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Study sets matching "neuroscience"

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Study sets matching "neuroscience"

63 terms
neuroscience
Neuroscience
What is the goal of neuroscience ?
Neurology
Pathology
branch of science that focuses on the anatomy and physiology…
The goal is to identify and explain the mechanisms used by th…
the study of the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of nervou…
the study of disease processes that affect both anatomy and p…
Neuroscience
branch of science that focuses on the anatomy and physiology…
What is the goal of neuroscience ?
The goal is to identify and explain the mechanisms used by th…
57 terms
Neuroscience
Characteristics of the Nervous System
Scales of the Nervous Systems
Systems of the Nervous System
Maps of the nervous system
1. humongous- immense number and types of cells... 2. non linear…
1. CNS-1 m... 2. systems- 10cm... 3. maps- 1 cm... 4 networks- 1mm... 5.…
interactions/connections among widely distributed brain regions
principle of organization within the larger system
Characteristics of the Nervous System
1. humongous- immense number and types of cells... 2. non linear…
Scales of the Nervous Systems
1. CNS-1 m... 2. systems- 10cm... 3. maps- 1 cm... 4 networks- 1mm... 5.…
12 terms
Neuroscience
Dopamine
Serotonin
Endorphins
Acetylcholine
neurotransmitter associated with movement, attention and lear…
neurotransmitters that influence eating, sleeping, mood, depr…
neurotransmitters that give one a feeling of well-being, euph…
A neurotransmitter that enables learning and memory and also…
Dopamine
neurotransmitter associated with movement, attention and lear…
Serotonin
neurotransmitters that influence eating, sleeping, mood, depr…
34 terms
Neuroscience
Endorphins
Serotonin
Norepinephrine
GABA
neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure.
Affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal
Alertness, arousal, heart rate
Enables firing of postsynaptic neurons
Endorphins
neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure.
Serotonin
Affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal
45 terms
Neuroscience
Types of axoplasmic transport, what is…
Antegrade
Retrograde (terminal to axon)
Localization of smell receptors
- Antegrade (orthograde)... - Retrograde
Fast: 400mm/day, metabolic imp. subst. , using ATP, done by k…
175 mm/day. dynein action, viruses/toxins, endocytosis, trans…
- olfactory epithelium 2,5mm2
Types of axoplasmic transport, what is…
- Antegrade (orthograde)... - Retrograde
Antegrade
Fast: 400mm/day, metabolic imp. subst. , using ATP, done by k…
94 terms
Neuroscience
resting potential
Depolarization
Repolarization
Hyperpolarization
Sodium potassium pump. Inside negative, outside positive. Mor…
sodium gated channel open. sodium goes in. charges change.
Sodium channels close. Potassium channels open. Potassium lea…
too much leaves. Makes inside super negative.
resting potential
Sodium potassium pump. Inside negative, outside positive. Mor…
Depolarization
sodium gated channel open. sodium goes in. charges change.
26 terms
Neuroscience
generator potentials
weber's law & graded potentials
free endings
example of specialised endings
produced by changes in the behaviour of non specific ion chan…
mechanoreceptors... relationship between stimulus and response i…
at peripheral ends sensory terminals may be attached to speci…
in the skin... - merkel's discs (slow) pressure.touch... - meissner…
generator potentials
produced by changes in the behaviour of non specific ion chan…
weber's law & graded potentials
mechanoreceptors... relationship between stimulus and response i…
127 terms
Neuroscience
pharmacokinetics
intravenous injection (IV)
intraperitoneal injection (IP)
peritoneal cavity
process by which drugs are absorbed, distributed within the b…
injection of a substance directly into a vein
injection of a substance into the peritoneal cavity... most com…
space that surrounds stomach, intestines, liver, and other ab…
pharmacokinetics
process by which drugs are absorbed, distributed within the b…
intravenous injection (IV)
injection of a substance directly into a vein
409 terms
Neuroscience
Nervous system components
Neural Development Anatomy
Ependymal cells
Regional Specfication of Developing Br…
-CNS: brain and spinal cord... -PNS... --afferent: sensory... --effere…
-notochord: induces overlying ectoderm to differentiate into…
-inner lining of ventricles... -make CSF... -columnar or cuboidal... -…
-Forebrain: telencephalon (cerebral hemispheres and lateral v…
Nervous system components
-CNS: brain and spinal cord... -PNS... --afferent: sensory... --effere…
Neural Development Anatomy
-notochord: induces overlying ectoderm to differentiate into…
23 terms
Neuroscience
Sensory neurons
Motor neurons
Communication neuron
Computation neuron
Tell the rest of the brain about the external and internal en…
Contract muscles and mediate behavior and other output neuron…
Transmit signals from one brain to another
Extract and process information to what's in memory and use i…
Sensory neurons
Tell the rest of the brain about the external and internal en…
Motor neurons
Contract muscles and mediate behavior and other output neuron…
93 terms
Neuroscience
Central Nervous System
Autonomic functions
Somatic Nervous system
Fight of Flight
the portion of the vertebrate nervous system consisting of th…
bodily functions that are involuntary and result from physiol…
the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls t…
when alerted by any of a number of brain pathways, increases…
Central Nervous System
the portion of the vertebrate nervous system consisting of th…
Autonomic functions
bodily functions that are involuntary and result from physiol…
31 terms
neuroscience
drug
psychoactive
synaptic cleft(synapse)
neurotransmitter
a substance that has a physiological effect and ingested
affecting the mind
empty space that passes electrical signal from pre to post sy…
chemical messanger
drug
a substance that has a physiological effect and ingested
psychoactive
affecting the mind
92 terms
Neuroscience
Sensory information comes in from our…
"• Sensory information comes in from o…
(by peripheral nerves)
- And through complex interactions goe…
peripheral nerves
...
...
brain and spinal cord
Sensory information comes in from our…
peripheral nerves
"• Sensory information comes in from o…
...
78 terms
neuroscience
Nucleus
Cytoskeleton
enzymes
microtubules
contains chromosomes, which contain DNA, that make proteins,…
strands of protein, give shape to cell
combines or brakes apart substances in the cell, also transport
protein strands in axon used to transport substances along axon
Nucleus
contains chromosomes, which contain DNA, that make proteins,…
Cytoskeleton
strands of protein, give shape to cell
198 terms
Neuroscience
active transport
afferent axon
axon
blood-brain barrier
transporting chemicals through a membrane using energy
the neuron that brings information into a structure
the long branch at the end of the soma. where the action pote…
there is a barely permeable membrane between the blood and th…
active transport
transporting chemicals through a membrane using energy
afferent axon
the neuron that brings information into a structure
158 terms
Neuroscience
Circadian Rhythm controls the release…
What is the sequence of events leading…
What are 4 differentials that have the…
How is "Poliomyelitis" different from…
1. ACTH... 2. Norepinephrine... 3. Prolactin... 4. Melatonin... "AM & PM…
Light --> Retina --> Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) --> Norepi…
- Tabes dorsalis (tertiary syphilis)... - Brown sequard... - Subacu…
Poliomyelitis - LMN disease at Anterior Horn due to infection…
Circadian Rhythm controls the release…
1. ACTH... 2. Norepinephrine... 3. Prolactin... 4. Melatonin... "AM & PM…
What is the sequence of events leading…
Light --> Retina --> Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) --> Norepi…
191 terms
Neuroscience
The primitive streak appears in the __…
The primitive streak provides a longit…
Epiblast cells move into the primitive…
The notochord is a solid rod of cells…
3rd
primitive groove, node, and pit
notochord
neural plate
The primitive streak appears in the __…
3rd
The primitive streak provides a longit…
primitive groove, node, and pit
63 terms
neuroscience
resting potential
hyperpolarization
threshold
depolarization
-70 is the average resting potential for neurons. when the ne…
an increase in the magnitude of the membrane potential. (insi…
-55mV, neuron has to reach this in order for action potential…
when neuron reaches action potential, an influx of Na+ causes…
resting potential
-70 is the average resting potential for neurons. when the ne…
hyperpolarization
an increase in the magnitude of the membrane potential. (insi…
23 terms
Neuroscience
branches of vertebral arteries
circle of willis
axoaxonic
axosomatic
anterior spinal ... posterior inferior cerebellar... posterior spinal
posterior cerebral ... posterior communicating... middle cerebral... a…
cell synapses on the other cell's axon
cell synapses on the cell's body (soma)
branches of vertebral arteries
anterior spinal ... posterior inferior cerebellar... posterior spinal
circle of willis
posterior cerebral ... posterior communicating... middle cerebral... a…
74 terms
Neuroscience
Is the inside of the cell negatively o…
What is the relative concentrations of…
Most widely distributed inhibitory tra…
Where are nicotinic and muscarinic rec…
The internal cellular environment is more negatively charged…
K inside the cell is high (5 mM outside, 140 mM inside)... Na ou…
GABA
Nicotinic: found in skeletal muscle and blocked by CURARE... Mus…
Is the inside of the cell negatively o…
The internal cellular environment is more negatively charged…
What is the relative concentrations of…
K inside the cell is high (5 mM outside, 140 mM inside)... Na ou…
16 terms
neuroscience
cerebrum
frontal lobe
parietal lobe
occipital lobe
cerebrum
frontal lobe
20 terms
Neuroscience
What are the basic elements of the ner…
What are the two main parts of the cen…
What is the basic function of the thal…
What glands produce testosterone?
Neuron
brain and spinal cord
serving as a relay station for sensory stimulation
ovaries and testes
What are the basic elements of the ner…
Neuron
What are the two main parts of the cen…
brain and spinal cord
202 terms
Neuroscience
What is neuroscience?
Why is neuroscience important?
Explain where, Dorsal, Ventral, Rostra…
Where is Dorsal and Ventral in terms o…
The study of the brain to regulate higher mental functions an…
Nervous system drives our behaviours and plays a role in many…
Dorsal (Superior), Ventral (Inferior), Rostral (Anterior - in…
Ventral is at the front and Dorsal is at the back
What is neuroscience?
The study of the brain to regulate higher mental functions an…
Why is neuroscience important?
Nervous system drives our behaviours and plays a role in many…
43 terms
Neuroscience
Fasiculus or peduncle
Telencephalon
Diencephalon
Mesencephalon
Several tracts traveling together in the CNS
Cerebral hemispheres, lateral ventricles (1,2). Largest major…
Thalamus and hypothalamus, 3rd ventricle
Midbrain, aqueduct
Fasiculus or peduncle
Several tracts traveling together in the CNS
Telencephalon
Cerebral hemispheres, lateral ventricles (1,2). Largest major…
204 terms
neuroscience
clinical neuroscience
neurology
psychiatry
neuroscience
scientific study of disorders and disease of the nervous syst…
study that encompasses diseases, conditions and infections of…
diagnosis, treatment and prevention of mental illnesses, incl…
study of the brain and nervous system, including molecular ne…
clinical neuroscience
scientific study of disorders and disease of the nervous syst…
neurology
study that encompasses diseases, conditions and infections of…
318 terms
Neuroscience
Nervous tissue is derived from which l…
Neural induction is the process by whi…
Neurulation results in the segregation…
Neural tube is the precursor of the:
Ectoderm
neural plate
neural tube... neural crest... epidermis
CNS
Nervous tissue is derived from which l…
Ectoderm
Neural induction is the process by whi…
neural plate
9 terms
Neuroscience
Nervous System is divided into
Central Nervous System
Peripheral Nervous System
Somatic Nervous System
Two parts: Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nervous System
Brain and Spinal Cord
Autonomic and Somatic Nervous System
Consists of Peripheral Nerve Fibers that send sensory informa…
Nervous System is divided into
Two parts: Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nervous System
Central Nervous System
Brain and Spinal Cord
82 terms
Neuroscience
Name the 3 functional neuron classes
Do afferent neurons generate action po…
Are motor neurons bipolar or multipolar?
What neurons are bipolar?
1) Sensory/afferent: towards CNS... 2)Motor/efferent: away from…
No,they generate action potentials towards the CNS. Motor/eff…
Multipolar
Sensory neurons in the retina eye and olfactory system
Name the 3 functional neuron classes
1) Sensory/afferent: towards CNS... 2)Motor/efferent: away from…
Do afferent neurons generate action po…
No,they generate action potentials towards the CNS. Motor/eff…
30 terms
Neuroscience
autonomic nervous System
ANS is important in 3 situations/parts:
You are coming to class, and Dr. Pitts…
parasympathetic nervous System
Regulates functions of our internal organs (viscera)... Heart, s…
Fight or Flight (Sympathetic Nervous System)... Rest and Digest…
The sympathetic nervous system uses energy: blood pressure in…
The parasympathetic nervous system saves energy: blood pressu…
autonomic nervous System
Regulates functions of our internal organs (viscera)... Heart, s…
ANS is important in 3 situations/parts:
Fight or Flight (Sympathetic Nervous System)... Rest and Digest…
41 terms
Neuroscience
Where is the Cerebellum
Function of the Cerebellum
Where is the Cerebrum
Function of the Cerebrum
coordinates messages from the spinal cord and limbs to modera…
The whole upper brain
oversees functions such as motor movement, sensory impulse, c…
Where is the Cerebellum
Function of the Cerebellum
coordinates messages from the spinal cord and limbs to modera…
13 terms
Neuroscience
Broca's area
frontal eye field
Wernicke's area
Heschl's gyrus
expressive language... frontal lobe - inferior frontal gyrus
saccadic gaze center... frontal lobe - middle frontal gyrus
receptive language... parietal lobe - supramarginal gyrus and an…
primary auditory cortex... temporal lobe - inner surface
Broca's area
expressive language... frontal lobe - inferior frontal gyrus
frontal eye field
saccadic gaze center... frontal lobe - middle frontal gyrus
52 terms
Neuroscience
What is the central nervous system?
What is the peripheral nervous system?
What does peripheral nervous system di…
What is somatic?
The brain and the spinal cord (Skull and vertebral column)
It is the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord.
Somatic and Autonomic
Voluntary muscles (Sensory)
What is the central nervous system?
The brain and the spinal cord (Skull and vertebral column)
What is the peripheral nervous system?
It is the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord.
31 terms
Neuroscience
nervous system
central nervous system
peripheral nervous system
somatic nervous system
bodys speedy electrochemical communication network, consisiti…
brain and spinal cord
connects to CNS to the limbs and organs, serving as a communi…
division of PNS that controls body's skeletal muscles.
nervous system
bodys speedy electrochemical communication network, consisiti…
central nervous system
brain and spinal cord
26 terms
Neuroscience
Surface ectoderm gives rise to...
Neural tube gives rise to...
neural crest gives rise to...
Mesoderm gives rise to...
Rathke's pouch (anterior pituitary); lens & cornea; inner ear…
brain & spinal cord; posterior pituitary; pineal gland; retina
Autonomic, sensory & celiac ganglia; Schwann cells; pia &arac…
Muscles (skeletal, cardiac, smooth); connective tissue; bone…
Surface ectoderm gives rise to...
Rathke's pouch (anterior pituitary); lens & cornea; inner ear…
Neural tube gives rise to...
brain & spinal cord; posterior pituitary; pineal gland; retina
137 terms
Neuroscience
Location of cranial nerve nuclei
oculomotor nucleus... - location... - lesion…
trochlear nucleus... - location... - lesion…
abducens nucleus... - location... - lesion d…
BRAINSTEM:... Midbrain (III, IV) ... Pons (V, VI, VII, VIII) ... Medul…
midbrain; eye deviation inferiorly and laterally (down & out)…
midbrain; weakness in depression of adducted eye; diplopia
pons; Inability to abduct the eye, medial deviation of the ey…
Location of cranial nerve nuclei
BRAINSTEM:... Midbrain (III, IV) ... Pons (V, VI, VII, VIII) ... Medul…
oculomotor nucleus... - location... - lesion…
midbrain; eye deviation inferiorly and laterally (down & out)…
23 terms
Neuroscience
Why study brain and behaviour?
What are the A and B parts of the brain?
Forebrain
Brainstem
-learn how brain produces behaviour and human consciousness…
A: Cerebrum (forebrain)... B: Right hemisphere of cerebrum
Prominent in animals and birds, responsible for most consciou…
Source of behaviour in simpler animals responsible for most o…
Why study brain and behaviour?
-learn how brain produces behaviour and human consciousness…
What are the A and B parts of the brain?
A: Cerebrum (forebrain)... B: Right hemisphere of cerebrum
53 terms
Neuroscience
One role of the frontal eye fields
Frontal Lobe
Parietal Lobe
What two things feed occipital lobe
Saccades (contra-side)... ---also done by SC
Motor movements... Personality... Planning... Production of speech (br…
Sensory activity and recognition... -Pursuits - ipsi
Middle cerebral artery... Posterior cerebral artery... -stroke can…
One role of the frontal eye fields
Saccades (contra-side)... ---also done by SC
Frontal Lobe
Motor movements... Personality... Planning... Production of speech (br…
55 terms
Neuroscience
Neurology:
Neuroanatomy
Neurophysiology:
Central Nervous System (CNS)
Diseases that disrupt the normal structural and physiological…
structural framework of the nervous system.
Chemical, electrical and metabolic functions of the nervous s…
Brain in the cranial cavity and spinal cord (Neucleus)
Neurology:
Diseases that disrupt the normal structural and physiological…
Neuroanatomy
structural framework of the nervous system.
85 terms
Neuroscience
Neuron
Parts of the Neurons
Dendrite
Axon
helps communication throughout the body, interconnected cells…
Dendrites, Soma, Axon, Myelin Sheath Terminal Branches
receive messages
carries messages
Neuron
helps communication throughout the body, interconnected cells…
Parts of the Neurons
Dendrites, Soma, Axon, Myelin Sheath Terminal Branches
45 terms
Neuroscience
CNS
PNS
autonomic
somatic
-only brain and spinal chords... -makes decisions
-everything but brain and spinal chord... -gathers and sends inf…
-division of PNS... -automatic processes (breathing, digestion)…
-division of PNS... -voluntary movements ... -skeletal muscles
CNS
-only brain and spinal chords... -makes decisions
PNS
-everything but brain and spinal chord... -gathers and sends inf…
17 terms
Neuroscience
afferent
efferent
fissures
diencephalon
towards the CNS
away from the CNS
structures that divide up cortical lobes
composed of the thalamus, the hypothalamus, and other structu…
afferent
towards the CNS
efferent
away from the CNS
45 terms
Neuroscience
What is in the brainstem?
What is in the Hindbrain?
What is in the Meyelencephalon?
Medulla?
Hindbrain, Midbrain, and diencephalon
Meyelencephalon and Metencephalon
Medulla and Reticular formation
Life support
What is in the brainstem?
Hindbrain, Midbrain, and diencephalon
What is in the Hindbrain?
Meyelencephalon and Metencephalon
41 terms
Neuroscience
What is the anatomy of a neuron?
What is myelin?
What are glia?
What are oligodendrocytes?
The myelin sheath acts as an insulator that minimizes dissipa…
Glia guide neurons to their destinations, buffer ions and har…
glia cells that form myelin sheaths around neurons in the CNS…
What is the anatomy of a neuron?
What is myelin?
The myelin sheath acts as an insulator that minimizes dissipa…
22 terms
Neuroscience
Where are oligodendrocytes located?
What is in the Limbic System
in order for a current to flow across…
Which protein is most important to mai…
Central Nervous system
Hippocampus, Amygdala, Cingulate Gyrus, Fornix, Mammillary Bo…
The concentration of the cation must be higher on one side of…
Na/K pump
Where are oligodendrocytes located?
Central Nervous system
What is in the Limbic System
Hippocampus, Amygdala, Cingulate Gyrus, Fornix, Mammillary Bo…
220 terms
Neuroscience
Horisontal cells of retina does what?
Amacrine cells does what?
what is the visual pathway?
which are the targets for retinal gang…
contrast enhance
movement detection enhance
Optic n.... Optic chiasm... Optic tract... Lateral geniculate nucleus…
-visual cortex (geniculocalcarine pathway) - through synapse…
Horisontal cells of retina does what?
contrast enhance
Amacrine cells does what?
movement detection enhance
28 terms
NEUROSCIENCE
Three membranes (the dura mater, arach…
The Nervous System is divided into whi…
Which of the follow components of the…
Of the 3 anatomical planes, which plan…
MENINGES
PERIPHERAL; SPINAL; BRAINSTEM AND CEREBELLAR; CEREBRAL
POSTSYNAPTIC TERMINAL
CORONAL
Three membranes (the dura mater, arach…
MENINGES
The Nervous System is divided into whi…
PERIPHERAL; SPINAL; BRAINSTEM AND CEREBELLAR; CEREBRAL
Neuroscience
Declarative memory
procedural memory
working memory
Dorsal visual stream
conscious, explicit, cognitive, requires attention, 3 stages-…
nonconscious or implicit, motor learning, 3 stages- cognitive…
central cognition, prefrontal and parietotemporal association…
action stream, from visual cortex to frontal lobe- goes throu…
Declarative memory
conscious, explicit, cognitive, requires attention, 3 stages-…
procedural memory
nonconscious or implicit, motor learning, 3 stages- cognitive…
77 terms
Neuroscience
Dendrites
Cell body
Axon
Myelin sheath
Recieve messages from other cells
Life support center
Passes messages away from cell body to other neurons/glands
Covers axon of some neurons and helps speed neural impulses
Dendrites
Recieve messages from other cells
Cell body
Life support center
68 terms
Neuroscience
neurons
neurotransmission
neural circuits
axon
cells specialized for transmission and conduction of electric…
process in which a substance s released by synaptic terminals…
a functional entity consisting of interconnected neurons that…
the neuronal process that carries the action potential from t…
neurons
cells specialized for transmission and conduction of electric…
neurotransmission
process in which a substance s released by synaptic terminals…
16 terms
neuroscience
What does a neuron receive signals thr…
What do dendrites send signals through?
What enables faster transmission?
If combined received signals exceed a…
dendrites
axons
myelin sheath
threshold
What does a neuron receive signals thr…
dendrites
What do dendrites send signals through?
axons
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