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What is characteristic of the normal c…

Inflection points

Empirical Rule

What information does the z score supp…

The mean, median, and mode are all in the same place

Where the graph appears to change directions

68% within one sd, 95% within two, 99.7% within three

How many standard deviations an x-value is from the mean

What is characteristic of the normal c…

The mean, median, and mode are all in the same place

Inflection points

Where the graph appears to change directions

Statistical inference

Normal distr.

Central limit theorem

Z-score

using descriptive summaries as basis for making estimates of…

(normal curve) good approximation of distribution of scores f…

regardless of original shape of distr., the sampling distr. o…

# of standard deviations from mean... (standardized score that a…

Statistical inference

using descriptive summaries as basis for making estimates of…

Normal distr.

(normal curve) good approximation of distribution of scores f…

Statistical inference

Normal distr.

Central limit theorem

Z-score

using descriptive summaries as basis for making estimates of…

(normal curve) good approximation of distribution of scores f…

regardless of original shape of distr., the sampling distr. o…

# of standard deviations from mean... (standardized score that a…

Statistical inference

using descriptive summaries as basis for making estimates of…

Normal distr.

(normal curve) good approximation of distribution of scores f…

distribution of many continuous variab…

the shape and position of the normal d…

spread of normal distribution is contr…

characteristics of normal distribution

normally distributed variables or bell curve or Gaussian dist…

1- mean ... 2- standard deviation

standard deviation

1- normal distribution curve is bell shape ... 2- mean , median…

distribution of many continuous variab…

normally distributed variables or bell curve or Gaussian dist…

the shape and position of the normal d…

1- mean ... 2- standard deviation

Statistical inference

Normal distr.

Central limit theorem

Z-score

using descriptive summaries as basis for making estimates of…

(normal curve) good approximation of distribution of scores f…

regardless of original shape of distr., the sampling distr. o…

# of standard deviations from mean... (standardized score that a…

Statistical inference

using descriptive summaries as basis for making estimates of…

Normal distr.

(normal curve) good approximation of distribution of scores f…

1

normally distributed, normal distrubtion

one mode

The **_ _** a PROBABILITY DENSITY CURVE between any two values…

For any probability density curve, *the area under the entire…

A population that is represented by a normal curve is said to…

Normal distributions have **_ _**.

The **_ _** a PROBABILITY DENSITY CURVE between any two values…

1

For any probability density curve, *the area under the entire…

Normal curve

Roughly 68% of the scores will be foun…

Roughly 95% of the scores will be foun…

Transformations

Defined by being unimodal, symmetrical, and bell-shaped; the…

The first property of the normal curve

The second property of the normal curve

Changing the way a set of data looks without changing the bas…

Normal curve

Defined by being unimodal, symmetrical, and bell-shaped; the…

Roughly 68% of the scores will be foun…

The first property of the normal curve

Normal Curve

Normal Curve

Normal Curve

Normal distribution

The ___ combines the mean and standard deviation with a graph…

is shaped like a bell; hence "bell curve"

each half of this curve is a mirror image/symmetrical

___ is defined as a set of numbers, that when plotted, makes…

Normal Curve

The ___ combines the mean and standard deviation with a graph…

Normal Curve

is shaped like a bell; hence "bell curve"

distribution of data

center

variability

shape

describing the data set by referring to the center, variabili…

the placement is found on the left, center, or right on the g…

the characteristics found in the data, which includes the: sp…

the patterns that describe the data; answering the questions…

distribution of data

describing the data set by referring to the center, variabili…

center

the placement is found on the left, center, or right on the g…

bigger sample (n)

Normal curve

Normal distribution... - tails

probability

more clustered sd's will be around the mean

infinite number of normal curves

theoretically everything that occurs naturally is normally di…

is area under curve that represents probability that someone…

bigger sample (n)

more clustered sd's will be around the mean

Normal curve

infinite number of normal curves

Normal Curve

Normal Distribution

Line of Symmetry

Line of Symmetry

Combines the mean and standard deviation with a graphical rep…

A set of numbers, that when plotted, makes a perfectly shaped…

Curve attribute line in the middle of values that touches at…

Where all three measures of central tendency (mean, mode, and…

Normal Curve

Combines the mean and standard deviation with a graphical rep…

Normal Distribution

A set of numbers, that when plotted, makes a perfectly shaped…

0.1%

2.3%

15.9%

50%

what percentage is at or below -3 SD away from the mean?

what percentage is at or below -2 SD away from the mean?

what percentage is at or below -1 SD away from the mean?

what percentage is at the mean or below?

0.1%

what percentage is at or below -3 SD away from the mean?

2.3%

what percentage is at or below -2 SD away from the mean?

Normal Curve

Normal Curve Attributes

Normal Distribution

Abscissa

A graphical representation that combines the mean & standard…

Shaped like a bell, common name of "bell curve", each half of…

A set of numbers when plotted, make a perfectly shaped bell c…

This is the line below the curve on a normal curve

Normal Curve

A graphical representation that combines the mean & standard…

Normal Curve Attributes

Shaped like a bell, common name of "bell curve", each half of…

Normal Curve

Normal curve

Asymptotic

Mean, median, mode

Graphical representation of a normal distribution

Is symmetrical, with the highest point at the center

Normal curve is ____ at the base line

Coincide at one point at the center of the curve, they have e…

Normal Curve

Graphical representation of a normal distribution

Normal curve

Is symmetrical, with the highest point at the center

Normal Curve

Transformation

Z score

Roughly _____ of scores in a normal di…

defined by being unimodal, symmetrical, and bell-shaped, the…

changing the way a set of data looks without changing the bas…

the number of standard deviations that a score is away from t…

34%

Normal Curve

defined by being unimodal, symmetrical, and bell-shaped, the…

Transformation

changing the way a set of data looks without changing the bas…

Probability

Statistical significance

Thresholds

Calculating probability-the basics

the expected relative frequency of a given outcome... what you e…

- how do we know if our findings are meaningful?... Correlations…

results less likely than a predetermined level are statistica…

Determine the number of possible "successful" outcomes... Determ…

Probability

the expected relative frequency of a given outcome... what you e…

Statistical significance

- how do we know if our findings are meaningful?... Correlations…

What is the normal curve?

The standard normal curve always has a…

7 properties of normal curve

What is the crucial point about the no…

a theoretical distribution of scores that is symmetrical, uni…

0,1

1)Theoretical... 2) bell-shaped... 3) unimodal... 4) symmetrical... 5) un…

The distances along the horizontal axis, when measured in sta…

What is the normal curve?

a theoretical distribution of scores that is symmetrical, uni…

The standard normal curve always has a…

0,1

Normal Curve

Transformation

Z score

Roughly _____ of scores in a normal di…

defined by being unimodal, symmetrical, and bell-shaped, the…

changing the way a set of data looks without changing the bas…

the number of standard deviations that a score is away from t…

34%

Normal Curve

defined by being unimodal, symmetrical, and bell-shaped, the…

Transformation

changing the way a set of data looks without changing the bas…

1

P(X = a) = 0

A **_ _ _** is a curve used to describe the probability distrib…

The **_ _** a PROBABILITY DENSITY CURVE between any two values…

For any probability density curve, *the area under the entire…

The region above a single point has zero width. Therefore, if…

A **_ _ _** is a curve used to describe the probability distrib…

The **_ _** a PROBABILITY DENSITY CURVE between any two values…

What does the n represent in the formu…

The upcoming presidential election inv…

Most depictions of a probability distr…

The normal curve never meets the x-axi…

D . Number of times the outcome or event can occur

C. Empirical probability

A. The population is infinite

B.The population is infinite

What does the n represent in the formu…

D . Number of times the outcome or event can occur

The upcoming presidential election inv…

C. Empirical probability

Describe the median and the mean of a…

Where is the mean located in symmetric…

Where is the median located in symmetr…

How are outliers represented in symmet…

Both median and mean are the same for symmetric density curves.

Mean lies at at the center of the curve.

Median lies at at the center of the curve.

Outliers are not described by the curve.

Describe the median and the mean of a…

Both median and mean are the same for symmetric density curves.

Where is the mean located in symmetric…

Mean lies at at the center of the curve.

Percentile

cumulative relative frequency graph

z-score

transforming data

the pth percentile of a distribution is the value with p perc…

"o-jive"; plot points that respond to its frequency

the standardize score; the observation minus the mean over th…

adding a constant to all values in a 5 number summary. Additi…

Percentile

the pth percentile of a distribution is the value with p perc…

cumulative relative frequency graph

"o-jive"; plot points that respond to its frequency

Standard Deviation

Homogenous data (standard deviation)

Heterogeneous data (standard deviation)

Normal curve

Most common measure of dispersion; the standardized distance…

s is small

s is large

can be described by using its mean and standard deviation; al…

Standard Deviation

Most common measure of dispersion; the standardized distance…

Homogenous data (standard deviation)

s is small

exhaling toward REL

exhaling below REL

inhaling above REL up to 55% VC

inhaling above 55% VC

no muscles; recoil of lungs active; restore of thorax present…

MOE active; recoil of lungs active; restore of thorax present…

restore of thorax active; recoil of lungs is present but bein…

MOI active; recoil of lungs and thorax present but being over…

exhaling toward REL

no muscles; recoil of lungs active; restore of thorax present…

exhaling below REL

MOE active; recoil of lungs active; restore of thorax present…

Probability

Relative frequency

Egs

Probability formula

The expected 'frequency of occurance' of a particular event a…

Number of times something happens relative to the number of t…

Coin tosses... Simultaneous toss of two coins... Dice

Possible sucessful outcomes / all possible outcomes

Probability

The expected 'frequency of occurance' of a particular event a…

Relative frequency

Number of times something happens relative to the number of t…

define normal curve

why is sample size is so important in…

the distribution of MANY, MANY variabl…

What does it mean to say that the norm…

specific bell-shaped curve that is unimodal, symmetric, and d…

As the sample size increases, the distribution more and more…

a normal curve

* unimodal means 1 high point to the curve... * symmetric means…

define normal curve

specific bell-shaped curve that is unimodal, symmetric, and d…

why is sample size is so important in…

As the sample size increases, the distribution more and more…

Normal Curve

Created Normal Curve

Development of a Normal Curve

Characteristics of a Normal Distribution

A specific, bell-shaped curve/distribution that is unimodal,…

Principles originally developed by Abraham DeMoivre in early…

When plotting data, a normal distribution may not emerge imme…

Normal distributions are symmetric around their mean. The mea…

Normal Curve

A specific, bell-shaped curve/distribution that is unimodal,…

Created Normal Curve

Principles originally developed by Abraham DeMoivre in early…

Standardization

Z-score

Z-distribution

Z-distribution always has a mean of

Converting raw scores to z-scores

Number of standard deviations a score is from the mean

Distribution composed only of z-scores

0

Standardization

Converting raw scores to z-scores

Z-score

Number of standard deviations a score is from the mean

Discrete data

Continuous data

Interval

Normal curve

A set of values with gaps between successive values.

A set of values with at least one value between any two given…

A range or a set of values between a lower bound and an upper…

A symmetrical curve representing the normal distribution.

Discrete data

A set of values with gaps between successive values.

Continuous data

A set of values with at least one value between any two given…

Density Curve

Continuous Data

Mean and Median in a Density Curve

Standard Deviation in a Density Curve

A curve that is on or above the horizontal axis, has an area…

Represented by a density curve... - data that does not require o…

For a normal curve, the mean and the median are the same... Popu…

Controls the spread of the mean (average variability of the d…

Density Curve

A curve that is on or above the horizontal axis, has an area…

Continuous Data

Represented by a density curve... - data that does not require o…

Standardization

z score

z score formula

Calculating raw score from z score

A way to convert individual scores from different normal dist…

The number of standard deviations a particular score is from…

X = z(SD) + (mean)

Standardization

A way to convert individual scores from different normal dist…

z score

The number of standard deviations a particular score is from…

normal curve

standardization

z score

z score formula

specific, bell-shaped, unimodal, symmetric and defined mathem…

converts individual scores from different normal distribution…

number of the standard deviations a particular score is from…

x = raw score... μ = population mean... σ = SD

normal curve

specific, bell-shaped, unimodal, symmetric and defined mathem…

standardization

converts individual scores from different normal distribution…

Standard scores (or z-scores)

Standard normal curve

Skew

Kurtosis

Deviation scores expressed in standard deviation units; calcu…

A theoretical, symmetrical, bell-shaped distribution based on…

The degree to which a distribution is asymmetrical; defined m…

Refers to how tightly clustered values are around the mean of…

Standard scores (or z-scores)

Deviation scores expressed in standard deviation units; calcu…

Standard normal curve

A theoretical, symmetrical, bell-shaped distribution based on…

normally distributed, normal distrubtion

one mode

A **_ _ _** is a curve used to describe the probability distrib…

Probability density curves comes in many varieties, depending…

A population that is represented by a normal curve is said to…

Normal distributions have **_ _**.

A **_ _ _** is a curve used to describe the probability distrib…

Probability density curves comes in many varieties, depending…

Unit Tangent vector

Unit Normal Vector

Velocity

Acceleration

T(t) = r'(t) / ||r'(t)||

N(t) = T'(t) / ||T'(t)||

||V(t)|| • T(t)... V(t) = derivative of r(t)... T(t) = r'(t) / ||r…

Derivative of Velocity... ||V'(t)|| • T(t) + ||V(t)|| • T'(t)

Unit Tangent vector

T(t) = r'(t) / ||r'(t)||

Unit Normal Vector

N(t) = T'(t) / ||T'(t)||

What is characteristic of the normal c…

Inflection points

Empirical Rule

What information does the z score supp…

The mean, median, and mode are all in the same place

Where the graph appears to change directions

68% within one sd, 95% within two, 99.7% within three

How many standard deviations an x-value is from the mean

What is characteristic of the normal c…

The mean, median, and mode are all in the same place

Inflection points

Where the graph appears to change directions

Raw Score

Standard Score

Z-Score

Sign

score of measurement instrument using original scale of measu…

-Identify and describe exact location of each score a distrib…

specifies precise location of each score in a distribution

+/- indicated if score is above or below the mean

Raw Score

score of measurement instrument using original scale of measu…

Standard Score

-Identify and describe exact location of each score a distrib…