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Study sets matching "oceanography chapter 3"

56 terms
Oceanography Chapter 3
asthenosphere
basalt
buoyancy
catastrophism
The hot, plastic layer of the upper mantle below the lithosph…
The relatively heavy crustal rock that forms the seabeds, com…
The ability of an object to float in a fluid by displacement…
The theory that Earth's surface features are formed by catast…
asthenosphere
The hot, plastic layer of the upper mantle below the lithosph…
basalt
The relatively heavy crustal rock that forms the seabeds, com…
Essentials of Oceanography: Chapter 3
Ocean Provinces
passive margins
active margins
Continental margin parts
1) Continental margins... 2) Deep ocean margins (abyssal plains)…
lack major tectonic activity since they are in the center of…
near lithospheric plate boundaries and have high degrees of t…
1) continental shelf- flat gradual slope... 2) shelf break- poin…
Ocean Provinces
1) Continental margins... 2) Deep ocean margins (abyssal plains)…
passive margins
lack major tectonic activity since they are in the center of…
61 terms
Oceanography Chapter 3
[85] Abyssal hill
[88] Abyssal hill province
[87] Abyssal plain
[82] Active margin
A volcanic peak rising less than 1 kilo meter (0.6 mile) abov…
A deep ocean region, particularly in the Pacific Ocean, where…
A flat depositional surface extending seaward from the contin…
A continental margin marked by a high degree of tectonic acti…
[85] Abyssal hill
A volcanic peak rising less than 1 kilo meter (0.6 mile) abov…
[88] Abyssal hill province
A deep ocean region, particularly in the Pacific Ocean, where…
32 terms
Oceanography Chapter 3: Plate Tectonics
density
core
outer core
mantle
weight/volume
5 times more dense than crust, solid because of pressure
almost liquid, slow moving, creates magnetic field around earth
70% of earths volume, solid but can be moved
density
weight/volume
core
5 times more dense than crust, solid because of pressure
Oceanography Chapter 3
Earth structure
Seismic waves: S and P waves
Alfred Wegener
Pangaea
Crust, mantle, outer core (liquid), inner core
Elastic disturbances, or vibrations, that are generated by ea…
Proposed Pangaea and Panthalassa (one ocean) in 1912 but didn…
An ancient landmass the consisted of all of the present day c…
Earth structure
Crust, mantle, outer core (liquid), inner core
Seismic waves: S and P waves
Elastic disturbances, or vibrations, that are generated by ea…
9 terms
Oceanography: Chapter 3
Describe Wegener's theory of continent…
What are seismic waves? Describe two t…
What is seafloor spreading and what ca…
What is the theory of plate tectonics,…
- He said all earths land had once been joined into a single…
- Low fequency wave generated by the forces that cause earthq…
Theory that new ocean crust forms at spreading centers, most…
earths outer layer consists of about a dozen separate major l…
Describe Wegener's theory of continent…
- He said all earths land had once been joined into a single…
What are seismic waves? Describe two t…
- Low fequency wave generated by the forces that cause earthq…
56 terms
Oceanography Garrison Text Chapter 3
asthenosphere
basalt
buoyancy
catastrophism
The hot, plastic layer of the upper mantle below the lithosph…
The relatively heavy crustal rock that forms the seabeds, com…
The ability of an object to float in a fluid by displacement…
The theory that Earth's surface features are formed by catast…
asthenosphere
The hot, plastic layer of the upper mantle below the lithosph…
basalt
The relatively heavy crustal rock that forms the seabeds, com…
56 terms
Oceanography (Garrison) Chapter 3
asthenosphere
basalt
buoyancy
catastrophism
The hot, plastic layer of the upper mantle below the lithosph…
The relatively heavy crustal rock that forms the seabeds, com…
The ability of an object to float in a fluid by displacement…
The theory that Earth's surface features are formed by catast…
asthenosphere
The hot, plastic layer of the upper mantle below the lithosph…
basalt
The relatively heavy crustal rock that forms the seabeds, com…
23 terms
Chapter 3 Oceanography Review
a 0 on a ph scale is
a 7 on a ph scale is
a 14 on a ph scale is
how does the salinity of seawater affe…
acidic
neutral
basic
high salinity high density
a 0 on a ph scale is
acidic
a 7 on a ph scale is
neutral
21 terms
Oceanography chapter 3
continental margins
Deep-ocean basins
Mid-ocean ridges
Bathymetry
- shallow (200 m) , close to land
-deep and further from land
-tall volcanic mountain range running along divergent plate b…
A measurement of the ocean depths and charting of the shape (…
continental margins
- shallow (200 m) , close to land
Deep-ocean basins
-deep and further from land
57 terms
Chapter 3 Oceanography
Precision Depth Recorder (PDF)
confirm
Multibeam Echo Sounders
Seabeam
The first reliable sea floor maps were produced using _______…
The Precision Depth Recorder (PDR) helped ___________ sea flo…
multiple simultaneous sound frequencies
What was the first multibeam echo sounder?
Precision Depth Recorder (PDF)
The first reliable sea floor maps were produced using _______…
confirm
The Precision Depth Recorder (PDR) helped ___________ sea flo…
18 terms
Chapter 3, Oceanography
Crust
Oceanic Crust
Continental Crust
Mantle
Uppermost layer of Earth; lightweight and brittle
Mostly basalt (heavy, dark rock made of O2, silicon, magnesiu…
Mostly granite (O2, silicon, aluminum)
Layer beneath the crust; mainly consists of O2, iron, magnesi…
Crust
Uppermost layer of Earth; lightweight and brittle
Oceanic Crust
Mostly basalt (heavy, dark rock made of O2, silicon, magnesiu…
24 terms
Oceanography Chapter 3
crust
lithosphere
hot spot
plate tectonics
outer most layer of earth
the crust and rigid upper mantle
plumes of molten rock rise from deep within the mantle
lithosphere is broken into many parts, heat escaping from the…
crust
outer most layer of earth
lithosphere
the crust and rigid upper mantle
35 terms
Oceanography Chapter 3
Chapter Overview
Bathymetry
Measuring Bathymetry
Soundings
The study of bathymetry determines ocean depths and ocean flo…
Measures the vertical distance from the ocean surface to moun…
Below:
Poseidonus made first sounding in 85 B.C. ... Line with heavy we…
Chapter Overview
The study of bathymetry determines ocean depths and ocean flo…
Bathymetry
Measures the vertical distance from the ocean surface to moun…
46 terms
Oceanography Garrison Chapter 3
Because each layer is denser than the…
Waves that can move through the earth…
Seismic waves that move along the surf…
What are the two types of seismic body…
density stratified
seismic waves
surface wavesW
S waves... P waves
Because each layer is denser than the…
density stratified
Waves that can move through the earth…
seismic waves
52 terms
Oceanography chapter 3
Imagine you are a geological oceanogra…
Satellite measurements of the ocean su…
Satellites are used to map the ocean f…
The two relatively flat areas on the h…
side-scan sonar
true
all of the above are correct
some interior continental areas/coastal plains and abyssal pl…
Imagine you are a geological oceanogra…
side-scan sonar
Satellite measurements of the ocean su…
true
44 terms
Oceanography Chapter 3
The lecture in 1912 based on Alfred We…
What was the reason that continental d…
The tropical plant remains found in th…
The mechanism that broke up Pangaea an…
Continental Drift. Believed all the landmass were once connec…
Thought the Earth was a solid
Pangea (Continental Drift)
Seafloor spreading
The lecture in 1912 based on Alfred We…
Continental Drift. Believed all the landmass were once connec…
What was the reason that continental d…
Thought the Earth was a solid
42 terms
Chapter 3 oceanography
The lecture in 1912 based on Alfred we…
What was the reason that continental d…
The fit of the shoreline, presence of…
The mechanism that broke up Pangaea an…
He purposes a theory called continental drift. He believed th…
It was geology's view of earth's mantle. Saying that there is…
continental drift.
plate tectonic
The lecture in 1912 based on Alfred we…
He purposes a theory called continental drift. He believed th…
What was the reason that continental d…
It was geology's view of earth's mantle. Saying that there is…
55 terms
Oceanography Chapter 3
Abyssal Hill
Abyssal Hill Province
Abyssal Plain
Active Margin
A volcanic peak rising less than 1 kilometer above the ocean…
A deep-ocean region, particularly in the Pacific Ocean, where…
A flat depositional surface extending seaward from the contin…
A continental margin marked by a high degree of tectonic acti…
Abyssal Hill
A volcanic peak rising less than 1 kilometer above the ocean…
Abyssal Hill Province
A deep-ocean region, particularly in the Pacific Ocean, where…
25 terms
Oceanography Chapter 3
Bathymetry
Echo sounder
Satellite
Seismic reflection profiles
measurement of the ocean depths and the charting of the shape…
sends ping from ship downward
modern measurement that can observe large areas at a time
using sound waves to show underground rock, used for mineral…
Bathymetry
measurement of the ocean depths and the charting of the shape…
Echo sounder
sends ping from ship downward
47 terms
Oceanography - Chapter 3
Imagine you are a geological oceanogra…
Satellite measurements of the ocean su…
Satellites are used to map the ocean f…
The two relatively flat areas on the h…
side-scan sonar
True
All the above statements are correct.
some interior continental areas/coastal plains and abyssal pl…
Imagine you are a geological oceanogra…
side-scan sonar
Satellite measurements of the ocean su…
True
32 terms
Oceanography - chapter 3
The continental rise is a product of
Inactive volcanic seamounts on top of…
Flat-topped, submerged seamounts are r…
Surface coral formations growing aroun…
sedimentation
subside with time.
guyots
atolls
The continental rise is a product of
sedimentation
Inactive volcanic seamounts on top of…
subside with time.
36 terms
Oceanography Chapter 3
Emits a high-frequency sound beam to m…
Method used most frequently to investi…
Satellites are used to map the ocean f…
The two relatively flat areas on the h…
precision-depth recorder
sound waves
all are correct
interiorcontinental areas/abyssal plains on the ocean floor
Emits a high-frequency sound beam to m…
precision-depth recorder
Method used most frequently to investi…
sound waves
15 terms
Essentials of Oceanography: Chapter 3
Ocean Provinces
passive margins
active margins
Continental margin parts
1) Continental margins... 2) Deep ocean margins (abyssal plains)…
lack major tectonic activity since they are in the center of…
near lithospheric plate boundaries and have high degrees of t…
1) continental shelf- flat gradual slope... 2) shelf break- poin…
Ocean Provinces
1) Continental margins... 2) Deep ocean margins (abyssal plains)…
passive margins
lack major tectonic activity since they are in the center of…
27 terms
6G Oceanography: Chapter 3 Currents, Waves, and Tides
surface currents
Earth rotation
Coriolis effect
trade winds
A horizontal movement of ocean water that is caused by wind a…
the amount of time it takes Earth to spin once on its axis -…
The effect of Earth's rotation on the direction of winds and…
Global winds that flow toward the equator, turning west as th…
surface currents
A horizontal movement of ocean water that is caused by wind a…
Earth rotation
the amount of time it takes Earth to spin once on its axis -…
35 terms
oceanography chapter 3
w/o layers, waves
earth's internal heating is caused by
radioactive sources drive
what sank to the core?
cn bend
radioactive sources
convection and plate tectonics
iron and nickel
w/o layers, waves
cn bend
earth's internal heating is caused by
radioactive sources
37 terms
Oceanography Chapter Three
Asthenospphere
Basalt
Conduction
Continental crust
The hot, plastic layer of the upper mantle below the lithosph…
A dark, dense, igneous rock with a fine texture, found in oce…
Energy is passed from atom to atom through direct contact
The portion of the earth's crust that primarily contains gran…
Asthenospphere
The hot, plastic layer of the upper mantle below the lithosph…
Basalt
A dark, dense, igneous rock with a fine texture, found in oce…
75 terms
Oceanography Chapter 3 Study Guide
What is the name of the deepest trench?
What ocean is the deepest trench in?
What is the name of the boat that set…
How did the crew on the HMS Challenger…
Mariana's Trench
The Western Pacific
HMS Challenger
By using ropes and heavy weights
What is the name of the deepest trench?
Mariana's Trench
What ocean is the deepest trench in?
The Western Pacific
56 terms
Oceanography (Garrison) Chapter 3
asthenosphere
basalt
buoyancy
catastrophism
The hot, plastic layer of the upper mantle below the lithosph…
The relatively heavy crustal rock that forms the seabeds, com…
The ability of an object to float in a fluid by displacement…
The theory that Earth's surface features are formed by catast…
asthenosphere
The hot, plastic layer of the upper mantle below the lithosph…
basalt
The relatively heavy crustal rock that forms the seabeds, com…
54 terms
Oceanography: Chapter 3 Marine Provinces
Abyssal Hill
Abyssal Hill Province
Abyssal Plain
Active Margin
small, rolling hills next to the oceanic ridge systems
areas of abyssal seafloor occupied extensively by abyssal hills
broad, flat portion of the deep-ocean basin
usually narrow and consisting of highly deformed sediments. t…
Abyssal Hill
small, rolling hills next to the oceanic ridge systems
Abyssal Hill Province
areas of abyssal seafloor occupied extensively by abyssal hills
15 terms
Essentials of Oceanography: Chapter 3
Ocean Provinces
passive margins
active margins
Continental margin parts
1) Continental margins... 2) Deep ocean margins (abyssal plains)…
lack major tectonic activity since they are in the center of…
near lithospheric plate boundaries and have high degrees of t…
1) continental shelf- flat gradual slope... 2) shelf break- poin…
Ocean Provinces
1) Continental margins... 2) Deep ocean margins (abyssal plains)…
passive margins
lack major tectonic activity since they are in the center of…
11 terms
Oceanography Chapter 3 EFSC
What did Alfred Wegner propose?
Which one is not one of the 4 layers o…
How is the Earth's interior warmed?
What is convergence?
tectonic drift
tertiary core
from radiation
when two plate collide
What did Alfred Wegner propose?
tectonic drift
Which one is not one of the 4 layers o…
tertiary core
50 terms
Oceanography: An Invitation to Marine Science; Chapter 3
Alfred Wegener
continental drift
Pangaea
Panthalassa
...
The theory that the continents move slowly across the surface…
Name given by Alfred Wegener to the original "protocontinent"…
Name given by Alfred Wegener to the ocean surrounding Pangaea
Alfred Wegener
...
continental drift
The theory that the continents move slowly across the surface…
13 terms
Oceanography Exam Chapter 3
CC 3.1.1. Bathymetry
CC 3.1.2. Describe how an echo sounder…
CC 3.2.1. Describe the major features…
CC 3.2.2. How are submarine canyons cr…
measurement of the ocean depths and topography of the ocean f…
Or fathomer, sends a sound signal (ping) from a boat to the o…
Shelf is a flat zone extending from the shore to the slope, S…
Turbidity currents are so powerful they carved out the submar…
CC 3.1.1. Bathymetry
measurement of the ocean depths and topography of the ocean f…
CC 3.1.2. Describe how an echo sounder…
Or fathomer, sends a sound signal (ping) from a boat to the o…
10 terms
Oceanography Chapter 3
Heterotrophs
Autotrophs
Pelagic Ocean
Nertic Zone
organisms that rely on consuming compounds to obtain chemical…
create organic chemical energy compounds and an external ener…
water column portion ... divided into two horizontal zones
water area between the low tide mark to the edge of the conti…
Heterotrophs
organisms that rely on consuming compounds to obtain chemical…
Autotrophs
create organic chemical energy compounds and an external ener…
86 terms
Oceanography Chapter 3
abyssal plain
seamounts, trenches, mid-ocean ridge s…
hydrothermal vents and deep sea hot sp…
water comes through with lots of disso…
the deep sea floor is also called...
name 3 things found on the deep sea floor
Sea water heated by the mantle is forced through the rift of…
How is a black smoker formed?
abyssal plain
the deep sea floor is also called...
seamounts, trenches, mid-ocean ridge s…
name 3 things found on the deep sea floor
55 terms
Oceanography Chapter 3
Absolute Dating
Asthenosphere
Basalt
Body Wave
Determining the age of a geological sample by calculating rad…
The hot, plastic layer of the upper mantle below the lithosph…
The relatively heavy crustal rock that forms the seabeds, com…
Seismic waves that travel through Earth's interior
Absolute Dating
Determining the age of a geological sample by calculating rad…
Asthenosphere
The hot, plastic layer of the upper mantle below the lithosph…
42 terms
Oceanography Chapter 3
Bathymetry
Precision-depth recorder (PDR)
Submarine canyon
Continental margin
Measurement of ocean depth and seafloor topography
Uses high frequency sound waves to measure ocean depth
Narrow and deep valleys on continental slopes
Shallow-water areas close to continents
Bathymetry
Measurement of ocean depth and seafloor topography
Precision-depth recorder (PDR)
Uses high frequency sound waves to measure ocean depth
8 terms
Chapter 3 Oceanography
Scientists may classify _______ ______…
The ______ zone refers to the water po…
The zone between the low tide mark and…
The zone of deep water in the open oce…
marine environments
pelagic , benthic
neritic
bathypelagic
Scientists may classify _______ ______…
marine environments
The ______ zone refers to the water po…
pelagic , benthic
14 terms
Oceanography Chapter 3
Latitude
longitude
parallels
meridians
East-west lines parallel to the equator used to measure dista…
Imaginary lines running from north to south, or up and down,…
Lines of latitude
Another name for lines of longitude
Latitude
East-west lines parallel to the equator used to measure dista…
longitude
Imaginary lines running from north to south, or up and down,…
Chapter 3- Oceanography
Ring of Fire
Radiometric Dating
Seafloor Spreading
Convection Currents
earthquake and volcano belt around the Pacific Ocean
dating of objects based on the predictable rate of radioactiv…
new ocean crust forms at spreading centers (mid-ocean ridges)…
slow flowing circuits of material within the mantle
Ring of Fire
earthquake and volcano belt around the Pacific Ocean
Radiometric Dating
dating of objects based on the predictable rate of radioactiv…
60 terms
Oceanography Chapter 3
temperature
heat
warmer to colder
ice, liquid, vapor
___ is directly proportional to the average kinetic energy of…
when energy moves between two objects of different temperature
heat energy is always transfered from _____ __ _____
water's three phases
temperature
___ is directly proportional to the average kinetic energy of…
heat
when energy moves between two objects of different temperature
36 terms
Chapter 3 oceanography
Granite
Basalt
Isostasy
Absolute dating
A light colored igneous rock charasterics of the continental…
A dark colored volcanic rock characteristic of the ocean crust
A condition of equilibrium comparable to buoyancy in which th…
The use of radioisotope half lives to determine the age of ro…
Granite
A light colored igneous rock charasterics of the continental…
Basalt
A dark colored volcanic rock characteristic of the ocean crust
16 terms
Oceanography chapter 3
abyssal plain
active margin
black smoker
continental arc
flat depositional surface extending seaward from the continen…
continental margin marked by a high degree of tectonic activi…
hydrothermal vent on the ocean floor that emits a black cloud…
arc-shaped row of active volcanoes produced by subduction tha…
abyssal plain
flat depositional surface extending seaward from the continen…
active margin
continental margin marked by a high degree of tectonic activi…
55 terms
Oceanography Chapter 3
Abyssal Hill
Abyssal Hill Province
Abyssal Plain
Active Margin
A volcanic peak rising less than 1 kilometer above the ocean…
A deep-ocean region, particularly in the Pacific Ocean, where…
A flat depositional surface extending seaward from the contin…
A continental margin marked by a high degree of tectonic acti…
Abyssal Hill
A volcanic peak rising less than 1 kilometer above the ocean…
Abyssal Hill Province
A deep-ocean region, particularly in the Pacific Ocean, where…
51 terms
Oceanography Chapter 3
Alfred Wegner
Continental Drift
Pangea
Panthalassa
German meteorologist and polar explorer, proposed the theory…
Theory suggesting that all Earth's land had once been joined…
Giant supercontinent consisting of all earth's land
Ocean surrounding Pangea
Alfred Wegner
German meteorologist and polar explorer, proposed the theory…
Continental Drift
Theory suggesting that all Earth's land had once been joined…
14 terms
oceanography exam 1 chapter 3
gravity
passive margin
active margin
ocean basins, abyssal plain, coastal p…
causes sea level to rise or fall above bathymetric features
divergent- wide shelf, slope, and rise
convergent- narrow shelf, slope, trench, tectonic movement
what regions represent the largest areas on earths surface?
gravity
causes sea level to rise or fall above bathymetric features
passive margin
divergent- wide shelf, slope, and rise
52 terms
Oceanography chapter 3
Imagine you are a geological oceanogra…
Satellite measurements of the ocean su…
Satellites are used to map the ocean f…
The two relatively flat areas on the h…
side-scan sonar
true
all of the above are correct
some interior continental areas/coastal plains and abyssal pl…
Imagine you are a geological oceanogra…
side-scan sonar
Satellite measurements of the ocean su…
true
20 terms
Oceanography Chapter 3 vocab
asthenosphere
Catastrophism
Conduction
Continental crust
the upper layer of earth's mantle, below the lithosphere, in…
the theory that changes in the earth's crust during geologica…
the process by which heat or electricity is directly transmit…
relatively thick part of earth's crust that causes large land…
asthenosphere
the upper layer of earth's mantle, below the lithosphere, in…
Catastrophism
the theory that changes in the earth's crust during geologica…
Oceanography Chapter 3
Absolute Dating
Asthenosphere
Basalt
Body Wave
Determining the age of a geological sample by calculating rad…
The hot, plastic layer of the upper mantle below the lithosph…
The relatively heavy crustal rock that forms the seabeds, com…
Seismic waves that travel through Earth's interior. P waves a…
Absolute Dating
Determining the age of a geological sample by calculating rad…
Asthenosphere
The hot, plastic layer of the upper mantle below the lithosph…
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