Study sets matching "nutrition and cancer"

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Study sets matching "nutrition and cancer"

125 terms
Nutrition - Cancer
How does cancer develop?
What is a carcinogen?
Antioxidants and carcinogens
Anchorage dependence
- starts with a mutation in a gene that is in charge of cell…
- something that causes cancer to develop
Antioxidants work directly against carcinogens... - we all are c…
- cells won't divide unless they are touching something
How does cancer develop?
- starts with a mutation in a gene that is in charge of cell…
What is a carcinogen?
- something that causes cancer to develop
Nutrition and Cancer
stages of cancer
basic cancer genetics
one-carbon metabolism
reduced folates
1.) initiation... -DNA damage... 2.) promotion... -increased cell div…
-changed a.a. leads to an altered protein-> can be a bad muta…
-no folate-> can't make As or Gs, then can't make Ts or Cs... --…
-methotrexate: anti-folate drug... -5-Fluorouracil... ---> inhibit…
stages of cancer
1.) initiation... -DNA damage... 2.) promotion... -increased cell div…
basic cancer genetics
-changed a.a. leads to an altered protein-> can be a bad muta…
13 terms
Nutrition and Cancer
Background
Epidemiology (study of populations)
Terminology a-d Cancer, Neoplasm, Tumo…
e-f Malignant Neoplasm, Tumor
Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the U.S. ... (hea…
1) International differences in cancer incidence and mortalit…
a. Cancer - Cells multiply out of control and disrupt normal…
e. Malignant neoplasm... 1) Cancerous... 2) Resists treatment... 3) Ha…
Background
Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the U.S. ... (hea…
Epidemiology (study of populations)
1) International differences in cancer incidence and mortalit…
Cancer and Nutrition
1. Link: research-cancer-prevention-re…
Why is it recommended to limit consump…
Do sugary drinks induce satiety or a c…
What are the recommendations regarding…
do it
a. Prevents and controls weight gain... b. Keeps fuller longer
No
Be as lean as possible by falling into norm BMI range startin…
1. Link: research-cancer-prevention-re…
do it
Why is it recommended to limit consump…
a. Prevents and controls weight gain... b. Keeps fuller longer
15 terms
Nutrition and Cancer
where does cancer rank as a cause of d…
what three factors combined can result…
what is the most unique nutritional re…
second unique recc?
second leading cause
genetics, lifestyle, environment
eat mostly foods of plant origin
limit red meat and processed meat
where does cancer rank as a cause of d…
second leading cause
what three factors combined can result…
genetics, lifestyle, environment
Nutrition and Cancer
The three steps in cancer development
What is the material within cells that…
What factors cause damage to DNA
Which factor plays a larger role in th…
Initiation, promotion, progression
DNA
toxic environment, contaminants, viruses, exposure to radiati…
Environmental
The three steps in cancer development
Initiation, promotion, progression
What is the material within cells that…
DNA
35 terms
Cancer and Nutrition
True or False: obesity is now linked t…
True or False: W.H.O. Declares Eating…
True or False: the 2015 dietary guidel…
True or False: survey shows that ameri…
TRUE
FALSE: W.H.O. classifies both processed meat and cigarettes i…
FALSE: federal officials can ignore scientifically proven fac…
FALSE: we dumb AF (don't know that alcohol, obesity, lack of…
True or False: obesity is now linked t…
TRUE
True or False: W.H.O. Declares Eating…
FALSE: W.H.O. classifies both processed meat and cigarettes i…
38 terms
Cancer and Nutrition
1. Link: research-cancer-prevention-re…
Why is it recommended to limit consump…
Do sugary drinks induce satiety or a c…
What are the recommendations regarding…
do it
a. Prevents and controls weight gain... b. Keeps fuller longer
No
Be as lean as possible by falling into norm BMI range startin…
1. Link: research-cancer-prevention-re…
do it
Why is it recommended to limit consump…
a. Prevents and controls weight gain... b. Keeps fuller longer
Cancer Nutrition
Cancer
3 stages of cancer
4 kinds of responses to cancer tx
TNM staging
Abnormal cell division and reproduction that can spread throu…
Initiation... promotion... tumor progression, including metastasis
complete... partial... stable... progressive
T=Size of the tumor... N=degree of spread to lymph nodes... M=prese…
Cancer
Abnormal cell division and reproduction that can spread throu…
3 stages of cancer
Initiation... promotion... tumor progression, including metastasis
30 terms
Cancer and Nutrition
The 6-question quiz
According to the World Cancer Research…
Why is it recommended to limit consump…
Do sugary drinks induce satiety or a c…
Obesity is now linked to 10 cancers, WHO declared eating baco…
About one third
Because these foods promote weight gain.
No, they provide energy but do not induce either of these.
The 6-question quiz
Obesity is now linked to 10 cancers, WHO declared eating baco…
According to the World Cancer Research…
About one third
Nutrition and Cancer
Nutritionist
Dietitian
Role of dietician
Phytochemicals
-non regulated term... -could be anyone from a person with PhD i…
-4 yr BS degree... -passed national registration exam... -maintains…
Education for prevention... -diagnosing malnutrition/nutrition p…
substances found naturally in plant foods that... -stimulate the…
Nutritionist
-non regulated term... -could be anyone from a person with PhD i…
Dietitian
-4 yr BS degree... -passed national registration exam... -maintains…
10 terms
Nutrition and Cancer
Typical American diet, what percent of…
nutritional status
ways of assessing nutrient intake
role of feeding studies
280% of recommended limit. (180% increase)... 200%... 150%
a measurement of the degree to which an individual's physiolo…
feeding study... 24 hour recall... food diary/record... food frequency…
validate food frequency questionnaires... involves intensive con…
Typical American diet, what percent of…
280% of recommended limit. (180% increase)... 200%... 150%
nutritional status
a measurement of the degree to which an individual's physiolo…
25 terms
nutrition and cancer
cancer
cancer
cancer
how does cancer develop
second leading cause of death in US
1 in every 4 deaths annually
1/3 of all are diet related
cell cycle apoptosis-Programmed cell death
cancer
second leading cause of death in US
cancer
1 in every 4 deaths annually
19 terms
Nutrition and Cancer
development of cancer
cancer cells
food mutagens
genotoxic
initiation (mutation of normal cells, repeated division), pro…
lack of differentiation, enlarged nuclei, unlimited ability t…
ingested and absorbed, pas through liver, then are distribute…
DNA damage; point mutation, deletions, insertions, recombinat…
development of cancer
initiation (mutation of normal cells, repeated division), pro…
cancer cells
lack of differentiation, enlarged nuclei, unlimited ability t…
34 terms
Cancer and the nutrition
Leading cause of death in Canada
Cancer
the percentage of women likely to get…
the percentage of men likely to get ca…
Cancer
uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells
40
45
Leading cause of death in Canada
Cancer
Cancer
uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells
19 terms
Nutrition and Cancer
MUFAs
Omega-3 Fatty Acids
Beta-Carotene
Folate
-anti-oxidative ... -anti-inflammatory
-anti-inflammatory... -inhibits cell proliferation
anti-oxidative
repair
MUFAs
-anti-oxidative ... -anti-inflammatory
Omega-3 Fatty Acids
-anti-inflammatory... -inhibits cell proliferation
19 terms
Nutrition and Cancer
causes of malnutrition and wasting in…
Cancer cachexia
steps towards cachexia
impact and outcomes of cachexxia
failure of food intake ... association between progresion of tum…
ongoing loss of skeletal muscle mass... cannot be fully reversed…
1. depletion of reserves,... 2. limitation of food intake... 3 cata…
weakness, frailty, toxicit, infection, complication, costs po…
causes of malnutrition and wasting in…
failure of food intake ... association between progresion of tum…
Cancer cachexia
ongoing loss of skeletal muscle mass... cannot be fully reversed…
14 terms
Nutrition And Cancer
Cancer
process of a cell --> malignant tumor
Dietary factors that increase the risk…
Dietary factors that decrease risk of…
abnormal cells divide, grow, and spread without control
normal cell is changed by radiation or chemicals; genetic dam…
acrylimide, heterocyclic amines, dietary fats, alcohol
antioxidants, flavonoids, folate, Vitamin D
Cancer
abnormal cells divide, grow, and spread without control
process of a cell --> malignant tumor
normal cell is changed by radiation or chemicals; genetic dam…
37 terms
cancer and nutrition
cancer
neoplasm
tumor
benign nepolasm
cells multiply out of control
new growth
rapid or uncontrolled increase in cells
only local problems ... cells adhere to eachother... don't invade o…
cancer
cells multiply out of control
neoplasm
new growth
Nutrition for cancer
Although we call the paraneoplastic st…
What key biochemical changes occur at…
Is there a clinical test that can be r…
Once the tumor has been removed or sen…
before clinical signs, at diagonsis
hyperlactemia, hyperinsulinemia, change in amino acids and li…
glucose tolerance test
no
Although we call the paraneoplastic st…
before clinical signs, at diagonsis
What key biochemical changes occur at…
hyperlactemia, hyperinsulinemia, change in amino acids and li…
32 terms
Nutrition and Cancer
Primary Cancer Prevention Lifestyle
Antioxidants
Procarcinogen reducing phytonutrients
Phytoestrogens
Weight control ... Moderate calories... Low fat, esp. animal fat... Li…
help neutralize free radicals... Vitamins C, E, & beta carotene…
allyl sulfides in garlic, onions & chives -affect phase 1 con…
may be protective or promote breast and prostate cancers ... iso…
Primary Cancer Prevention Lifestyle
Weight control ... Moderate calories... Low fat, esp. animal fat... Li…
Antioxidants
help neutralize free radicals... Vitamins C, E, & beta carotene…
nutrition cancer
cancer
3 steps
initiation
promotion
diseases characterized by unchecked growth of malignant cells
initiation, promotion, progression
(short) carcinogen causes a mutation in DNA material results…
(long) mutation of DNA is locked in, division of cell continu…
cancer
diseases characterized by unchecked growth of malignant cells
3 steps
initiation, promotion, progression
27 terms
Nutrition & Cancer
goals
cancers linked to obesity
Nutriceuticals
Turmeric-Curcumin
Prevent or reverse nutrient deficiencies.... Preserve lean body…
Breast cancer.... Endometrial.... Cervical.... Colorectal.... Ovarian.... Br…
natural anti-viral, which can help a patient's body fight the…
promotes apoptosis that safely eliminates cancer breeding cel…
goals
Prevent or reverse nutrient deficiencies.... Preserve lean body…
cancers linked to obesity
Breast cancer.... Endometrial.... Cervical.... Colorectal.... Ovarian.... Br…
Cancer Nutrition
Risk factors of cancer
Cancer Prevention
Preventative Nutrition
Nutrition Therapy
Excess body fat stimulates the production of estrogen and pro…
-Be physically active: ... 1. adults: aim for 150 minutes modera…
-Consume adequate dietary fiber (14 g/1000 kcal daily require…
-Adverse effects of treatments compromise the nutritional sta…
Risk factors of cancer
Excess body fat stimulates the production of estrogen and pro…
Cancer Prevention
-Be physically active: ... 1. adults: aim for 150 minutes modera…
17 terms
Nutrition- nutrition & cancer
What are the top cancer incidences for…
What is the number one cause of death…
Define cancer
What are the three stages of cancer de…
Men- Prostate cancer... Women- Breast cancer
Lung cancer
Disease in which cells multiply out of control and disrupt no…
Initiation... Promotion... Progression
What are the top cancer incidences for…
Men- Prostate cancer... Women- Breast cancer
What is the number one cause of death…
Lung cancer
Cancer: Nutrition
Antioxidants
Phytochemicals
Weight Loss and Malnutrition Can Occur…
Decreased dietary intake can be due to
neutralize the effects of damage to cells
plant chemicals including flavonoids and plant pigments such…
decreased dietary intake, nutrient loss, unmet nutritional ne…
anorexia, taste change: Dysgeusia- altered taste perception,…
Antioxidants
neutralize the effects of damage to cells
Phytochemicals
plant chemicals including flavonoids and plant pigments such…
14 terms
Nutrition & Cancer
Statistics
Cell Cycle
Apoptosis
Cancer
1/3 of all cancers are diet related... second leading cause of d…
An ordered sequence of events in the life of a eukaryotic cel…
cell death
balance between cell growth and death is disrupted... cell keeps…
Statistics
1/3 of all cancers are diet related... second leading cause of d…
Cell Cycle
An ordered sequence of events in the life of a eukaryotic cel…
81 terms
Cancer & Nutrition
60%
Biopsy
malignant
metastisis
the number of all malignancies
how scientists look at cancer cells
invasive
already spread
60%
the number of all malignancies
Biopsy
how scientists look at cancer cells
Nutrition Cancer
Breast
Prostate
Colorectal
Esophageal
Increase: alcohol, body fat, abdominal fat... Decrease: exercise
Increase: diet high in Ca... Decrease: exercise, lycopene (toma…
Increase: red/processed meat, alcohol, abdominal fat, body fa…
Increase: alcohol, smoking, body fat... Decrease: non-starchy v…
Breast
Increase: alcohol, body fat, abdominal fat... Decrease: exercise
Prostate
Increase: diet high in Ca... Decrease: exercise, lycopene (toma…
40 terms
Nutrition & cancer
3 guidelines to reduce cancer risk
AICR rationale for new guidelines
10 recommendations
Food, nutrition, obesity, physical act…
1. Weight management... 2. Diet... 3. Physical activity
•9 independent research teams collected relevant research on…
1. Be as lean as possible, but not underweight ... 2. Be physica…
•DNA repair... •proliferation... •hormonal regulation... •carcinogen m…
3 guidelines to reduce cancer risk
1. Weight management... 2. Diet... 3. Physical activity
AICR rationale for new guidelines
•9 independent research teams collected relevant research on…
28 terms
Nutrition and Cancer
Metabolic response to critical illness…
What 2 things are used to assess nutri…
What is the energy expenditure equation?
What is the stress factor?
hyper; cachexia
Weight hx and serum albumin
BMR x stress factor x activity factor
1.2-2 depending on severity
Metabolic response to critical illness…
hyper; cachexia
What 2 things are used to assess nutri…
Weight hx and serum albumin
29 terms
Nutrition and Cancer
what is cancer?
what is initiation
what is promotion
what are the steps involved in the pro…
a malignant tumor of unlimited growth that expands locally by…
initiators begin the process of changing the DNA in some of t…
promotion describes the process of enhancing the development…
carcinogen exposure... initiation... promotion... tumor formation
what is cancer?
a malignant tumor of unlimited growth that expands locally by…
what is initiation
initiators begin the process of changing the DNA in some of t…
40 terms
CANCER: NUTRITION
Huge players in onset of cancer?
top three cancers in women?
top three cancers in men?
common cancers in KY
~lifestyle and environment ... **ex: smoking and nutrition
lung and bronchus, breast, colon and rectum
lung and bronchus, prostate, colon and rectum
lung, breast, colon and rectum, prostate
Huge players in onset of cancer?
~lifestyle and environment ... **ex: smoking and nutrition
top three cancers in women?
lung and bronchus, breast, colon and rectum
15 terms
Cancer: Nutrition and the Cancer Patient
do all cancer patients present the sam…
what 2 types of cancers are the worst…
% weight loss correlates to what?
which cancer treatments have weight lo…
-site of cancer... -type of cancer... -stage of cancer... -co-morbidit…
pancreas and stomach
-survival rates... -treatment tolerance... -treatment effectiveness
all of them
do all cancer patients present the sam…
-site of cancer... -type of cancer... -stage of cancer... -co-morbidit…
what 2 types of cancers are the worst…
pancreas and stomach
103 terms
Nutrition in Cancer
Apoptosis
Immortal
Cancer
Tumor
Normal cells divide a certain number of times and then self-d…
Cancer cells don't normally divide/ don't undergo apoptosis
uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells that form a mass of tis…
A mass of tissues of abnormal cells
Apoptosis
Normal cells divide a certain number of times and then self-d…
Immortal
Cancer cells don't normally divide/ don't undergo apoptosis
Cancer and Nutrition
Zinc
Polyphenols
Factors that influence staging
Stage 0 Cancer
micronutrient involved in homeostatic regulation ... -DNA replic…
EGCG
-size of tumor ... -level of invasion of the tumor ... -degree to w…
carcinoma in situ ... -cancer cells are present in either the li…
Zinc
micronutrient involved in homeostatic regulation ... -DNA replic…
Polyphenols
EGCG
39 terms
Nutrition in Cancer
cancer risks, diets consumed, fruits,…
initiator, promotor, prevention
size, type and stage of cancer, multi-…
% weight loss
There are strong associations between _________ ______ and th…
Diets can be both the ___________ and _________ in cancer but…
What factors must be considered in assessing the nutritional…
The majority of cancers cause some ____ ________ _______.
cancer risks, diets consumed, fruits,…
There are strong associations between _________ ______ and th…
initiator, promotor, prevention
Diets can be both the ___________ and _________ in cancer but…
Cancer nutrition
Although we can call the peritoneal pl…
Knowing that cachexia starts at phase…
What key by a chemical change is accur…
Is there a clinical test that can be r…
Phase one the silent face
As early as possible
Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, altered amino acid and lipid…
...
Although we can call the peritoneal pl…
Phase one the silent face
Knowing that cachexia starts at phase…
As early as possible
27 terms
Nutrition and Cancer
Considerations in managing a cancer pa…
Estimated that more than one third of…
Epidemiological studies have found ass…
Diets effects on cancer
Site/type/stage of cancer - foot vs mouth... Multi-modality trea…
Dietary and physical activity habits
Types of diets consumed... E.g. obesogenic lifestyles are associ…
Can be both an initiator and promoter in the development of c…
Considerations in managing a cancer pa…
Site/type/stage of cancer - foot vs mouth... Multi-modality trea…
Estimated that more than one third of…
Dietary and physical activity habits
Cancer- Nutrition
Nutrition related factors affect on ca…
Cancer Cachexia
Side Effects of Chemotherapy and Radia…
What is the relationship between diet…
Obesity: Alters levels of hormones that influence cell growth…
Wasting syndrome associated with cancer that is characterized…
Chemotherapy: GI tract inflammation, abdominal pain, bad for…
-Diet causes 1/3 of cancer cases... -Associated with chronic inf…
Nutrition related factors affect on ca…
Obesity: Alters levels of hormones that influence cell growth…
Cancer Cachexia
Wasting syndrome associated with cancer that is characterized…
25 terms
Nutrition: Cancer
Cancer
Three Steps of Cancer
Cell Cycle
Initiation
Second leading cause of death in the U.S.
Initiation, Promotion, Progression
DNA replication, cell division, cell death (apoptosis)
A carcinogen causes a mutation in the DNA of the normal cell…
Cancer
Second leading cause of death in the U.S.
Three Steps of Cancer
Initiation, Promotion, Progression
76 terms
Nutrition and Cancer
Rank in causing death
Large part of the cause
Nutritional factors may contribute to…
Cancer develops due to
Second leading cause of death in developed countries (Canada:…
Given differences in cancer prevalence worldwide and prevalen…
30
interactions between genetic background, endogenous milieu an…
Rank in causing death
Second leading cause of death in developed countries (Canada:…
Large part of the cause
Given differences in cancer prevalence worldwide and prevalen…
NUTRITION SUPPORT IN CANCER & AIDS
NORMAL CELL
CANCER CELL
CANCER TUMORS ARE IDENTIFIED BY?
SARCOMAS EFFECT?
- CELL GROWTH GUIDED BY GENETIC CODE IN DNA... - EACH GENE CARRI…
- ORDERLY OPERATION LOST AS A RESULT OF MUTATION... - CELL GROWT…
- PRIMARY SITE OF ORIGIN... - STAGE... - SIZE... - PRESENCE OF METASTA…
CONNECTIVE TISSUE
NORMAL CELL
- CELL GROWTH GUIDED BY GENETIC CODE IN DNA... - EACH GENE CARRI…
CANCER CELL
- ORDERLY OPERATION LOST AS A RESULT OF MUTATION... - CELL GROWT…
20 Nutrition and Cancer
is cancer a disease?
cancer
mutations in genes that control cell d…
tumors
no- more like a multiple diseases.
-uncontrolled cell growth... -losing control of cell division... -m…
-promote cell growth ... -interferes with growth restraint ... -mut…
-blood vessels form to provide nutrients within tumor
is cancer a disease?
no- more like a multiple diseases.
cancer
-uncontrolled cell growth... -losing control of cell division... -m…
17 terms
Chapter 20 Nutrition for Cancer (Nutrition)
Cancer
Initiation
Promoted
Progrssion
the process of carcinogenesis is when cells receive sustained…
of the process results in a mutation of DNA; inflammation, ph…
Replication of the mutated cell is Promoted and abnormal cell…
of the abnormal cells outside the original location of the ce…
Cancer
the process of carcinogenesis is when cells receive sustained…
Initiation
of the process results in a mutation of DNA; inflammation, ph…
Clinical Nutrition: Cancer
What demographic has a significantly l…
What dietary factors have an increase…
What provides more protection against…
What is in tomatoes that helps protect…
Black men living in Africa
Consumption of meat, fish, dairy, calcium supplements, and al…
Soy
Lycopene... Lycopene also protects ovaries and skin
What demographic has a significantly l…
Black men living in Africa
What dietary factors have an increase…
Consumption of meat, fish, dairy, calcium supplements, and al…
96 terms
Diet, Nutrition and Cancer (3)
Epidemiology of cancer
cancer development
migration of cancer
adjacent tissue invaded by cancer
2nd leading cause of death in US, 2/3 of cases are > 65 yo, 5…
disorder of cell growth and regulation, uncontrolled/abnormal…
metastasis
invasion
Epidemiology of cancer
2nd leading cause of death in US, 2/3 of cases are > 65 yo, 5…
cancer development
disorder of cell growth and regulation, uncontrolled/abnormal…
96 terms
Diet, Nutrition and Cancer (3)
Epidemiology of cancer
cancer development
migration of cancer
adjacent tissue invaded by cancer
2nd leading cause of death in US, 2/3 of cases are > 65 yo, 5…
disorder of cell growth and regulation, uncontrolled/abnormal…
metastasis
invasion
Epidemiology of cancer
2nd leading cause of death in US, 2/3 of cases are > 65 yo, 5…
cancer development
disorder of cell growth and regulation, uncontrolled/abnormal…
nutrition final cancer
healthy cell, dna replication, cell di…
apoptosis
cancer
2
normal cell cycle
cell death
disease characterized by unchecked growth of malignant cells,…
cancer is the ___ leading cause of death?
healthy cell, dna replication, cell di…
normal cell cycle
apoptosis
cell death
61 terms
Cancer/HIV (Nutrition)
Cancer in the US
Carcinogenesis
Research on diet & cancer
Phytochemicals
- 50-75% associated with lifestyle... - Lung, prostate, colorect…
- Abnormal cell production w/ mutation of DNA... - Independent o…
- Based on animal studies and epidemiologial studies... - Diffic…
- May reduce cancer risk... - Fiber, antioxidants, anti-inflamma…
Cancer in the US
- 50-75% associated with lifestyle... - Lung, prostate, colorect…
Carcinogenesis
- Abnormal cell production w/ mutation of DNA... - Independent o…
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