Study sets matching "occupational therapy spinal cord"

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Study sets matching "occupational therapy spinal cord"

10 terms
Conditions in Occupational Therapy: Spinal Cord Injury
Autonomic dysreflexia (hyperreflexia)
Catheterization
Cauda equina
Crede's maneuver
a pathological autonomic reflex seen in patients with high-le…
insertion of a tube through the urethra and into the urinary…
"horse's tail", a fan of nerve fibers below the spinal cord
the application of external pressure on the abdomen with thei…
Autonomic dysreflexia (hyperreflexia)
a pathological autonomic reflex seen in patients with high-le…
Catheterization
insertion of a tube through the urethra and into the urinary…
58 terms
occupational therapy intervention for spinal cord injury
What interventions are done in Acute C…
what all do OTs do in acute care for s…
what are the areas of greatest risk fo…
what all do OT's do in acute care for…
Skin Integrity, know your bony prominences, range of motion,…
Educate the client and family on the importance of vigilance…
Occiput... Scapulae... Sacrum... Trochanters... Ankles ... Heels
PROM... AROM... Stretching... Strengthening
What interventions are done in Acute C…
Skin Integrity, know your bony prominences, range of motion,…
what all do OTs do in acute care for s…
Educate the client and family on the importance of vigilance…
Occupational Therapy Evaluation For Spinal Cord Injury
what information needs to be included…
Acute care and inpatient rehabilitatio…
outpatient, home health, and transitio…
what is the key muslces that are teste…
Level of motivation... Level of determination... Socioeconomic back…
ASIA scale, key muscle testing, motor score and interpretatio…
occupational performance, Craig Handicap Assessment and Repor…
1. C5 - Elbow flexors (biceps, brachialis) ... 2. C6 - Wrist ext…
what information needs to be included…
Level of motivation... Level of determination... Socioeconomic back…
Acute care and inpatient rehabilitatio…
ASIA scale, key muscle testing, motor score and interpretatio…
occupational therapy intervention for spinal cord injury
What interventions are done in Acute C…
what all do OTs do in acute care for s…
what are the areas of greatest risk fo…
what all do OT's do in acute care for…
Skin Integrity, know your bony prominences, range of motion,…
Educate the client and family on the importance of vigilance…
Occiput... Scapulae... Sacrum... Trochanters... Ankles ... Heels
PROM... AROM... Stretching... Strengthening
What interventions are done in Acute C…
Skin Integrity, know your bony prominences, range of motion,…
what all do OTs do in acute care for s…
Educate the client and family on the importance of vigilance…
occupational therapy intervention for spinal cord injury
What interventions are done in Acute C…
what all do OTs do in acute care for s…
what are the areas of greatest risk fo…
what all do OT's do in acute care for…
Skin Integrity, know your bony prominences, range of motion,…
Educate the client and family on the importance of vigilance…
Occiput... Scapulae... Sacrum... Trochanters... Ankles ... Heels
PROM... AROM... Stretching... Strengthening
What interventions are done in Acute C…
Skin Integrity, know your bony prominences, range of motion,…
what all do OTs do in acute care for s…
Educate the client and family on the importance of vigilance…
occupational therapy intervention for spinal cord injury
What interventions are done in Acute C…
what all do OTs do in acute care for s…
what are the areas of greatest risk fo…
what all do OT's do in acute care for…
Skin Integrity, know your bony prominences, range of motion,…
Educate the client and family on the importance of vigilance…
Occiput... Scapulae... Sacrum... Trochanters... Ankles ... Heels
PROM... AROM... Stretching... Strengthening
What interventions are done in Acute C…
Skin Integrity, know your bony prominences, range of motion,…
what all do OTs do in acute care for s…
Educate the client and family on the importance of vigilance…
Spinal And head Cord Bones P THERAPY
Mandible
Maxilla
Zygoma
Nasal
Mandible
Maxilla
Spinal Cord Injuries and Massage Therapy by Julie Ottis
Courage Center (only 5 in the country…
TRP
Julie Otis
Spinal Cord Injury Statistic
Spinal cord injury, ms, ache and pain. Will be the larger fac…
Facility for people coming from an injury where they learn re…
former secondary teacher, massage therapist, BS, AS, AAS, NCT…
10,000-120000 SCI every year with SCI, 80% of injuries occur…
Courage Center (only 5 in the country…
Spinal cord injury, ms, ache and pain. Will be the larger fac…
TRP
Facility for people coming from an injury where they learn re…
12 terms
Therapy Ed Chpt 7 Spinal Cord Anat & Phys
# of Spinal Cord Segments
Ascending (Sensory) Pathways
Dorsal Column Tract
Spinothalamic Tract
30 all together:... 8 cervical... 12 thoracic... 5 lumbar... 5 sacral
Dorsal Column - proprioception, vibration, & tactile discrimi…
proprioception, vibration, & tactile discrimination
pain and temp & crude touch
# of Spinal Cord Segments
30 all together:... 8 cervical... 12 thoracic... 5 lumbar... 5 sacral
Ascending (Sensory) Pathways
Dorsal Column - proprioception, vibration, & tactile discrimi…
8 terms
NBCOT Prep: Spinal Cord Injury
Level C1 - C3
Level C4
Level C5
Level C6
Movement Possible: Neck Flexion, Extension, Rotation... Pattern…
Movement Possible: Neck flexion, extension, rotation, scapula…
Movement Possible: Shoulder flexion, abduction, and extension…
Movement Possible: Scapular protraction; some horizontal addu…
Level C1 - C3
Movement Possible: Neck Flexion, Extension, Rotation... Pattern…
Level C4
Movement Possible: Neck flexion, extension, rotation, scapula…
75 terms
Spinal Cord Injury
SCI is trauma or damage to the spinal…
Does the spinal cord have the ability…
Approx. ________ new spinal cord injur…
About ________ people are currently af…
Spinal canal
No
10,000
250,000
SCI is trauma or damage to the spinal…
Spinal canal
Does the spinal cord have the ability…
No
48 terms
SPINAL CORD
HOW MANY ENLARGEMENTS DOES THE SPINAL…
WHAT ARE THE 2 ENLARGEMENTS OF THE SPI…
WHAT IS THE REASON THEY ARE ENLARGED?
WHERE DOES THE SPINAL CORD TERMINATE?
2 ENLARGEMENTS
CERVICAL ENLARGEMENT... LUMBAR ENLARGEMENT
BECAUSE INCREASED NUMBER OF CELL BODIES FOR MOTOR CONTROL.
T12 THORACIC NUMBER 12
HOW MANY ENLARGEMENTS DOES THE SPINAL…
2 ENLARGEMENTS
WHAT ARE THE 2 ENLARGEMENTS OF THE SPI…
CERVICAL ENLARGEMENT... LUMBAR ENLARGEMENT
Arthritis/Spinal Cord Final
osteoarthritis
juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
rheumatoid arthritis
fibromyalgia
wear and tear/degenerative joint disease
involves at least 6 weeks of persistent arthritis
autoimmune disease/no known cause
widespread pain affecting muscles and attachments to bone
osteoarthritis
wear and tear/degenerative joint disease
juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
involves at least 6 weeks of persistent arthritis
Neuro: Topography of the Spinal Cord, Reflexes and Muscle Tone
Spinal Meninges
Dura
Arachnoid spinal meninges
coccygeal ligament
wrapped around the spinal cord
spinal meninges on the outside (but not attached to the bone)
continuous around spinal cord from the brain
attached from the bottom of the dural sac to the end of the s…
Spinal Meninges
wrapped around the spinal cord
Dura
spinal meninges on the outside (but not attached to the bone)
136 terms
Spinal Cord Injury
common causes of spinal cord injuries
primary prevention for spinal cord inj…
C4 injury means
C6 injury means
motor vehicle accidents; falls; acts of violence; sports rela…
education (accident prevention, helmets etc.) and preventing…
quadriplegia and can't breathe if brain stem is affected
quadriplegia
common causes of spinal cord injuries
motor vehicle accidents; falls; acts of violence; sports rela…
primary prevention for spinal cord inj…
education (accident prevention, helmets etc.) and preventing…
38 terms
CVA & spinal cord injury
CVA
CVAs are
thromboembolic stroke patients are given
thrombolytic drugs include
destruction of brain cells due to decrease in cerebral blood…
thromboembolic [traveling clot] or hemorrhagic
thrombolytic drugs within 3 hours of onset of stroke
streptokinase ... tPa... Heparin and Lovenax... Warfarin for long-term…
CVA
destruction of brain cells due to decrease in cerebral blood…
CVAs are
thromboembolic [traveling clot] or hemorrhagic
67 terms
Traumatic Brain Injury & Spinal Cord Injury
Skull Fractures
Focal Injuries
Traumatic Brain Injury
Focal head injuries
♥Basal Skull Fracture... ♥Battle sign... ♥Raccoon eyes... ♥HALO sign
♥Concussion... ♥Contusions: "bruises" ... ♥Lacerations... ♥Penetrat…
∴Focal... 〉Coup/Countercoups injuries... 〉Direct impact injury... 〉…
identifiable, specific injuries (contusions, lacerations)
Skull Fractures
♥Basal Skull Fracture... ♥Battle sign... ♥Raccoon eyes... ♥HALO sign
Focal Injuries
♥Concussion... ♥Contusions: "bruises" ... ♥Lacerations... ♥Penetrat…
Spinal Cord
Spinal Cord
Pairs of cervical spinal nerves
Pairs of thoracic spinal nerves
Pairs of lumbar spinal nerves
The spinal cord is part of the central nervous system that is…
Eight pair of cervical spinal nerves
Twelve pair of thoracic spinal nerves
Five pair of lumbar spinal nerves
Spinal Cord
The spinal cord is part of the central nervous system that is…
Pairs of cervical spinal nerves
Eight pair of cervical spinal nerves
8 terms
Spinal Cord Injury Levels
L2-S5
T10-L1
T1-9
C7-C8
Movement: Stable Trunk, Partial/Full Control of LE... Weakness:…
Movement: Fair to Good Trunk Stability... Weakness: paralysis o…
Movement: UE fully in tact; limited U Trunk Stability, Endura…
Movement: Elbow /,Ulnar and wrist /, wrist flexion, finger fl…
L2-S5
Movement: Stable Trunk, Partial/Full Control of LE... Weakness:…
T10-L1
Movement: Fair to Good Trunk Stability... Weakness: paralysis o…
7 terms
(6) Macroscopic Anatomy of Spinal Cord
Spinal Column
31
8
12
18" in adult; begins at medulla oblongata & extends to L2 of…
_____ pairs of spinal nerves
_____ pair cervical
_____ pair thoracic
Spinal Column
18" in adult; begins at medulla oblongata & extends to L2 of…
31
_____ pairs of spinal nerves
49 terms
Spinal Cord Levels
C2
C3
C4
C5
"Adam's Apple" to back of head
Clavicle
Tops of shoulders
Biceps
C2
"Adam's Apple" to back of head
C3
Clavicle
17 terms
NBCOT Spinal Cord Injury Review
Functional abilities in patient with a…
OT tx plan for a patient with a C8-T1…
Biomechanical interventions for people…
Remedial intervention
-COMPLETE CONTROL over Arms and upper portion of ... the body... -…
-Postural supports for wheelchair... -wheelchair selection and f…
restorative or remedial
This intervention aims to stabilize or improve upon existing…
Functional abilities in patient with a…
-COMPLETE CONTROL over Arms and upper portion of ... the body... -…
OT tx plan for a patient with a C8-T1…
-Postural supports for wheelchair... -wheelchair selection and f…
40 terms
SPINAL CORD INJURY LEVELS
ASIA LEVEL: A
ASIA LEVEL: B
ASIA LEVEL: C
ASIA LEVEL: D
- COMPLETE... - NO SENSORY OR MOTOR FUNCTION PRESERVED IN S4-S5
- INCOMPLETE... - YES SENSORY BUT NO MOTOR FUNCTION PRESERVED BE…
- INCOMPLETE... - MOTOR FUNCTION IS PRESERVED BELOW NEUROLOGICAL…
- INCOMPLETE... - MOTOR FUNCTION IS PRESERVED BELOW NEUROLOGICAL…
ASIA LEVEL: A
- COMPLETE... - NO SENSORY OR MOTOR FUNCTION PRESERVED IN S4-S5
ASIA LEVEL: B
- INCOMPLETE... - YES SENSORY BUT NO MOTOR FUNCTION PRESERVED BE…
Spinal Cord Injury
What is SCI?
Causes of SCI
The Spinal Cord is protected by Verteb…
Injuries to the spinal cord (completel…
Injury to the spinal cord... Spinal cord:... Width of your pinky... Ve…
#1 Motor Vehicle Accidents, 37%... #2 Violence, 28%... #3 Falls 21%…
Cervical - 7... 8 nerves... Thoracic - 12... Lumbar - 5... Sacrum - 5
No sensations or movement below the point of injury.
What is SCI?
Injury to the spinal cord... Spinal cord:... Width of your pinky... Ve…
Causes of SCI
#1 Motor Vehicle Accidents, 37%... #2 Violence, 28%... #3 Falls 21%…
99 terms
Spinal Cord Injury
Spinal cord
What are the segments of the spinal co…
What is a spinal cord injury?
Paraplegia
Bundle of nerves that transmit sensory and movement signal to…
Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacral, Coccygeal (fused)
Damage to white matter or myelinated fiber tracts, leads to l…
Impairment in movement and sensation of the lower extremities
Spinal cord
Bundle of nerves that transmit sensory and movement signal to…
What are the segments of the spinal co…
Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacral, Coccygeal (fused)
18 terms
Spinal Cord Injury
C3 and Above
C3 and Above
C4
C4
Movement in neck and above. Loss of innervation to diaphragm,…
Ability to drive electric wheelchair equipped with portable v…
Sensation and movement in neck and above; may be able to brea…
Ability to drive electric wheelchair equipped with portable v…
C3 and Above
Movement in neck and above. Loss of innervation to diaphragm,…
C3 and Above
Ability to drive electric wheelchair equipped with portable v…
Types of occupational therapy splints
brachial plexus injury
radial nerve plasy
median nerve injury
ulnar nerve injury
flail arm splint
dynamic wrist, finger, and thumb extension splint
opponens splint, C-bar or thumb post splint
dynamic/static splint to position MPs in flexion
brachial plexus injury
flail arm splint
radial nerve plasy
dynamic wrist, finger, and thumb extension splint
22 terms
Types of occupational therapy splints
brachial plexus injury
radial nerve plasy
median nerve injury
ulnar nerve injury
flail arm splint
dynamic wrist, finger, and thumb extension splint
opponens splint, C-bar or thumb post splint
dynamic/static splint to position MPs in flexion
brachial plexus injury
flail arm splint
radial nerve plasy
dynamic wrist, finger, and thumb extension splint
Types of occupational therapy splints
brachial plexus injury
radial nerve plasy
median nerve injury
ulnar nerve injury
flail arm splint
dynamic wrist, finger, and thumb extension splint
opponens splint, C-bar or thumb post splint
dynamic/static splint to position MPs in flexion
brachial plexus injury
flail arm splint
radial nerve plasy
dynamic wrist, finger, and thumb extension splint
NBCOT Spinal CORD
Classification of SCI
ASIA A
ASIA B
ASIA C
The degree of impairment and severity is graded on ASIA scale…
Complete- No Sensory and No Motor function is preserved in sa…
Incomplete- sensory but no motor function is preserved below…
Incomplete, motor function is persevered below neurological l…
Classification of SCI
The degree of impairment and severity is graded on ASIA scale…
ASIA A
Complete- No Sensory and No Motor function is preserved in sa…
spinal cord injuries
spinal cord injuries
Segments of the Spinal Column
What is a spinal cord injury?
Spinal Cord Injury Classifications
Bundle of nerves that transmit sensory and movement signal to…
Cervical ... C1-8... Thoracic ... T1-T12... Lumbar... L1-L5... Sacral (fused)... S…
Damage to white matter or myelinated fiber tracts.... Leads to l…
Paraplegia - impairment in movement and sensation of the lowe…
spinal cord injuries
Bundle of nerves that transmit sensory and movement signal to…
Segments of the Spinal Column
Cervical ... C1-8... Thoracic ... T1-T12... Lumbar... L1-L5... Sacral (fused)... S…
25 terms
Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)
Etiology
Non traumatic cord injuries
classification of injury/ signs and sy…
complete, no sensory or motor function…
trauma to the spinal cord as a result of compression, shearin…
may be as a result of tumor, progressive degenerative disease
degree of impairment and severity of injury is graded using t…
A
Etiology
trauma to the spinal cord as a result of compression, shearin…
Non traumatic cord injuries
may be as a result of tumor, progressive degenerative disease
OTA 101: Introduction to Occupational Therapy - Module 6, Lecture 3 - Physical Dysfunction: Common Diagnoses
Brain injury
Brain Injury - CNS
Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)
Characteristics of SCI
Can result from a variety of causes including: trauma, cerebr…
Once a brain cell has died it does not regenerate. After an i…
Spinal cord injuries can be traumatic injuries, but can also…
• Motor & sensory loss below the level of the injury - at hig…
Brain injury
Can result from a variety of causes including: trauma, cerebr…
Brain Injury - CNS
Once a brain cell has died it does not regenerate. After an i…
22 terms
Types of occupational therapy splints
brachial plexus injury
radial nerve plasy
median nerve injury
ulnar nerve injury
flail arm splint
dynamic wrist, finger, and thumb extension splint
opponens splint, C-bar or thumb post splint
dynamic/static splint to position MPs in flexion
brachial plexus injury
flail arm splint
radial nerve plasy
dynamic wrist, finger, and thumb extension splint
17 terms
Spinal Cord Levels and functions
C1-C4
C1-C3
C4
C5
need 24-hour caregiver available, equipment includes mouth st…
sternocleidomastoid, can chew and swallow, ventilator dependent
neck movements and shoulder elevation, can use a long straw t…
may require 24 hour caregiver, has elbow flexion but not elbo…
C1-C4
need 24-hour caregiver available, equipment includes mouth st…
C1-C3
sternocleidomastoid, can chew and swallow, ventilator dependent
22 terms
Types of occupational therapy splints
brachial plexus injury
radial nerve plasy
median nerve injury
ulnar nerve injury
flail arm splint
dynamic wrist, finger, and thumb extension splint
opponens splint, C-bar or thumb post splint
dynamic/static splint to position MPs in flexion
brachial plexus injury
flail arm splint
radial nerve plasy
dynamic wrist, finger, and thumb extension splint
50 terms
Chapter 27 Spinal Cord Injury
What is a Tetraplegic?
What is a Paraplegic
What is a Complete Injury?
What is an Incomplete Injury?
Any degree of paralysis of the four limbs and trunk muscles
A paralysis of the (LE) with some involvement of the trunk an…
Total paralysis and loss of sensation result from a complete…
Some of the sensory or motor nerve pathways below the levels…
What is a Tetraplegic?
Any degree of paralysis of the four limbs and trunk muscles
What is a Paraplegic
A paralysis of the (LE) with some involvement of the trunk an…
22 terms
Types of occupational therapy splints
brachial plexus injury
radial nerve plasy
median nerve injury
ulnar nerve injury
flail arm splint
dynamic wrist, finger, and thumb extension splint
opponens splint, C-bar or thumb post splint
dynamic/static splint to position MPs in flexion
brachial plexus injury
flail arm splint
radial nerve plasy
dynamic wrist, finger, and thumb extension splint
22 terms
Types of occupational therapy splints
brachial plexus injury
radial nerve plasy
median nerve injury
ulnar nerve injury
flail arm splint
dynamic wrist, finger, and thumb extension splint
opponens splint, C-bar or thumb post splint
dynamic/static splint to position MPs in flexion
brachial plexus injury
flail arm splint
radial nerve plasy
dynamic wrist, finger, and thumb extension splint
41 terms
6: Spinal Cord Injury
Complete Injury
Incomplete Injury
SCI
SCI Facts
-total paralysis and total loss of sensation below the level…
-there is some degree of perseveration in the sensory or moto…
-trauma or damage to the spinal cord, the major column of ner…
-10,000 new SCIs occur each year in the US... -about 250,000 peo…
Complete Injury
-total paralysis and total loss of sensation below the level…
Incomplete Injury
-there is some degree of perseveration in the sensory or moto…
33 terms
NBCOT REVIEW Ch 5: Spinal Cord Injury
What is the ASIA Impairment Scale?
What is ASIA A?
What is ASIA B?
What is ASIA C?
A scale that grades the degree of impairment and severity of…
Complete SCI, no sensory or motor function preserved in the s…
Incomplete SCI, sensory but no motor function preserved below…
Incomplete SCI, motor function is preserved below the neurolo…
What is the ASIA Impairment Scale?
A scale that grades the degree of impairment and severity of…
What is ASIA A?
Complete SCI, no sensory or motor function preserved in the s…
AN III: Spinal Cord Injury
Vertebral Column
Spinal cord
Quadriplegia/Tetraplegia
Paraplegia
Consists of 33 vertebrae... 1) 7 cervical (C1 through C7)... 2) 12…
1) Gray matter-consists of the bodies of nerve cells that con…
High cervical spine injuries; loss of motor and sensory funct…
Injuries at or below T2 may cause paralysis of the lower part…
Vertebral Column
Consists of 33 vertebrae... 1) 7 cervical (C1 through C7)... 2) 12…
Spinal cord
1) Gray matter-consists of the bodies of nerve cells that con…
Gutman Section 7: Spinal Cord Anatomy
Boundaries of the Spinal Cord
Enlargements of the Spinal Cord
Anterior Median Fissure
Dorsal Median Sulcus
extend from the foramen magnum to the conus medullaris (at th…
The SC has an hourglass shape. Enlargements occur at the cerv…
continues from the anterior aspect of the medulla to the end…
continues from the posterior aspect of the medulla to the end…
Boundaries of the Spinal Cord
extend from the foramen magnum to the conus medullaris (at th…
Enlargements of the Spinal Cord
The SC has an hourglass shape. Enlargements occur at the cerv…
spinal cord
what is the grey matter of the spinal…
what do the anterior horns contain?
what are the 2 motor neurons of the an…
what does the posterior horn contain?
two anterior and two posterior horns united by gray commissur…
cell bodies that give rise to efferent (motor) neurons
alpha- muscles... gamma- muscle spindles
afferent (sensory) neurons
what is the grey matter of the spinal…
two anterior and two posterior horns united by gray commissur…
what do the anterior horns contain?
cell bodies that give rise to efferent (motor) neurons
10 terms
Test 4 CNS: The Spinal Cord
Dura mater
Arachnoid
Pia mater
Arachnoid and Pia mater
Outermost layer of meninges
Middle layer of meninges
Innermost layer of meninges
Between what two layers of meninges is the CSF found?
Dura mater
Outermost layer of meninges
Arachnoid
Middle layer of meninges
30 terms
Spinal Cord Injury
28.7
31.7 years old
42.6 years old
occupational status
Average age of SCI from 1973-1979
between 2005-2008, average age of SCI was?
since 2015, injury average age is?
more than half reported being employed at the time of their i…
28.7
Average age of SCI from 1973-1979
31.7 years old
between 2005-2008, average age of SCI was?
144 terms
Occupational Therapy Glossary of Terms
The inability to identify an object us…
The inability to express thoughts in w…
The inability to read
Lack of memory about events occurring…
Agnosia
Agraphia
Alexia
Amnesia
The inability to identify an object us…
Agnosia
The inability to express thoughts in w…
Agraphia
72 terms
Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)
Grading scale for degree of impairment…
A
B
C
ASIA impairment scale
Complete, no sensory or motor function is preserved in the sa…
Incomplete, sensory but no motor function is preserved below…
Incomplete, motor function is preserved below the neurologica…
Grading scale for degree of impairment…
ASIA impairment scale
A
Complete, no sensory or motor function is preserved in the sa…
Spinal Cord Chapter 36
Paraplegia
The level of SCI designates the last f…
After SCI, the individual enters a sta…
The spinal cord is usually not damaged…
paralysis of LE
True: For example, C6 refers to the sixth ... neurologic segment…
The bladder and bowel are atonic or ... flaccid. Deep tendon ref…
monosynaptic reflex arc
Paraplegia
paralysis of LE
The level of SCI designates the last f…
True: For example, C6 refers to the sixth ... neurologic segment…
32 terms
Spinal cord injury( Intervention), O'Sullivan text
PT Examination after Spinal Cord injur…
ASIA scale
Respiratory Examination
Integumentary examination
includes: 1. Respiratory function, 2. Skin condition, 3. Sens…
used for examining and documenting
1. Muscle strength and tone of diaphragm 2. abdominals 3. Int…
visual, observation and palpable examination of pressure pron…
PT Examination after Spinal Cord injur…
includes: 1. Respiratory function, 2. Skin condition, 3. Sens…
ASIA scale
used for examining and documenting
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