How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

Study sets matching "oncology"

Study sets
Classes
Users

Study sets matching "oncology"

73 terms
Oncology
Most common soft tissue tumor: benign…
Enneking classification of benign bone…
Enneking classification of malignant b…
AJCC classification for bone tumors
Benign: lipoma... Malignant: undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcom…
Stage Tumor Grade Tumor Size... IA Low <8cm... IB Low >8cm... IIA High…
Most common soft tissue tumor: benign…
Benign: lipoma... Malignant: undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcom…
Enneking classification of benign bone…
57 terms
Oncology
CML... - increased basophils
CML... "Pseudo-Gaucher cells" aka "Sea-bl…
CML... Micro-megakaryocytes = small, sing…
Polycythemia Vera... - spread out cells
CML... - increased basophils
CML... "Pseudo-Gaucher cells" aka "Sea-bl…
15 terms
Oncology
Non-Myelosuppressive
Nausea & Vomiting
Mucositis
Diarrhea
Asparaginase, Bleomycin, Vincristine, MAB, TKI
Cisplatin, Doxo/Epi-Rubicin, Cytoxan, Ifosfamide
5-FU, Capecitabine, Irinotecan, MTX
5-FU, Capecitabine, Irinotecan, TKI
Non-Myelosuppressive
Asparaginase, Bleomycin, Vincristine, MAB, TKI
Nausea & Vomiting
Cisplatin, Doxo/Epi-Rubicin, Cytoxan, Ifosfamide
86 terms
Oncology
Carcinoma
Sarcoma
Leukemia
Lymphoma and myeloma
begins in skin or tissues covering or lining internal organs
begins in bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels or othe…
begins in blood forming tissue such as the bone marrow and la…
begin in the cells of the immune system
Carcinoma
begins in skin or tissues covering or lining internal organs
Sarcoma
begins in bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels or othe…
Oncology
invasive growth
direct extension
tumors
occult
spreading process of a malignant tumor
multiplication of malignant cells
neoplasms
hidden
invasive growth
spreading process of a malignant tumor
direct extension
multiplication of malignant cells
125 terms
Oncology
Staging system for solid tumors
Which of the following is not an appro…
To perform pathologic staging of a sol…
Primary therapy
tumor, lymph node, metastasis (TNM)... stage 0: carcinoma in si…
D) Biopsy... Biopsies should never be performed as initial scre…
Biospy sample of the tumor.... Pathologic staging makes use of…
initial and mainstay approach to treat cancer... usually consis…
Staging system for solid tumors
tumor, lymph node, metastasis (TNM)... stage 0: carcinoma in si…
Which of the following is not an appro…
D) Biopsy... Biopsies should never be performed as initial scre…
31 terms
Oncology
Cellular Proliferation
Cellular Differentiation (defective)
Classification of Cancer
Characteristics of a Malignant Tumor
Loss of contact inhibition, rate of cancer cell grown is the…
Protooncogenes (promote growth), Oncogenes (tumor producing g…
Neoplasm ('new tissue'), ... tumor, ... benign tumor (uniform size,…
Anaplasia (lack of differentiation), Invasiveness (local), Me…
Cellular Proliferation
Loss of contact inhibition, rate of cancer cell grown is the…
Cellular Differentiation (defective)
Protooncogenes (promote growth), Oncogenes (tumor producing g…
9 terms
Oncology
For which cancers do we have a general…
What is the part of cancers in Sweden…
Number of patients diagnosed with canc…
Which is the most common diagnosis in…
Breast... Cervical
20%
57000
Prostate cancer
For which cancers do we have a general…
Breast... Cervical
What is the part of cancers in Sweden…
20%
40 terms
Oncology
Oncology
Human papillomavirus
Mitosis
Apoptosis
Study of a cancer cell
HPV
Process by which a cell divides
Programmed cell death in which the p53 gene directs the cell…
Oncology
Study of a cancer cell
Human papillomavirus
HPV
Oncology
Prostate cancer
Normal PSA level
Common type of lung cancer in non-smoker
Oat cell lung carcinoma (small cell ca…
Dx: DRE - digital rectal exam... Tx: localized - prostatectomy…
less than 4 ng/ml
Lung adenocarcinoma
cough, hoarseness, wieght loss, SEIDH
Prostate cancer
Dx: DRE - digital rectal exam... Tx: localized - prostatectomy…
Normal PSA level
less than 4 ng/ml
64 terms
Oncology
Four most common cancers
Cancer
cellular changes
Tumor
PFLC... -prostate... -female breast ancer... -lung/ bronchus cancer... -c…
-cell differentiation : normal cells develop to form differen…
dysplasia: disorganization of cells, adult cell is abnormal... -…
-abnormal growth of tissue - does not serve purpose... -benign/…
Four most common cancers
PFLC... -prostate... -female breast ancer... -lung/ bronchus cancer... -c…
Cancer
-cell differentiation : normal cells develop to form differen…
85 terms
Oncology
aim of chemotherapy
ideal properties of chemotherapeutic a…
general side effects of chemotherapy
acute tumour lysis syndrome
prolong survival, maintain quality of life
selectivity kill all cancer cells with minimal side effects
bone marrow suppression (anaemia), alopecia, GI upset
drugs work so well that intracellular ion release can cause a…
aim of chemotherapy
prolong survival, maintain quality of life
ideal properties of chemotherapeutic a…
selectivity kill all cancer cells with minimal side effects
10 terms
Oncology
to spread
to get worse
cell
tumor
to propagate
to spread
to propagate
to get worse
59 terms
**Oncology
How do you obtain tissue for pathologi…
What is FNA?
What are advantages and disadvantages…
What is a punch biopsy?
Fine needle aspiration (guided or unguided)... Punch biopsy (cli…
Fine needle aspiration (biopsy)... A small bore needle is intro…
Advantages... --Minimally invasive tissue diagnosis... --Low risk t…
Under local anesthetic, small circular cutting needle is used…
How do you obtain tissue for pathologi…
Fine needle aspiration (guided or unguided)... Punch biopsy (cli…
What is FNA?
Fine needle aspiration (biopsy)... A small bore needle is intro…
90 terms
Oncology
Study of tumors
Cancer is the __ leading cause of deat…
Six risk factors that predispose to ca…
83% of persons with lung cancer were ___
oncology
second
1. Smoking... 2. Dietary Habits... 3. Exposure to Radiation... 4.Expos…
smokers.
Study of tumors
oncology
Cancer is the __ leading cause of deat…
second
35 terms
Oncology
Cancer
Etiology of cancer
Statistics
Characteristics of malignancy
group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell prolifer…
Genetic factors- oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, telomers…
Men- prostate highest but lung kills the most... Women- breast h…
uncontrolled division... abnormal appearance and funcitno... Abilit…
Cancer
group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell prolifer…
Etiology of cancer
Genetic factors- oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, telomers…
69 terms
Oncology
Cancer
Metastasis & how? (3)
Differentiation
Dysplasia "plasia" formation
Normal body cells---->... Mutate and Replicate to form Tumors
Cells may migrate to other locations via ... 1.direct contact wi…
Normal cells undergo-->... Physical and Structural changes as th…
Disorganization of cells--->... Adult cell varies from its ... 1. N…
Cancer
Normal body cells---->... Mutate and Replicate to form Tumors
Metastasis & how? (3)
Cells may migrate to other locations via ... 1.direct contact wi…
40 terms
Oncology
Oncology
Human papillomavirus
Mitosis
Apoptosis
Study of a cancer cell
HPV
Process by which a cell divides
Programmed cell death in which the p53 gene directs the cell…
Oncology
Study of a cancer cell
Human papillomavirus
HPV
101 terms
Oncology
Treatment: Breast Cancer - Ductal Carc…
Treatment: Breast Cancer - Invasive Br…
Treatment: Prostate Cancer
Treatment: Lung Cancer, NSCLC
DCIS/Stage 0;... -local breast-conserving therapy, i.e.: lumpect…
IBC:... -mastectomy and sentinel lymph node evaluation or, -lump…
...
NSCLC Stage I - II ... -Lobectomy;... -resected stage II postoperat…
Treatment: Breast Cancer - Ductal Carc…
DCIS/Stage 0;... -local breast-conserving therapy, i.e.: lumpect…
Treatment: Breast Cancer - Invasive Br…
IBC:... -mastectomy and sentinel lymph node evaluation or, -lump…
29 terms
Oncology
What defines non Hodgkin's lymphoma
What is the most common type of non Ho…
What cells are present in Hodgkin's ly…
Causes of non Hodgkin's lymphoma
All lymphoma without reed Sternberg cells
Reed-Sternberg cells (they look like owls)
Immunodeficiency drugs... HIV... H.pylori... Toxins... Congenital... HTLV-1
What defines non Hodgkin's lymphoma
All lymphoma without reed Sternberg cells
What is the most common type of non Ho…
41 terms
Oncology
REVIEW: A woman presents with headache…
REVIEW: A patient presents with hypert…
REVIEW: How does the brain utilize ket…
What type of tumor matches each of the…
Pituitary adenoma
Dx: Primary hyperaldosteronism (Conn syndrome)... Tx: Spironola…
Brain metabolizes ketone body to 2 acetyl-coA molecules for u…
Benign tumor of epithelium = Adenoma or Papilloma... Malignant…
REVIEW: A woman presents with headache…
Pituitary adenoma
REVIEW: A patient presents with hypert…
Dx: Primary hyperaldosteronism (Conn syndrome)... Tx: Spironola…
36 terms
Oncology
Step 3 oncology most imp thing to know…
Which of the following screening tests…
Breast CA screening; a. what age to be…
Breast CA screening; ... 1. what to do if…
screening tests
a. Age 50: Begins... ·b.Age 75: Not routinely indicated above ag…
1. biopsy ... 2. if present in biopsy, test for ESTROGEN AND PRO…
Step 3 oncology most imp thing to know…
screening tests
Which of the following screening tests…
14 terms
ONCOLOGY
ALKYLATING AGENTS... CCIMMB
ANTRACYCLINE ANTIBIOTICS... DDEIM
Ifosfamide + Cyclophosphamide (high do…
Anthracycline dosing
MOA: bind to N7 of guansine to cause steric hindrance and DNA…
MOA: form covalent bonds with topoisomerase II, inhibition of…
Require mensa + hydration administration to prevent acrolein…
is adjusted in liver impairment... 50% of dose if bilirubin is 1…
ALKYLATING AGENTS... CCIMMB
MOA: bind to N7 of guansine to cause steric hindrance and DNA…
ANTRACYCLINE ANTIBIOTICS... DDEIM
MOA: form covalent bonds with topoisomerase II, inhibition of…
33 terms
Oncology
Oncology
Human papillomavirus
Mitosis
Apoptosis
Study of a cancer cell
HPV
Process by which a cell divides
Programmed cell death in which the p53 gene directs the cell…
Oncology
Study of a cancer cell
Human papillomavirus
HPV
17 terms
oncology
cancer preventative measures
early detection screening / self monit…
warning signs of cancer
malignant carcinoma
dietary - avoid obesity, DECREASE fat intake, INCREASE fiber,…
pap smear - cervical cancer... breast self exam - mammogram... colo…
C - hange in bowel or bladder habbits... A - ny sore that does n…
arise from epithelial cells... (internal and external surfaces o…
cancer preventative measures
dietary - avoid obesity, DECREASE fat intake, INCREASE fiber,…
early detection screening / self monit…
pap smear - cervical cancer... breast self exam - mammogram... colo…
18 terms
ONCOLOGY
alopecia
anemia
anorexia
benign
loss of hair
A decrease in the number of red blood cells and/or hemoglobin…
an eating disorder that causes absence of appitite for food
Abnormal cell mass, but not cancerous
alopecia
loss of hair
anemia
A decrease in the number of red blood cells and/or hemoglobin…
70 terms
Oncology
Cancer-free for 5 years
Treatment types
Toxicities of chemo drugs
Monitoring/treating myelosuppression
"Cured"... Unlikely that the cancer will recur
-Primary tx: surgery if cancer is resectable ... -Neoadjuvant th…
-Due to damaging effects on non-cancerous, rapidly dividing c…
-Almost all chemo drugs, EXCEPT: asparaginase, bleomycin, vin…
Cancer-free for 5 years
"Cured"... Unlikely that the cancer will recur
Treatment types
-Primary tx: surgery if cancer is resectable ... -Neoadjuvant th…
34 terms
Oncology
CTLA-4
Ipilimumab
B-RAF
Sorafenib
Also called CD152... Surface of T cells ... Down regulates... Fusion w…
CTLA-4 antagonist in metastatic melanoma
Protooncogene ... If mutated to be constitutively active - cance…
V600E inhibitor BRAF... VEGFR, PDGFR, c-kit... Hepatocellular carci…
CTLA-4
Also called CD152... Surface of T cells ... Down regulates... Fusion w…
Ipilimumab
CTLA-4 antagonist in metastatic melanoma
175 terms
oncology
cancers metastasize through
Classification of cancer is based on
Individual tumors vary widely in
What is the recent advance of biopsy?
blood and lymph
site or organ of origin... histopathological characteristics
1) genetics, 2)biology, 3) invasiveness, 4)metastatic risk an…
Liquid biopsies- can directly look at tumor DNA in the bloods…
cancers metastasize through
blood and lymph
Classification of cancer is based on
site or organ of origin... histopathological characteristics
153 terms
oncology
3-5 year old child... Pancytopenia (bleed…
30+ year old... Pancytopenia (bleeding, f…
30-50 years old... WBC count greater than…
50+ year old... Male gender... lymphadenopat…
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
AML
CML
CLL
3-5 year old child... Pancytopenia (bleed…
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
30+ year old... Pancytopenia (bleeding, f…
AML
16 terms
oncology
Histopathology
cytology
malignancy
sarcoidosis
[名]组织病理学
n.[生]细胞学
[名]恶性肿瘤
[名]结节病
Histopathology
[名]组织病理学
cytology
n.[生]细胞学
13 terms
oncology
anaplasia
carcinoid tumor
dysplasia
adeno
condition where normal cells become cancerous
cancerous tumor of digestive tract
cell begin to function atypically and take on abnormal shape…
gland
anaplasia
condition where normal cells become cancerous
carcinoid tumor
cancerous tumor of digestive tract
12 terms
Oncology
alopecia
cachexia
carcinoma
hodgkin's disease
hair loss (due to treatment)
a condition of physical wasting away due to the loss of weigh…
cancerous tumor
form of cancer in the lymph nodes that is characterized by pa…
alopecia
hair loss (due to treatment)
cachexia
a condition of physical wasting away due to the loss of weigh…
353 terms
ONCOLOGY
What does Cytotoxic chemotherapy do?
What healthy tissues are affected by C…
Toxicity of Cytotoxic Chemotherapy (AD…
What is the only thing the RBC count o…
Kills rapidly growing cells... Not cancer cells specifically
Bone marrow, GI tract, epithelium
Alopecia—not all drugs cause this... Mucositis... Diarrhea... Fatigue…
Thalacemia
What does Cytotoxic chemotherapy do?
Kills rapidly growing cells... Not cancer cells specifically
What healthy tissues are affected by C…
Bone marrow, GI tract, epithelium
28 terms
Oncology
What cell cycle phase do all antimetab…
Azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine (ANTIME…
Cladribine (ANTIMETABOLITE)
Cytarabine (ANTIMETABOLITE)
S-phase
-mechanism: Purine (thiol) analogs... de novo purine synthesis.…
-mechanism: Purine analog---> multiple mechanisms (eg, inhibi…
-mechanism: Pyrimidine analog ---> inhibition of DNA polymera…
What cell cycle phase do all antimetab…
S-phase
Azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine (ANTIME…
-mechanism: Purine (thiol) analogs... de novo purine synthesis.…
30 terms
ONCOLOGY
BETATRON
CARCINOGEN
CARCIN/O
-GEN
MEGA VOLTAGE MACHINE USED IN ADMINISTERING EXTERNAL RADIATION…
A CANCER CAUSING AGENT
CANCER
FORMATION
BETATRON
MEGA VOLTAGE MACHINE USED IN ADMINISTERING EXTERNAL RADIATION…
CARCINOGEN
A CANCER CAUSING AGENT
8 terms
Oncology
Selective Ig A deficiency
Rhinitis Medicanmentosa
Allergic Rhinitis
Cholinergic Urticaria
A young patient presents with:... - Diarrhea... - Foul-smelling sto…
A patient presents with:... - Chronic nasal congestion, worse in…
A patient presents with:... - Chronic rhinorrhea and nasal conge…
An otherwise healthy patient develops:... - Itchy hives on the t…
Selective Ig A deficiency
A young patient presents with:... - Diarrhea... - Foul-smelling sto…
Rhinitis Medicanmentosa
A patient presents with:... - Chronic nasal congestion, worse in…
11 terms
Oncology
Lomustine
Cyclophosphamide
Chlorambucil
Elapar
Class: alkylating agent... Side effect: kidney, lungs, liver
Class: alkylating agent... Side effect: bladder
Class: alkylating agents
Class: antimetabolites... Side effects: pancreas
Lomustine
Class: alkylating agent... Side effect: kidney, lungs, liver
Cyclophosphamide
Class: alkylating agent... Side effect: bladder
259 terms
Oncology
Hypertrophy
Main immunological mediators of acute…
Main immunological mediators of chroni…
Atrophy
Cells too big
Neutrophils, macrophages
Lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages
Shrinkage of cell size
Hypertrophy
Cells too big
Main immunological mediators of acute…
Neutrophils, macrophages
32 terms
ONCOLOGY
Incidence of Cancer
Benign Neoplasms
malignant neoplasms
Types of Tumors
Statistics vary... know source... Greater incident in women than me…
non-cancerous... localized (no mets)... slow growing... encapsulated w…
progressive... irregularly shaped- finger-like projections... fast…
lymphoma... carcinoma ... myeloma... leukemia
Incidence of Cancer
Statistics vary... know source... Greater incident in women than me…
Benign Neoplasms
non-cancerous... localized (no mets)... slow growing... encapsulated w…
33 terms
oncology
<35 year old male... pain +/- relief with…
Why is osteoid osteoma painful?
well defined radiolucent nidus with su…
most common site for osteoid osteoma
Osteoid osteoma
Elevated Prostaglandin E2 levels in Nidus
osteoid osteoma
proximal femur
<35 year old male... pain +/- relief with…
Osteoid osteoma
Why is osteoid osteoma painful?
Elevated Prostaglandin E2 levels in Nidus
17 terms
oncology
cancer preventative measures
early detection screening / self monit…
warning signs of cancer
malignant carcinoma
dietary - avoid obesity, DECREASE fat intake, INCREASE fiber,…
pap smear - cervical cancer... breast self exam - mammogram... colo…
C - hange in bowel or bladder habbits... A - ny sore that does n…
arise from epithelial cells... (internal and external surfaces o…
cancer preventative measures
dietary - avoid obesity, DECREASE fat intake, INCREASE fiber,…
early detection screening / self monit…
pap smear - cervical cancer... breast self exam - mammogram... colo…
116 terms
Oncology
Alcohol + tobacco =
Tobacco is the #1...
Suspected dietary causes of cancer
Increased incidence of cancer...
co-carninogenic
cause of preventable cancer
Low fiber diet, Increased red meat, increased animal fat, Nit…
in the immunosuppressed... *that is why there is a higher incide…
Alcohol + tobacco =
co-carninogenic
Tobacco is the #1...
cause of preventable cancer
14 terms
oncology
colorectal (bowel) ca
colorectal (bowel) ca
colorectal (bowel) ca
colorectal (bowel) ca
- 3rd most common ca. 2nd most common ca in UK... - male 1:15 ,…
presentation ... - left sided : bleeding/mucus PR ; altered bowe…
- surgery (increase survival up to 50%)... - radiotherapy... - chem…
staging
colorectal (bowel) ca
- 3rd most common ca. 2nd most common ca in UK... - male 1:15 ,…
colorectal (bowel) ca
presentation ... - left sided : bleeding/mucus PR ; altered bowe…
51 terms
oncology
Iron study
Inflammatory anemia
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined…
Iron deficiency : low ferritin level of less than 100 ng/mL (…
Serum ferritin > 100. transferrin saturation is normal in inf…
hemolytic anemia, pancytopenia, or unprovoked atypical thromb…
clonal plasma cells represent less than 10% of the total marr…
Iron study
Iron deficiency : low ferritin level of less than 100 ng/mL (…
Inflammatory anemia
Serum ferritin > 100. transferrin saturation is normal in inf…
Oncology
Anterior mediastinal mass
Germ cell tumors
Trastuzumab, aka Herceptin
Multiple myeloma
4T's: ... Thymoma... Teratoma ... Thyroid neoplasm... Terrible lymphoma…
Seminoma - may cause an elevated beta-HCG, but alpha-feto pro…
treat breast cancer that is HER2 +... benefit both in adjuvant s…
back pain... anemia... renal dysfunction... elevated ESR... Hypercalcemia…
Anterior mediastinal mass
4T's: ... Thymoma... Teratoma ... Thyroid neoplasm... Terrible lymphoma…
Germ cell tumors
Seminoma - may cause an elevated beta-HCG, but alpha-feto pro…
36 terms
Oncology
Alopecia
Anaplasia
Angiogenesis
Apoptosis
Hair loss
Pattern of growth in cells that are different (shape, organiz…
Growth of new blood vessels that allow cancer cells to grow
Programmed cell death
Alopecia
Hair loss
Anaplasia
Pattern of growth in cells that are different (shape, organiz…
263 terms
Oncology
Hypertrophy
Main immunological mediators of acute…
Main immunological mediators of chroni…
Atrophy
Cells too big
Neutrophils, macrophages
Lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages
Shrinkage of cell size
Hypertrophy
Cells too big
Main immunological mediators of acute…
Neutrophils, macrophages
12 terms
Oncology
cancer
malignant tumor
benign tunor
metastasis
abnormal growth of cells that have no use to the body
non-encapsulated abnormal growth of cells... not differentiated…
encapsulated abnormal growth of cells... does not spread
the spread of cancerous cells.
cancer
abnormal growth of cells that have no use to the body
malignant tumor
non-encapsulated abnormal growth of cells... not differentiated…
356 terms
Oncology
--------------------------- Lecture 1…
What is primary tumor? What does it me…
Markers of metastasis?
What cell type do carcinomas come from?
------------------------------- Lecture 1--------------------…
- Primary Tumor: The main uncontroleld growth... - Synchronous…
- Hypoxia... - Proliferation/ avoidance of apoptosis... - Adhesion…
- Epithelial cells
--------------------------- Lecture 1…
------------------------------- Lecture 1--------------------…
What is primary tumor? What does it me…
- Primary Tumor: The main uncontroleld growth... - Synchronous…
1 of 10