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Study sets matching "neurophysiology"

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Study sets matching "neurophysiology"

34 terms
Neurophysiology
Optic nerve
optic chiasm
optic tract
meninges
Optic nerve
optic chiasm
18 terms
Neurophysiology
Threshold
Hyperpolarization
Absolute refractory period
Relative refractory period
-55mV
-90mV
even strong stimuli will not begin another AP
a strong stimulus will be able to start an AP
Threshold
-55mV
Hyperpolarization
-90mV
234 terms
neurophysiology
ABC group fiberrs have what type of fi…
pathway for analgesic effect
three classes of endogenous opiod pept…
major classes of opiate receptors
sensory and motor
DBS (in Rostroventromedial medula)-->PAG-->raphe magnus-->ser…
beta-endorphins... enkephalins... dynorphin (least)
mu ... delta... kappa
ABC group fiberrs have what type of fi…
sensory and motor
pathway for analgesic effect
DBS (in Rostroventromedial medula)-->PAG-->raphe magnus-->ser…
30 terms
Neurophysiology
Na+ / K+ ATPase
Voltage Gated Na+ Channel
Voltage Gated K+ Channel
Threshold Potential
active transport antiport pump; moves 3Na+ out of neuron, and…
opens at Threshold potential of -55mV, but inactivates at +30mV
opens at +30mV, closes slowly around -90mV
-55mV to -50mV
Na+ / K+ ATPase
active transport antiport pump; moves 3Na+ out of neuron, and…
Voltage Gated Na+ Channel
opens at Threshold potential of -55mV, but inactivates at +30mV
115 terms
neurophysiology
retrograde transport
anterograde transport
wallerian degeneration
chromatolysis
mediated by dynein
mediated by kinesin
this is anterograde degeneration characterized by the disappe…
-result of degeneration in the neurons of the CNS & PNS
retrograde transport
mediated by dynein
anterograde transport
mediated by kinesin
39 terms
Neurophysiology
Electrical Signaling in Neurons
Graded Potentials
Action Potentials
Excitatory
- Unidirectional... - begin in dendrites in response to a stimul…
- occur in dendrites... - generated in response to external stim…
- only along the axon... - generated in response to graded poten…
Makes it more likely that a neuron will produce and action po…
Electrical Signaling in Neurons
- Unidirectional... - begin in dendrites in response to a stimul…
Graded Potentials
- occur in dendrites... - generated in response to external stim…
38 terms
Neurophysiology
Overview of Nervous System Organization
Neuron
Specialized Types of Neurons
Action Potential
Central Nervous System (CNS): brain and spinal cord... Periphera…
special cells of the nervous system that carry messages in th…
1. Sensory neurons - respond to touch, sound, ... 2. Sensory neu…
Electrical, nerve impulses. Many different types of potential…
Overview of Nervous System Organization
Central Nervous System (CNS): brain and spinal cord... Periphera…
Neuron
special cells of the nervous system that carry messages in th…
67 terms
Neurophysiology
Neuron
Dendrite
Axon
Myelin Sheath
-Main cell type of the nervous system
-Extension of neuron that receives signal and transmits it to…
-Extension of neuron that sends signal away from cell body to…
-Layers of plasma membrane wrapped around an axon to insulate…
Neuron
-Main cell type of the nervous system
Dendrite
-Extension of neuron that receives signal and transmits it to…
7 terms
Neurophysiology
Action Potential
Types of signals at the synapse
Types of synapses
Message pathways
1. Resting Phase - -70mv on inside of cell, outside cell is m…
Chemical - involve neurotransmitters to relay signal from one…
Axodendritic - axon terminal to dendrites... Axosomatic - axon t…
Divergent - one presynaptic neuron branching out to affect a…
Action Potential
1. Resting Phase - -70mv on inside of cell, outside cell is m…
Types of signals at the synapse
Chemical - involve neurotransmitters to relay signal from one…
9 terms
Neurophysiology
Leakage (nongated) channels
Ligand-gated channels
Voltage-gated channels
Mechanically gated ion channels
are always open
Opens and closes in response to stimulus
respond to a direct change in the membrane potential.
respond to mechanical vibration or pressure.
Leakage (nongated) channels
are always open
Ligand-gated channels
Opens and closes in response to stimulus
14 terms
Neurophysiology
Pacinian corpuscle
Meissner corpuscle
Ruffini corpuscle
Merkel Disk
onion like structure in sq skin surrounding unmyelinated nerv…
found in nonhairy skin... Sense velocity... Rapidly adapting
encapsulated... senses pressure... Slowly adapting
transducer is on epithelial skin... senses location... Slowly ada…
Pacinian corpuscle
onion like structure in sq skin surrounding unmyelinated nerv…
Meissner corpuscle
found in nonhairy skin... Sense velocity... Rapidly adapting
66 terms
Neurophysiology
flow along the axon
nerve impulses generated
axons covered with
between axon
driven by kinesins
in dendrites
myelin sheath - Schwan cell
node of ranvier
flow along the axon
driven by kinesins
nerve impulses generated
in dendrites
40 terms
Neurophysiology
Communication by neurons is based on:
What are the two types of membrane pot…
Dendritic Region
Axonal Region
- changes in membrane's permeability to ions
- graded potentials... - action potentials
- receives information... - typically neurotransmitters... - ligand…
- delivers information... - voltage gated channels... - action pote…
Communication by neurons is based on:
- changes in membrane's permeability to ions
What are the two types of membrane pot…
- graded potentials... - action potentials
42 terms
Neurophysiology
compare golgi tendon organ to muscle s…
inverse stretch reflex
reflex arc
example of monosynaptic reflex arc
muscle spindle - within muscle - "intrafusal fibres" ~12... -end…
-relaxation in response to strong stretch... -unlike the normal…
a specific sensory stimulus produces a repetitive specific re…
stretch reflex... single synapse between afferent & efferent... sen…
compare golgi tendon organ to muscle s…
muscle spindle - within muscle - "intrafusal fibres" ~12... -end…
inverse stretch reflex
-relaxation in response to strong stretch... -unlike the normal…
51 terms
Neurophysiology
After receiving a cut, developed jaw s…
Semipermeable Membrane
Diffusion
Electrostatic Pressure
Tetanus with opisthotonus (hyperextension and spacisity) and…
membrane of neurons, screen door
causes ions to flow from areas of high to low concentration,…
causes ions to flow towards oppositely charged areas (electri…
After receiving a cut, developed jaw s…
Tetanus with opisthotonus (hyperextension and spacisity) and…
Semipermeable Membrane
membrane of neurons, screen door
9 terms
Neurophysiology
Basic neuron types
Soma or Cell body
Dendrites
Axon
tree-like structures increase area to make connections(synaps…
- only one per neuron, part of the cell that can transmit sig…
Basic neuron types
Soma or Cell body
19 terms
Neurophysiology
resting potential
graded potential
action potential
electrochemical gradient
...
...
...
...
resting potential
...
graded potential
...
48 terms
neurophysiology
potential difference
transmembrane potential
intracellular & extracellular
cell membranes are...
can do work when charges are allowed to flow as a current.
-our bodies the positive and negative charges are separated a…
intra= K+ is more(bigger) on the inside then outside... extra= N…
semipermeable (selective)- ions have to pass through special…
potential difference
can do work when charges are allowed to flow as a current.
transmembrane potential
-our bodies the positive and negative charges are separated a…
Neurophysiology
Autonomic
Somatic
Sympathetic
Parasympathetic
visceral receptors, not aware of
Somatic receptors
nicotinic, ACh then muscarinic, noradrenaline
nicotinic, ACh, then muscarinic, ACh
Autonomic
visceral receptors, not aware of
Somatic
Somatic receptors
52 terms
neurophysiology
Central Nervous System
Peripheral Nervous System
Sensory Neurons (afferent)
Motor Neurons (efferent)
brain and spinal cord within dorsal body cavity
nerves outside of the dorsal body cavity
information to the central nervous system
information from the central nervous system
Central Nervous System
brain and spinal cord within dorsal body cavity
Peripheral Nervous System
nerves outside of the dorsal body cavity
71 terms
Neurophysiology
How is an action potential generated i…
Open Probability of Na+ channels ...
The cell becomes depolarized again bec…
Refractory Period
- There are voltage-gated Na+ channel all over the soma - - -…
... increases as polarization increases. A percentage of the…
... the K+ rushes out of the cell when the K+ channels are op…
the time in which the neuron won't fire again. There is an ab…
How is an action potential generated i…
- There are voltage-gated Na+ channel all over the soma - - -…
Open Probability of Na+ channels ...
... increases as polarization increases. A percentage of the…
31 terms
Neurophysiology
Cerebral arteries—cortical distribution
Watershed zones
Cranial Nerve I
Which cranial nerves move the eyes?
Anterior cerebral artery (supplies anteromedial surface)... Midd…
Between anterior cerebral/middle cerebral, posterior cerebral…
Olfactory I ... Smells
3, 4, and 6
Cerebral arteries—cortical distribution
Anterior cerebral artery (supplies anteromedial surface)... Midd…
Watershed zones
Between anterior cerebral/middle cerebral, posterior cerebral…
11 terms
Neurophysiology
Neurophysiology
Resting Membrane Potential
Graded Potentials
hyperpolarization... Inhibitory Post Syna…
study of electrical changes
1) inside is more negative than the outside... 2) cell is "leaky…
vary in size due to the fluctuation of ions
efflux of K+ ... influx of Cl-... resting membrane potential is mor…
Neurophysiology
study of electrical changes
Resting Membrane Potential
1) inside is more negative than the outside... 2) cell is "leaky…
367 terms
Neurophysiology
Chagus Disease
Corticospinal tract
Non-Corticospinal Tract (2)
Central Sulcus
Destroys parasympathetic nerves innervating the heart and colon
(AKA Pyramidal)... precise movement of hands and feet... Excitatary…
(AKA Extrapyramidal)... All other descending pathways onto final…
Separates motor and somatosensory
Chagus Disease
Destroys parasympathetic nerves innervating the heart and colon
Corticospinal tract
(AKA Pyramidal)... precise movement of hands and feet... Excitatary…
30 terms
Neurophysiology
Na+ / K+ ATPase
Voltage Gated Na+ Channel
Voltage Gated K+ Channel
Threshold Potential
active transport antiport pump; moves 3Na+ out of neuron, and…
opens at Threshold potential of -55mV, but inactivates at +30mV
opens at +30mV, closes slowly around -90mV
-55mV to -50mV
Na+ / K+ ATPase
active transport antiport pump; moves 3Na+ out of neuron, and…
Voltage Gated Na+ Channel
opens at Threshold potential of -55mV, but inactivates at +30mV
24 terms
Neurophysiology
Brain
Glia
Oligodendrocytes
Schwann Cells
Control Center for CNS, Integrating center for homeostasis, m…
non-excitable support cells of the CNS (aka Neuroglia)
Insulate axon with the help of myelin
Wrap around the axons
Brain
Control Center for CNS, Integrating center for homeostasis, m…
Glia
non-excitable support cells of the CNS (aka Neuroglia)
52 terms
Neurophysiology
Soma
Dendrites
Axon
Presynaptic terminals
Cell body, synthesizes material
branch-like extensions that serve as the main input site for…
output unit
finger-like projections that are the transmitting elements of…
Soma
Cell body, synthesizes material
Dendrites
branch-like extensions that serve as the main input site for…
43 terms
Neurophysiology
Neuron
Neuron
Soma
Dendrites
the specialized cells of the nervous system that generate the…
neurons cell body that contains the cell's nucleus and other…
receive and carry incoming information towards the soma
Neuron
the specialized cells of the nervous system that generate the…
Neuron
530 terms
Neurophysiology
Blood supply of Frontal lobe
Blood supply of Parietal lobe
Blood supply of Temporal lobe
Blood supply of Occipital lobe
Anterior cerebral artery... Middle cerebral artery... - higher men…
Anterior cerebral artery... Middle cerebral artery... - sensory in…
Middle cerebral artery... Posterior cerebral artery... - Auditory…
Posterior cerebral artery... - visual processing center = visual…
Blood supply of Frontal lobe
Anterior cerebral artery... Middle cerebral artery... - higher men…
Blood supply of Parietal lobe
Anterior cerebral artery... Middle cerebral artery... - sensory in…
29 terms
Neurophysiology
Cerebral arteries—cortical distribution
Watershed zones
Cranial Nerve I
Cranial Nerve II
Anterior cerebral artery (supplies anteromedial surface)... Midd…
Between anterior cerebral/middle cerebral, posterior cerebral…
Olfactory I ... Smell (only CN without thalamic relay to cortex)…
Optic II ... Sight ... Sensory Say
Cerebral arteries—cortical distribution
Anterior cerebral artery (supplies anteromedial surface)... Midd…
Watershed zones
Between anterior cerebral/middle cerebral, posterior cerebral…
26 terms
Neurophysiology
Afferent Neurons
Somatic Receptors
Visceral Receptors
Internuerons
input; primarily connected to sensory receptors of some kind
afferent nuerons; extero-receptors; at/near the surface of th…
afferent neurons; intero-receptors; from within the body
integration; make connections between neurons afferent and ef…
Afferent Neurons
input; primarily connected to sensory receptors of some kind
Somatic Receptors
afferent nuerons; extero-receptors; at/near the surface of th…
31 terms
Neurophysiology
Cerebral arteries—cortical distribution
Watershed zones
Cranial Nerve I
Which cranial nerves move the eyes?
Anterior cerebral artery (supplies anteromedial surface)... Midd…
Between anterior cerebral/middle cerebral, posterior cerebral…
Olfactory I ... Smells
3, 4, and 6
Cerebral arteries—cortical distribution
Anterior cerebral artery (supplies anteromedial surface)... Midd…
Watershed zones
Between anterior cerebral/middle cerebral, posterior cerebral…
108 terms
Neurophysiology
Glutamate
Voltage Gated Sodium Channels
Domains of Voltage Gated Sodium Channels
Acetylcholine (AcH)
An amino acid that acts as a major excitatory neurotransmitte…
Where voltage crosses a membrane 6 times in 4 different domai…
These consist of 6 S-segments. Segment S4 has many t-charges…
A neurotransmitter that is very prominent in the neuro-muscul…
Glutamate
An amino acid that acts as a major excitatory neurotransmitte…
Voltage Gated Sodium Channels
Where voltage crosses a membrane 6 times in 4 different domai…
18 terms
Neurophysiology
I Olfactory
II Optic
III Oculomotor
IV Trochlear
smell
vision
eyelid and eyeball movement
innervates superior oblique... turns eye downward and laterally
I Olfactory
smell
II Optic
vision
85 terms
Neurophysiology
microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes
schwann cells
protoplasmic, gray
fibrous, white
the neuroglia of the CNS
neuroglia of the PNS
these kinds of astrocytes are big and puffy, and found in ___…
these kinds of astrocytes extend to nodes, and found in ____…
microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes
the neuroglia of the CNS
schwann cells
neuroglia of the PNS
29 terms
Neurophysiology
Graded Potentials
EPSP
IPSP
Weak Stimulus
- Local changes in MP due to gated channels... - Die out over a…
(Excitatory Post Synaptic Potential)... - Local depolarization o…
(Inhibitory post synaptic potential)... - local hyper-polarizati…
graded potential is not strong enough to reach threshold for…
Graded Potentials
- Local changes in MP due to gated channels... - Die out over a…
EPSP
(Excitatory Post Synaptic Potential)... - Local depolarization o…
201 terms
Neurophysiology
Central Nervous System
Brain
Spinal Cord
Peripheral Nervous System
Brain and spinal cord
Control center of the nervous system
Nerves that run up and down the length of the back and transm…
Central Nervous System
Brain and spinal cord
Brain
Control center of the nervous system
82 terms
Neurophysiology
Schwann Cells
Satellite Cells
Oligodendrocytes
Nodes of Ranvier
multi-layered region wrapped around axons, has very little cy…
Surround the neuron and controls the chemical environment.
Has many projections, ... Like schwann cells, produce a myelin…
Spaces between schwann cells or oligodentrocytes.... Where the…
Schwann Cells
multi-layered region wrapped around axons, has very little cy…
Satellite Cells
Surround the neuron and controls the chemical environment.
10 terms
Neurophysiology
Threshold
Rapid Depolarization
Repolarization
After Hyperpolarization
Na+ --- Chemical gated Na+
Na+ ---- Voltage gated Na+ channel
K+ --- Voltage gated K+ channel (no chemical change)
K+ & Na+ ---- Na+/K+ pumps
Threshold
Na+ --- Chemical gated Na+
Rapid Depolarization
Na+ ---- Voltage gated Na+ channel
66 terms
Neurophysiology
Transmembrane Potential
What is the charge of inside the neura…
What is the charge of outside the neur…
What can changes in transmembrane pote…
Produced by the unequal distribution of charges inside and ou…
Slightly negative because of slight excess of negatively char…
Slightly positive because of slight excess of positively char…
Muscle contraction, gland secretion, or transfer of information
Transmembrane Potential
Produced by the unequal distribution of charges inside and ou…
What is the charge of inside the neura…
Slightly negative because of slight excess of negatively char…
18 terms
Neurophysiology
Resting Potential
Graded Potential
Action Potential
Electrochemical Gradient
changes in membrane potential that vary in size, as opposed t…
An action potential is an all or nothing phenominon. Once ini…
combination of concentration gradient and charge gradient whi…
Resting Potential
Graded Potential
changes in membrane potential that vary in size, as opposed t…
166 terms
Neurophysiology
Capacitance depends on
Does a larger cell have more capacitan…
Resistance depends on
What does a larger diameter axon mean?
C=A/d... the larger the area, the higher capacitance. ... the larg…
Larger cell has more capacitance because it has a larger surf…
R=length/Area... increasing length of membrane increases resist…
It means that Rm will be smaller (R=l/A) and capacitance will…
Capacitance depends on
C=A/d... the larger the area, the higher capacitance. ... the larg…
Does a larger cell have more capacitan…
Larger cell has more capacitance because it has a larger surf…
97 terms
Neurophysiology
Dendrites
Axon
Synapse
Neurotransmitters
slender, sensitive extensions that play key role in intercell…
long cytoplasmic process capable of propagating an electrical…
site where neuron communicates with another cell; each synaps…
stored in synaptic vesicles within axon terminal
Dendrites
slender, sensitive extensions that play key role in intercell…
Axon
long cytoplasmic process capable of propagating an electrical…
94 terms
Neurophysiology
Brainbows
What is communication by neurons based…
2 Types of Major Membrane Potentials
Dendritic Region of Neuronal Signaling
tags the specific neurotransmitter based on what they produce…
It is based on changes in the membranes permeability to ions
1. Graded... -small, variable, and additive changes in membrane…
-RECIEVES information... -Ligand-Gated... -undergoes Graded Potential
Brainbows
tags the specific neurotransmitter based on what they produce…
What is communication by neurons based…
It is based on changes in the membranes permeability to ions
26 terms
Neurophysiology
Fick's law
Fick's law applied to plasma membrane
non-gated channel vs. gated channel
gated channels respond to.... (5 types…
Ji=DiA(C1-C2)/x... Ji=flux for ion... Di=diffusion coefficient for…
Jx=Px(Xo-Xi) ... Px=the permeability coefficient (made up of 4 c…
non-gated: also called leakage channels. the number and type…
1) voltage-gated sodium channels- opens in response to a volt…
Fick's law
Ji=DiA(C1-C2)/x... Ji=flux for ion... Di=diffusion coefficient for…
Fick's law applied to plasma membrane
Jx=Px(Xo-Xi) ... Px=the permeability coefficient (made up of 4 c…
60 terms
Neurophysiology
Excitable Tissues
Membrane Potential =
Intracellular Recording
Measurement of ions during intracellul…
nerves and muscles
Vm (membrane voltage)
an electrophysiology technique that uses a microelectrode ins…
measurement of ion changes across the cell membrane
Excitable Tissues
nerves and muscles
Membrane Potential =
Vm (membrane voltage)
47 terms
Neurophysiology
location and function of MAP-2?
location and function of Tau?
location and function of Kinesin and D…
which direction down the axon does Kin…
type of Microtubule Associated Protein ... Found on dendrites an…
type of Microtubule Associated Protein ... found on axons ... Stabi…
type of Microtubule Associated Protein ... found on axons an den…
Kinesin = anterograde transport from the soma to synapse ... Dy…
location and function of MAP-2?
type of Microtubule Associated Protein ... Found on dendrites an…
location and function of Tau?
type of Microtubule Associated Protein ... found on axons ... Stabi…
39 terms
Neurophysiology
dendrites
axons
cell body
myelin (myelin sheath)
short, branched extensions that RECEIVE impulses from the e…
the long extension that carries an impulse AWAY from the ce…
the largest part of the neuron, containing most of the cytopl…
insulating membrane surrounding most axons (produced by shwan…
dendrites
short, branched extensions that RECEIVE impulses from the e…
axons
the long extension that carries an impulse AWAY from the ce…
233 terms
Neurophysiology
Neuroglia
Astrocytes
Oligodendrocytes
Schwann Cells
- Physical support... - Destroy pathogens and remove dead neurons
- Transport nutrients from blood vessels to neurons... - Remove…
Generate myelin sheath around axons of neurons (CNS)
Generate myelin sheath around some nerve axons (PNS)
Neuroglia
- Physical support... - Destroy pathogens and remove dead neurons
Astrocytes
- Transport nutrients from blood vessels to neurons... - Remove…
19 terms
Neurophysiology
Principles of Electricty
Action potential
Graded potential
Membrane Ion Channels
1. Opposite charges attract... 2. Energy is required to separate…
Long distance signals of axons, nerve impulses
Incoming short distance signal
Proteins in the membrane
Principles of Electricty
1. Opposite charges attract... 2. Energy is required to separate…
Action potential
Long distance signals of axons, nerve impulses
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