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Study sets matching "nucleotide metabolism"

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Study sets matching "nucleotide metabolism"

106 terms
Nucleotide Metabolism
Cytosine
Uracil
Thymine
bicarbonate... aspartate... glutamine (or am…
which nucleotide?
Which nucleotide?
which nucleotide?
pyrimidine ring is synthesized from (3)?
Cytosine
which nucleotide?
Uracil
Which nucleotide?
45 terms
NUcleotide metabolism
What is the rate limiting s/ step of
RIBOSE 5 phopshate is a byproduct/mark…
Use of 2atp use
PRPP amidotranferase... rate limiting and detraining step- PRPP…
PUrine synthesis and purine salvage pathway
...
What is the rate limiting s/ step of
PRPP amidotranferase... rate limiting and detraining step- PRPP…
RIBOSE 5 phopshate is a byproduct/mark…
PUrine synthesis and purine salvage pathway
34 terms
Nucleotide Metabolism
pyrimidine ring
purine ring
cytosine (2-oxy-4-aminopyrimidine)
uracil (2-oxy-4-oxypyrimidine)
pyrimidine ring
purine ring
64 terms
Nucleotide Metabolism
Nucleotide
Adenine
Guanine
Purine
Composed of a nitrogenous base; a pentose monosaccharide; and…
A heterocyclic aromatic organic compound consisting of a pyri…
Nucleotide
Composed of a nitrogenous base; a pentose monosaccharide; and…
Adenine
14 terms
Nucleotide Metabolism
Nucleotide
Be able to describe the unique roles t…
Understand the important role played b…
Know committed steps in the purine bio…
Base (A,T,C,G) + sugar + phosphate
substrates for nucleic acid polymers: ... DNA + RNA... signaling m…
Formation of PRPP is the committed step for nucleotide biosyn…
1st step = committed step = ... ** highly regulated =... (PRPP) → 5…
Nucleotide
Base (A,T,C,G) + sugar + phosphate
Be able to describe the unique roles t…
substrates for nucleic acid polymers: ... DNA + RNA... signaling m…
48 terms
Nucleotide Metabolism
Gouty arthritis
purine nucleoside
pyrimidine nucleoside
adenine
an inflammatory disease caused by sodium rate deposition in j…
joined to sugar moiety through N-9
joined to sugar moiety through N-1
Gouty arthritis
an inflammatory disease caused by sodium rate deposition in j…
purine nucleoside
joined to sugar moiety through N-9
100 terms
Nucleotide Metabolism
Cytosine
Uracil
Thymine
1.bicarbonate... 2.aspartate... 3.glutamine…
which nucleotide?
Which nucleotide?
which nucleotide?
pyrimidine ring is synthesized from (3)?
Cytosine
which nucleotide?
Uracil
Which nucleotide?
Nucleotide Metabolism
Anti-Parasitic Drugs
N5,N10-methyl-THF
N10-formyl-THF
PRPP Synthesis
inhibit salvage pathways... parasites (i.e. malaria) lack de no…
required to synthesize thymine
required to synthesize inosine (purines)
catalyzed by PRPP synthase... cleaves ATP at ß-phosphate, trans…
Anti-Parasitic Drugs
inhibit salvage pathways... parasites (i.e. malaria) lack de no…
N5,N10-methyl-THF
required to synthesize thymine
64 terms
Nucleotide Metabolism
Nucleotide:... Components
Nucleotide:... Bases
Nucleoside
Nucleotides:... Functions
Contains:... - A purine or pyrimidine base... (1 of 5 types of…
- Adenine (purine)... - Guanine (purine)... - Cytosine (pyrimidine)…
Lacks phosphate groups ... All nucleotides are phosphorylated n…
- Building blocks for RNA & DNA... - Sources of energy (e.g.…
Nucleotide:... Components
Contains:... - A purine or pyrimidine base... (1 of 5 types of…
Nucleotide:... Bases
- Adenine (purine)... - Guanine (purine)... - Cytosine (pyrimidine)…
27 terms
Nucleotide metabolism
Biological Functions of Nucleotides
nucleoside
thymine
cytosine
1. Building blocks of nucleic acids ... 2. Involved in energy s…
Means base +ribose/deoxyribose sugar (without phosphate group…
pyrimide (T) DNA
pyrimidine (C)
Biological Functions of Nucleotides
1. Building blocks of nucleic acids ... 2. Involved in energy s…
nucleoside
Means base +ribose/deoxyribose sugar (without phosphate group…
Nucleotide metabolism
3 Cofactors needed in one-carbon metab…
Sulfanilamide
THF
Reactions in human body requiring B12
THF, SAM, Vit B12
Antibacterial drug; bacteria misincorporate it during folate…
Tetrahydrofolic acid; capable of carrying 3 C oxidation state…
BCAA and odd chain fatty acid oxidations
3 Cofactors needed in one-carbon metab…
THF, SAM, Vit B12
Sulfanilamide
Antibacterial drug; bacteria misincorporate it during folate…
46 terms
Nucleotide Metabolism
roles of nucleotides
Generic Structure
Purines
Pyrimidines
energy from anhydrous bonds... structure of CoEnzymes... allosteric…
1. ribose or 2' deoxyribose... 2. nitrogen base attached to ribo…
Adenine, Guanine, hypoxanthine, xanthine
Cytosine, Uracil, Thymine, Orotic Acid
roles of nucleotides
energy from anhydrous bonds... structure of CoEnzymes... allosteric…
Generic Structure
1. ribose or 2' deoxyribose... 2. nitrogen base attached to ribo…
38 terms
Nucleotide Metabolism
Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I
Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II
Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II chan…
Uracil synthesis
• in the mitochondria of the liver and uses 2 ATP, bicarbonat…
• same reaction, but nitrogen source comes from the hydrolysi…
• Run through the interior... • completely protected from the so…
• Aspartate transcarbamoylase: carbamoyl phosphate + aspartat…
Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I
• in the mitochondria of the liver and uses 2 ATP, bicarbonat…
Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II
• same reaction, but nitrogen source comes from the hydrolysi…
45 terms
Nucleotide Metabolism
bicarbonate... aspartate... glutamine (or am…
nucleotide monophosphate kinases
nucleoside diphosphate kinase
amination
pyrimidine ring is synthesized from (3)?
specific nucleotide monophosphates can be converted into nucl…
converts a broad nucleoside diphosphate to a triphosphate
CTP is formed by the _____ of UTP
bicarbonate... aspartate... glutamine (or am…
pyrimidine ring is synthesized from (3)?
nucleotide monophosphate kinases
specific nucleotide monophosphates can be converted into nucl…
12 terms
Nucleotide Metabolism
PRPP Synthetase
Regulation of PRPP Synthetase
Methotrexate
Origins of the atoms in the Purine ring
Converts Ribose-5-phosphate into PRPP
Activated by: inorganic phosphate ... Inactivated by: Purine Nu…
Folic acid analog that inhibits purine synthesis. Used pharma…
Carbons and Nitrogens from amino acids *(aspartate, glycine a…
PRPP Synthetase
Converts Ribose-5-phosphate into PRPP
Regulation of PRPP Synthetase
Activated by: inorganic phosphate ... Inactivated by: Purine Nu…
16 terms
Nucleotide Metabolism
Nucleotides are molecules composed of…
How do nucleotides participate in cell…
Purine bases
Pyrimidine bases
pentose, a nitrogenous base and phosphate
Precursors for the synthesis of DNA and RNA. ... Components of…
Nucleotides are molecules composed of…
pentose, a nitrogenous base and phosphate
How do nucleotides participate in cell…
Precursors for the synthesis of DNA and RNA. ... Components of…
72 terms
Nucleotide metabolism
adenosine
guanine
uracil
cytosine
adenosine
guanine
57 terms
Nucleotide metabolism
Strategy of purine synthesis
Salvage pathway
Denovo synthesis
PRPP
Recycles bases
In cytoplasm with pentose phosphate pathway.
phosphoRibosyl-1-pyrophosphate: ATP gives two phos to ribose…
Strategy of purine synthesis
Salvage pathway
Recycles bases
45 terms
Nucleotide metabolism
adenine
guanine
thymine
cytosine
nitrogenous base
nitrogenous base
nitrogenous base... ONLY IN DNA
nitrogenous base
adenine
nitrogenous base
guanine
nitrogenous base
36 terms
Nucleotide Metabolism
De novo pathway do not use __ bases
The _____ ring is built up 1 or a few…
In ___ ____ ___Enzymes are present as…
The ___ ring is synthesized as ___ att…
Free... Guanine, adenine, thymine, cytidine & uracil
Purine... Ribose
purine de novo synthesis
Pyriminidine... orotate... ribose phophate... Pyriminidine
De novo pathway do not use __ bases
Free... Guanine, adenine, thymine, cytidine & uracil
The _____ ring is built up 1 or a few…
Purine... Ribose
114 terms
Nucleotide Metabolism
Adenine
Guanine
hypoxanthine
xanthine
Adenine
Guanine
23 terms
Nucleotide Metabolism
Biological Roles of Nucleotides
Guardian Angels are Pure, with two Win…
PRPP is a critical metabolite in both
Committed Step for Nucleotide Biosynth…
-Nucleotide substrates for nucleic acid polymers (DNA and RNA…
G and A are Purines, with two Rings
purine and pyrimidine biosynthesis
Phosphoribosyl Pyrophosphate
Biological Roles of Nucleotides
-Nucleotide substrates for nucleic acid polymers (DNA and RNA…
Guardian Angels are Pure, with two Win…
G and A are Purines, with two Rings
44 terms
Nucleotide Metabolism
Nucleoside vs Nucleotide
Adenine vs Adenosine... Guanine vs Guanos…
The majority of the purine and pyrimid…
How does the structure of uracil compa…
Nucleoside = Sugar + Base... Nucleotide = Sugar + Base + Phospha…
Adenine = Nitrogenous Base... Adenosine = Adenine + Ribose Sugar…
F!... *Little of the purines and pyrimidines supplied by diet a…
They are structurally identical except thymine has a methyl g…
Nucleoside vs Nucleotide
Nucleoside = Sugar + Base... Nucleotide = Sugar + Base + Phospha…
Adenine vs Adenosine... Guanine vs Guanos…
Adenine = Nitrogenous Base... Adenosine = Adenine + Ribose Sugar…
57 terms
Nucleotide Metabolism
Adenine vs guanine
Cytosine vs Thymine vs Uracil
What is a nucleoside?
What is a nucleotide?
A base plus the ribose
A base plus the ribose plus a phosphate group
Adenine vs guanine
Cytosine vs Thymine vs Uracil
23 terms
Nucleotide Metabolism
Components of nucleic acids
Components of coenzymes
Energy providing molecules
Biosynthesis intermediates
DNA... RNA
NAD... FAD
ATP
UDP-glucose
Components of nucleic acids
DNA... RNA
Components of coenzymes
NAD... FAD
74 terms
nucleotide metabolism
3 things a nucleotide contains
base is linked to the ribose via ____…
the pentose monosaccharide can be either
components of nucleoside
1. pentose monosaccharide... 2. nitrogenous base... 3. phosphate…
beta glycosidic, 1
ribose or 2' deoxyribose
sugar and base only
3 things a nucleotide contains
1. pentose monosaccharide... 2. nitrogenous base... 3. phosphate…
base is linked to the ribose via ____…
beta glycosidic, 1
42 terms
Nucleotide Metabolism
What are some functions of nucleotides?
What happens when cholera toxins bind…
What is the first step of nucleotide s…
What is the first committed step of pu…
1. precursors for DNA and RNA synthesis ... 2. Activated biosynt…
The cholera toxins combines g protein with NAD+, the base is…
phosphorylation of the 1' carbon on the ribose-5-phosphate vi…
glutamine-PRPP amidotransferase replaces the pyrophosphate gr…
What are some functions of nucleotides?
1. precursors for DNA and RNA synthesis ... 2. Activated biosynt…
What happens when cholera toxins bind…
The cholera toxins combines g protein with NAD+, the base is…
40 terms
Nucleotide Metabolism
What are the types of nucleotide metab…
What is a committed step?
What is regulated step?
Purine de novo synthesis... Summary
1. De novo biosynthesis... 2. Salvage synthesis... 3. Degradation
Spend too much energy on step to go back
Any time a step can be regulated or interfered with and block…
Start with pentose sugar --> purine ring
What are the types of nucleotide metab…
1. De novo biosynthesis... 2. Salvage synthesis... 3. Degradation
What is a committed step?
Spend too much energy on step to go back
28 terms
Nucleotide Metabolism
The first step of De Novo purine synth…
What is required in De Novo purine syn…
What is made from IMP?
How is De Novo synthesis of purine's r…
PRPP using PRPP synthetase
Tetrahydrofolate (FH4): brings carbons into the purine synthe…
AMP and GMP
Negative feedback
The first step of De Novo purine synth…
PRPP using PRPP synthetase
What is required in De Novo purine syn…
Tetrahydrofolate (FH4): brings carbons into the purine synthe…
12 terms
Nucleotide Metabolism
Which nucleotide is extensively modifi…
Where is the difference between deoxyr…
Which bases are purines?
Which bases are pyrimidines?
GTP
The oxygen on the 2' carbon
Adenine(A) and Guanine(G)
Cytosine(C), Thymine(T), and Uracil(U)
Which nucleotide is extensively modifi…
GTP
Where is the difference between deoxyr…
The oxygen on the 2' carbon
21 terms
Nucleotide metabolism
what are the biological functions of n…
What do nuceleotide modifications aid…
What is the committed step for nucleot…
What is the first committed step in pu…
1) info storage... 2) signaling molecules ( e.g. cAMP,) and ener…
enzyme recognition or prevent nuclease activity... -common nucle…
formation of phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate... -regulation of PRPP…
Conversion of 5-phosphoribosyl 1 pyrophosphate to form 5 phos…
what are the biological functions of n…
1) info storage... 2) signaling molecules ( e.g. cAMP,) and ener…
What do nuceleotide modifications aid…
enzyme recognition or prevent nuclease activity... -common nucle…
22 terms
Nucleotide Metabolism
Adenine and guanine
Cytosine, thymine, uracil
5
Ribose, CO2, THF, amino acids
List the purine nucleotides.
List the pyrimidine nucleotides.
How many ATP are consumed per purine synthesized?
List the required starting materials for purine synthesis.
Adenine and guanine
List the purine nucleotides.
Cytosine, thymine, uracil
List the pyrimidine nucleotides.
50 terms
Nucleotide Metabolism
By what pathways can purines be synthe…
What is the common precursor to both p…
How is PRPP synthesized? What regulate…
Which cells can perform de novo synthe…
1. De novo pathway (3%)... 2. Salvage pathway (97%)
5-Phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP)
Synthesized from ribose-5-phosphate... Inhibited by *AMP, GMP,…
1. Almost all cells... 2. Liver cells (in cytosol)... 3. Brain and…
By what pathways can purines be synthe…
1. De novo pathway (3%)... 2. Salvage pathway (97%)
What is the common precursor to both p…
5-Phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP)
34 terms
Nucleotide Metabolism
Importance of Nucleotides
name purines and pyrimidines:
nucleoside
Nucleotide
-RNA/DNA... -carriers of biosynth intermediates (UDP-gluc)... -coen…
Base + Sugar
Base + Sugar + Phosphate Groups
Importance of Nucleotides
-RNA/DNA... -carriers of biosynth intermediates (UDP-gluc)... -coen…
name purines and pyrimidines:
40 terms
Nucleotide Metabolism
What is the structure of adenine?
What is the structure of guanine?
What is the structure of thymine?
What is the structure of cytosine?
What is the structure of adenine?
What is the structure of guanine?
18 terms
Nucleotide metabolism
What is the source of ribose in nucleo…
What is the source of atoms for purine…
What are the major purines?
Synthesis of PRPP?
5-phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP)
- 10-formyl tetrahydrofolate... - glycine... - glutamine... - aspartat…
As pure as gold (Ag)... - Adenine... - Guanine
Ribose-5-P + ATP yields PRPP
What is the source of ribose in nucleo…
5-phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP)
What is the source of atoms for purine…
- 10-formyl tetrahydrofolate... - glycine... - glutamine... - aspartat…
39 terms
Nucleotide Metabolism
Nitrogenous bases
Where are unusual bases found?
Nucleoside
Nucleotide
Purines- Adenine and Gianine (AG=pure silver)... Pyrimidines- Th…
viral DNA and transfer RNA... -i.e. N-Acetylcytosine, Dihydroura…
pentose sugar + nitrogenous base
Pentose sugar + nitrogenous base + 1,2,or 3 phosphate groups
Nitrogenous bases
Purines- Adenine and Gianine (AG=pure silver)... Pyrimidines- Th…
Where are unusual bases found?
viral DNA and transfer RNA... -i.e. N-Acetylcytosine, Dihydroura…
44 terms
Nucleotide metabolism
Adenine
Guanine
Cytosine
Uracil
Adenine
Guanine
10 terms
Nucleotide Metabolism
3 parts of Nucleotides
Nucleosides:
Purines
Pyrimidines
1) Nitrogenous Base-sequence info carrier (A,G,C,T,U)... 2) 5-C…
Nitrogenous base and 5-sugar
Characterized by the aromatic 2 ring structure, common ones:…
Single 6-membered aromatic ring, C,T,U
3 parts of Nucleotides
1) Nitrogenous Base-sequence info carrier (A,G,C,T,U)... 2) 5-C…
Nucleosides:
Nitrogenous base and 5-sugar
8 terms
Nucleotide Metabolism
Purines
Pyrimidines
Nucleosides
Nucleotides
Two carbon nitrogen ring bases, such as adenine and guanine.
One carbon nitrogen ring bases, such as thymine, cytosine and…
A sugar, either a ribose or 2-deoxyribose, added to a nitroge…
One or more phosphates added to the sugar portion of a nucleo…
Purines
Two carbon nitrogen ring bases, such as adenine and guanine.
Pyrimidines
One carbon nitrogen ring bases, such as thymine, cytosine and…
Nucleotide Metabolism
What is the product of nucleotide abso…
Where does the ribose of nucleotides o…
What are the major steps of purine bio…
What regulates PRPP synthase?
Purines, pyrimidines, ribose, deoxyribose, phosphate
Made from glucose in the PPP... Ribulose-5-P converted to ribos…
Synthesis of PRPP (catalyzed by PRPP synthase)... Synthesis of…
Activated by: Pi... Inhibited by: AMP/ GMP
What is the product of nucleotide abso…
Purines, pyrimidines, ribose, deoxyribose, phosphate
Where does the ribose of nucleotides o…
Made from glucose in the PPP... Ribulose-5-P converted to ribos…
26 terms
Nucleotide Metabolism
Nucleosides
Nucleotides
Amino acids necessary for purine synth…
Purine de novo synthesis
Base + ribose (Sugar)
Base + ribose + phosphaTe; linked by 3'-5' phosphodiester bond
GAG... Glycine... Aspartate... Glutamine
Start with sugar + phosphate (PRPP)... Then add base (Assemble r…
Nucleosides
Base + ribose (Sugar)
Nucleotides
Base + ribose + phosphaTe; linked by 3'-5' phosphodiester bond
47 terms
Nucleotide Metabolism
Name six functions of nucleotides.
Describe the structure of a nucleotide.
Which carbon are the phosphates attach…
Where does nucleotide de novo synthesi…
1. DNA - storage of genetic material.... 2. RNA - transcription…
Nitrogenous base + pentose sugar + one or more phosphates.
Carbon 5
In the liver.
Name six functions of nucleotides.
1. DNA - storage of genetic material.... 2. RNA - transcription…
Describe the structure of a nucleotide.
Nitrogenous base + pentose sugar + one or more phosphates.
8 terms
Nucleotide metabolism
1. Relate the role of the purine salva…
2. Summarize the regulation of pyrimid…
3. Relate the mechanism by which hydro…
4. Differentiate the effects on folate…
a. Purine synthesis pathway: Ribose 5- phosphate (product of…
a. The first step in pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis is catal…
a. Hydroxyurea: Anti neoplastic drug used in the treatment of…
a. Methotrexate: Used in the treatment of skin cancer. Chemot…
1. Relate the role of the purine salva…
a. Purine synthesis pathway: Ribose 5- phosphate (product of…
2. Summarize the regulation of pyrimid…
a. The first step in pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis is catal…
19 terms
Nucleotide Metabolism
Salvage pathway
De Novo Pathway
adenine phosphoribosyltransferase
guanine phosphoribosyltransferase
activated ribose (PRPP) + base
activated ribose (PRPP) + AA + ATP + CO2
adenine + PRPP -> adenylate
guanine + PRPP -> guanylate
Salvage pathway
activated ribose (PRPP) + base
De Novo Pathway
activated ribose (PRPP) + AA + ATP + CO2
50 terms
Nucleotide Metabolism
PRPP (5 phosphoribosy-1-pyrophosphate)
PPP (Pentose phosphate pathway)
ribose-5-phosphoate
Purines
In either the de novo or salvage pathways for nucleotide synt…
PRPP is a result of the ___________ (what pathway does it for…
PRPP is formed from _____________ of the PPP (glucose 6 P -->…
The de novo pathway for ___________ is made by sequentially b…
PRPP (5 phosphoribosy-1-pyrophosphate)
In either the de novo or salvage pathways for nucleotide synt…
PPP (Pentose phosphate pathway)
PRPP is a result of the ___________ (what pathway does it for…
18 terms
Nucleotide Metabolism
Mycophenicol Acid
Methotrexate
AIR synthetase
Cyclohydrolase
Immunosuppressant that inhibits IMP dehydrogenase (IMP --> XM…
Immunosuppressant that inhibits DHFR (Folate --> DHF --> THF)…
Enzyme that closes the first ring in purine synthesis.
Enzyme that closes the second ring in purine synthesis.
Mycophenicol Acid
Immunosuppressant that inhibits IMP dehydrogenase (IMP --> XM…
Methotrexate
Immunosuppressant that inhibits DHFR (Folate --> DHF --> THF)…
59 terms
Nucleotide Metabolism
nucleotide synthesis
urea
acetyl-CoA, or carbohydrate intermedia…
nucleotide is a nucleoside esterified…
besides synthesizing proteins, what is another important dire…
in the metabolism of aa's, the amino groups are excreted as _…
in the metabolism of aa's, the carbon skeletons are used for…
what is the difference between a nucleotide and a nucleoside?
nucleotide synthesis
besides synthesizing proteins, what is another important dire…
urea
in the metabolism of aa's, the amino groups are excreted as _…
7 terms
Nucleotide Metabolism
know the fundimentals
Glutamine is a key contributer to nucl…
GLutamate---> glutimamine
Products of glutamine are______... and th…
...
amino group donor
Glutamine Synthase
Carbomyl phosphate... AMP... CTP... stop
know the fundimentals
...
Glutamine is a key contributer to nucl…
amino group donor
22 terms
Nucleotide Metabolism
Distinguish the structural differences…
Identify the source of carbons and nit…
Explain how cellular production of car…
Describe the assembly of pyrimidine ri…
Bases are aromatic, heterocyclic ring structures. Includes: A…
C2 and N3 come from carbamoyl phosphate. N1 and C4,5,6 come f…
Carbamoyl phosphate syntheses has two versions. The first is…
1) Carbamoyl phosphate is combined with aspartate using aspar…
Distinguish the structural differences…
Bases are aromatic, heterocyclic ring structures. Includes: A…
Identify the source of carbons and nit…
C2 and N3 come from carbamoyl phosphate. N1 and C4,5,6 come f…
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