antiport pump; moves 3Na+ out of neuron, and…
Voltage Gated Na+ Channel
opens at Threshold potential of -55mV, but inactivates at +30mV
24 terms
Neurophysiology
Brain
Glia
Oligodendrocytes
Schwann Cells
Control Center for CNS, Integrating center for homeostasis, m…
non-excitable support cells of the CNS (aka Neuroglia)
Insulate axon with the help of myelin
Wrap around the axons
Brain
Control Center for CNS, Integrating center for homeostasis, m…
Glia
non-excitable support cells of the CNS (aka Neuroglia)
Neurophysiology
Neuron
Neuron
Soma
Dendrites
the specialized cells of the nervous system that generate the…
neurons cell body that contains the cell's nucleus and other…
receive and carry incoming information towards the soma
Neuron
the specialized cells of the nervous system that generate the…
Neuron
10 terms
Neurophysiology
Threshold
Rapid Depolarization
Repolarization
After Hyperpolarization
Na+ --- Chemical gated Na+
Na+ ---- Voltage gated Na+ channel
K+ --- Voltage gated K+ channel (no chemical change)
K+ & Na+ ---- Na+/K+ pumps
Threshold
Na+ --- Chemical gated Na+
Rapid Depolarization
Na+ ---- Voltage gated Na+ channel
48 terms
neurophysiology
potential difference
transmembrane potential
intracellular & extracellular
cell membranes are...
can do work when charges are allowed to flow as a current.
-our bodies the positive and negative charges are separated a…
intra= K+ is more(bigger) on the inside then outside... extra= N…
semipermeable (selective)- ions have to pass through special…
potential difference
can do work when charges are allowed to flow as a current.
transmembrane potential
-our bodies the positive and negative charges are separated a…
Neurophysiology
Graded Potentials
EPSP
IPSP
Weak Stimulus
- Local changes in MP due to gated channels... - Die out over a…
(Excitatory Post Synaptic Potential)... - Local depolarization o…
(Inhibitory post synaptic potential)... - local hyper-polarizati…
graded potential is not strong enough to reach threshold for…
Graded Potentials
- Local changes in MP due to gated channels... - Die out over a…
EPSP
(Excitatory Post Synaptic Potential)... - Local depolarization o…
97 terms
Neurophysiology
Dendrites
Axon
Synapse
Neurotransmitters
slender, sensitive extensions that play key role in intercell…
long cytoplasmic process capable of propagating an electrical…
site where neuron communicates with another cell; each synaps…
stored in synaptic vesicles within axon terminal
Dendrites
slender, sensitive extensions that play key role in intercell…
Axon
long cytoplasmic process capable of propagating an electrical…
201 terms
Neurophysiology
Central Nervous System
Brain
Spinal Cord
Peripheral Nervous System
Brain and spinal cord
Control center of the nervous system
Nerves that run up and down the length of the back and transm…
Central Nervous System
Brain and spinal cord
Brain
Control center of the nervous system
82 terms
Neurophysiology
Schwann Cells
Satellite Cells
Oligodendrocytes
Nodes of Ranvier
multi-layered region wrapped around axons, has very little cy…
Surround the neuron and controls the chemical environment.
Has many projections, ... Like schwann cells, produce a myelin…
Spaces between schwann cells or oligodentrocytes.... Where the…
Schwann Cells
multi-layered region wrapped around axons, has very little cy…
Satellite Cells
Surround the neuron and controls the chemical environment.
60 terms
Neurophysiology
Excitable Tissues
Membrane Potential =
Intracellular Recording
Measurement of ions during intracellul…
nerves and muscles
Vm (membrane voltage)
an electrophysiology technique that uses a microelectrode ins…
measurement of ion changes across the cell membrane
Excitable Tissues
nerves and muscles
Membrane Potential =
Vm (membrane voltage)
47 terms
Neurophysiology
location and function of MAP-2?
location and function of Tau?
location and function of Kinesin and D…
which direction down the axon does Kin…
type of Microtubule Associated Protein ... Found on dendrites an…
type of Microtubule Associated Protein ... found on axons ... Stabi…
type of Microtubule Associated Protein ... found on axons an den…
Kinesin = anterograde transport from the soma to synapse ... Dy…
location and function of MAP-2?
type of Microtubule Associated Protein ... Found on dendrites an…
location and function of Tau?
type of Microtubule Associated Protein ... found on axons ... Stabi…
Neurophysiology
Transmembrane Potential
What is the charge of inside the neura…
What is the charge of outside the neur…
What can changes in transmembrane pote…
Produced by the unequal distribution of charges inside and ou…
Slightly negative because of slight excess of negatively char…
Slightly positive because of slight excess of positively char…
Muscle contraction, gland secretion, or transfer of information
Transmembrane Potential
Produced by the unequal distribution of charges inside and ou…
What is the charge of inside the neura…
Slightly negative because of slight excess of negatively char…
96 terms
neurophysiology
what are neurons ?
what are Neuroglia ?
what does the central nervous system c…
what are the functions of the CNS
they are nerve cells ( perform all communication, and control…
(glia) they are supporting cells that out number neurons, the…
the brain and the spinal cord.
TO PROCESS INFORMATION AND TO COORDINATE ... -sensory data ( fro…
what are neurons ?
they are nerve cells ( perform all communication, and control…
what are Neuroglia ?
(glia) they are supporting cells that out number neurons, the…
83 terms
Neurophysiology
functions of nervous system
nervous system divisions
the CNS is the _______ center and rece…
what parts of the body make up the CNS?
1. sense change... 2. respond to change... 3. interpret change
1. Central Nervous System... 2. Peripheral Nervous System
information, sensory, initiates
brain and spinal cord
functions of nervous system
1. sense change... 2. respond to change... 3. interpret change
nervous system divisions
1. Central Nervous System... 2. Peripheral Nervous System
Neurophysiology
action potentials
axon
dendrites
cell body
electrical signals that are the basis of information transfer…
principle part of the neuron responsible for transmitting act…
part of neuron that collects electrical signals
part of the neuron that integrates incoming signals and gener…
action potentials
electrical signals that are the basis of information transfer…
axon
principle part of the neuron responsible for transmitting act…
Neurophysiology
Soma
Dendrites
Axon
Presynaptic terminals
Structure... Cell body, synthesizes material
Structure... branch-like extensions that serve as the main inp…
Structure... output unit of neuron
Structure... finger-like projections that are the transmitting…
Soma
Structure... Cell body, synthesizes material
Dendrites
Structure... branch-like extensions that serve as the main inp…
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