Study sets matching "organic chemistry exam 1 chapter 2"

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Study sets matching "organic chemistry exam 1 chapter 2"

46 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 2
Acid-dissociation constant (Ka)
Arrhenius acid
Arrhenius base
Bronsted-Lowry acid
The equilibrium constant for the reaction of the acid with wa…
dissociates in water to form H3O+
dissociates in water to form OH-
proton donor
Acid-dissociation constant (Ka)
The equilibrium constant for the reaction of the acid with wa…
Arrhenius acid
dissociates in water to form H3O+
30 terms
Organic Chemistry: Chapter 2
Structural Isomers
Enantiomers
Enantiomer examples
Sterioisomers
Isomers that share the same molecular formula. (5 different C…
2 molecules that are the mirror image of each other. They mus…
Isomers that differ in 3D structural arrangement of atoms.
Structural Isomers
Isomers that share the same molecular formula. (5 different C…
Enantiomers
2 molecules that are the mirror image of each other. They mus…
12 terms
Chapter 2 Organic Chemistry
allylic
vinylic
carboxylic acid
aldehyde
connected to double bonded carbons
double bonded carbons
allylic
connected to double bonded carbons
vinylic
double bonded carbons
27 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 2
Chemical Thermodynamics
Chemical Kinetics
K
K of a -> b
Energy changes during reactions ... example: to the left/right
How fast equilibrium is established
Equilibrium Constant
[b]/[a]
Chemical Thermodynamics
Energy changes during reactions ... example: to the left/right
Chemical Kinetics
How fast equilibrium is established
50 terms
Organic Chemistry: Exam 1
Ionic Bond
Covalent bond
Lewis structure
Octet rule
A bond formed when electrons are transferred.
A bond formed when electrons are shared
A structure that shows ALL bonding electrons and lone pairs.
All non-hydrogen atoms must have 8 valence electrons.
Ionic Bond
A bond formed when electrons are transferred.
Covalent bond
A bond formed when electrons are shared
27 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 1
s orbital
p orbital
Aufbau Principle
Hybridization of a tetrahedral
ball shaped
8 shaped
1. Lower energy orbitals fill first ... 2. Pauli Exclusion Princ…
sp3
s orbital
ball shaped
p orbital
8 shaped
78 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 2 Quiz
1s orbital
when orbitals interact on different at…
when orbitals interact on the same ato…
when two orbitals interact and are out…
molecular bonding orbitals with bonding and/or antibonding
hybrid atomic orbitals
antibonding sigma* and are destructive result in a nodal plane
1s orbital
when orbitals interact on different at…
molecular bonding orbitals with bonding and/or antibonding
22 terms
organic chemistry chapter 2
Alkyl halide
Alkyne
Alkene
Alcohol
what is this functional group?
what is this functional group?
what is this functional group?
what is this functional group?
Alkyl halide
what is this functional group?
Alkyne
what is this functional group?
Organic Chemistry: Chapter 2
Functional groups
Alkane
Alkene
Alkyne
Characteristic groups that are the sit of chemical reactivity…
C-C ... Unreactive... "default"
C=C ... Substituent: alkenyl
CC triple bond... Substituent: alkynyl
Functional groups
Characteristic groups that are the sit of chemical reactivity…
Alkane
C-C ... Unreactive... "default"
64 terms
Organic Chemistry Exam 1 Vocabulary
ionic bonding
octet rule
covalent bonding
nonpolar bond
the attraction between oppositely charged ions
Chemical compounds tend to form this so that each atom, by ga…
results from the sharing of electron pairs between two atoms
a covalent bond in which electrons are shared equally by both…
ionic bonding
the attraction between oppositely charged ions
octet rule
Chemical compounds tend to form this so that each atom, by ga…
46 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 2
Acid-dissociation constant (Ka)
Arrhenius acid
Arrhenius base
Bronsted-Lowry acid
The equilibrium constant for the reaction of the acid with wa…
dissociates in water to form H3O+
dissociates in water to form OH-
proton donor
Acid-dissociation constant (Ka)
The equilibrium constant for the reaction of the acid with wa…
Arrhenius acid
dissociates in water to form H3O+
14 terms
Terminology -Chapter 2- Organic Chemistry
polymer
monomer
homopolymer
copolymer
A large, usually chain-like molecule that is built from small…
One of the repeating small molecules that make up polymers.
A polymer of a single type of monomer.
A polymer made of two or more different types of monomers com…
polymer
A large, usually chain-like molecule that is built from small…
monomer
One of the repeating small molecules that make up polymers.
72 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 2
What are the simplest organic compounds?
What do hydrocarbons contain?
Four classes of Hydrocarbons?
What are alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes…
Hydrocarbons
Hydrogen and carbon atoms only
Alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, and arenes
Aliphatic Compounds
What are the simplest organic compounds?
Hydrocarbons
What do hydrocarbons contain?
Hydrogen and carbon atoms only
Organic Chemistry Exam 1
Valence Bond Theory
Sigma Bond
Bond Strength
Bond Length
A covalent bond forms when two atoms approach each other clos…
Single Bonds
Strength that holds atoms in a bond together. Measured in how…
Optimum distance between nuclei that leads to maximum stability
Valence Bond Theory
A covalent bond forms when two atoms approach each other clos…
Sigma Bond
Single Bonds
51 terms
Organic Chemistry- Chapter 2 Definitions
Acid chloride
Alcohol
Aldehyde
Alkanes
An acid derivative with a chlorine atom in place of the hydro…
Compound that contains a hydroxyl group bonded to a carbon atom
A carbonyl group with one alkyl group and one hydrogen
Hydrocarbons containing only single bonds
Acid chloride
An acid derivative with a chlorine atom in place of the hydro…
Alcohol
Compound that contains a hydroxyl group bonded to a carbon atom
33 terms
Organic Chemistry Exam 1
Benzene
Toluene
Naphthalene
Bromobenzene
Benzene
Toluene
18 terms
Organic Chemistry - Chapter 2
Bronsted-Lowry Acid
Bronsted-Lowry Base
Conjugate Acid
Conjugate Base
proton donor... Must have a proton
proton acceptor... Must be able to form a bond to a proton... Conta…
Formed by base
Formed by acid
Bronsted-Lowry Acid
proton donor... Must have a proton
Bronsted-Lowry Base
proton acceptor... Must be able to form a bond to a proton... Conta…
16 terms
Organic Chemistry Exam 1
Alkyl Halide
Alkene
Alkyne
Alcohol
Alkyl Halide
Alkene
14 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 2
What carbon chain is going to have the…
name this compound... C-C-C-C-C... |... (tria…
What are the 2 types of isomers?
What are structural isomers?
the one without
3-cyclopropentane
structural isomers & stereoisomers
different bond patterns
What carbon chain is going to have the…
the one without
name this compound... C-C-C-C-C... |... (tria…
3-cyclopropentane
Organic Chemistry Chapter 2
Hydrocarbon
Saturated hydrocarbon
Unsaturated hydrocarbon
Alkane
A compound composed of only carbon and hydrogen atoms.
A hydrocarbon containing only carbon-carbon single bonds.
A hydrocarbon that contains more carbon-carbon double or trip…
A saturated hydrocarbon.
Hydrocarbon
A compound composed of only carbon and hydrogen atoms.
Saturated hydrocarbon
A hydrocarbon containing only carbon-carbon single bonds.
43 terms
MCAT Organic Chemistry (Chapter 2): Isomers
Structural Isomers
Physical Properties
Chemical Properties
Stereoisomers
-least similar of all isomers... -also called constitutional iso…
-characteristics of processes that don't change the compositi…
-determine how the molecule reacts with other molecules
-have the same chemical formula ... -same atomic connectivity ... -…
Structural Isomers
-least similar of all isomers... -also called constitutional iso…
Physical Properties
-characteristics of processes that don't change the compositi…
24 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 2
Arrhenius Acid-Base Theory
Bronsted-Lowry Acid-Base Theory
Conjugate acid-base pair
Lewis Acids and Bases
acid: substance that dissolves in water to produce H+ ions... ba…
acid: proton donor... base: proton acceptor... this means that acid…
when the acid transfers a proton to a base, the acid becomes…
acid: electron pair acceptor (electrophile)... base: electron pa…
Arrhenius Acid-Base Theory
acid: substance that dissolves in water to produce H+ ions... ba…
Bronsted-Lowry Acid-Base Theory
acid: proton donor... base: proton acceptor... this means that acid…
12 terms
Klein Organic Chemistry Chapter 2
functional group
resonance structures
delocalization
allylic
a characteristic group of atoms/bonds that show a predictable…
a series of structures that are melded together (conceptually…
the spreading of a charge or lone pair as described by resona…
the positions that are adjacent to the vinylic positions of a…
functional group
a characteristic group of atoms/bonds that show a predictable…
resonance structures
a series of structures that are melded together (conceptually…
Organic Chemistry Exam 1 Review
functional groups
alkenes
alkynes
arenes
reacts independent of the rest of the molecule. ... collection o…
c-c bonding
c-c triple bonding
alternating sing and double c-c bonding in a six member ring
functional groups
reacts independent of the rest of the molecule. ... collection o…
alkenes
c-c bonding
17 terms
Organic Chemistry- Chapter 2
Carbocation
Carbanion
Radical
Solid wedge
Carbon atom with three bonds and a +1 charge
Carbon atom with extra electron and charge of -1
Unpaired electron
From 3-D bond line, indicates group/atom coming forward
Carbocation
Carbon atom with three bonds and a +1 charge
Carbanion
Carbon atom with extra electron and charge of -1
49 terms
Chapter 2 Organic Chemistry
isopropyl
sec-butyl
tert-butyl
alkene/olefin
isopropyl
sec-butyl
27 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 2
partially condensed structures
condensed stuctures
bond line structures
functional group
C-H bonds are not all drawn explicitly (they are isolated and…
single bonds are not drawn, groups of atoms are clustered tog…
not only simplify the drawing process but also are easier to…
a characteristic group of atoms/bonds that posses a predictab…
partially condensed structures
C-H bonds are not all drawn explicitly (they are isolated and…
condensed stuctures
single bonds are not drawn, groups of atoms are clustered tog…
18 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 2
The two types of waves
Traveling waves
Standing waves
Wave function
Traveling waves and standing waves
Waves that resemble sound waves or waves on the ocean
Waves that vibrate in a fixed location
The mathematical description of the shape of the wave as it v…
The two types of waves
Traveling waves and standing waves
Traveling waves
Waves that resemble sound waves or waves on the ocean
49 terms
Chapter 2 Organic Chemistry
classes of hydrocarbons
aliphatic hydrocarbons
aromatic hydrocarbons
valence bond theory
aliphatic hydrocarbons ... aromatic hydrocarbons
alkanes, alkenes, alkynes
also called arenes ... simplest form is benzene
constructive interface between e-waves of 2 half filled atomi…
classes of hydrocarbons
aliphatic hydrocarbons ... aromatic hydrocarbons
aliphatic hydrocarbons
alkanes, alkenes, alkynes
30 terms
MCAT Organic Chemistry: Chapter 2
Isomers
Structural Isomers (Constitutional Iso…
Physical Properties
Chemical Properties
Compounds with the same molecular formula but different struc…
They share only their molecular formula, thus their molecular…
Processes that do not change the composition of matter, such…
Reactivity of the molecule with other molecules and result in…
Isomers
Compounds with the same molecular formula but different struc…
Structural Isomers (Constitutional Iso…
They share only their molecular formula, thus their molecular…
Organic Chemistry - Chapter 2: Isomers
Structural Isomers
Conformational Isomers
Staggered Conformations
Anti-Staggered Conformation
Share only a molecular formula. They have different physical…
Differ by rotation around a single (sigma) bond.
Groups are 60 degrees apart, as seen in a Newman projection.
Groups are 180 degrees apart, and strain is minimized.
Structural Isomers
Share only a molecular formula. They have different physical…
Conformational Isomers
Differ by rotation around a single (sigma) bond.
65 terms
Organic Chemistry chapter 2
Functional group
hydrocarbons
alkanes
alkenes
common and specific arrangements of atoms that import predict…
compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms
hydrocarbons that do not have multiple bonds
contain at least one carbon carbon double bond
Functional group
common and specific arrangements of atoms that import predict…
hydrocarbons
compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms
Organic Chemistry - Chapter 2
Arrhenius acid
Arrhenius base
Brønsted-Lowry acid
Brønsted-Lowry base
A substance that increases the concentration of hydrogen ions…
A substance that increases the concentration of hydroxide ion…
A molecule or ion that is a proton donor
A molecule or ion that is a proton acceptor
Arrhenius acid
A substance that increases the concentration of hydrogen ions…
Arrhenius base
A substance that increases the concentration of hydroxide ion…
47 terms
Organic Chemistry I: chapter 2
Alkanes
Alkenes
Alkyne
Valence Bond theory
all single bonds
contain a double bond
contain a triple bond
constructive interference between electron waves of two half-…
Alkanes
all single bonds
Alkenes
contain a double bond
Organic Chemistry 2 Exam 1
CnH2n
alkenes
one degree of unsaturation
2n+2
acyclic alkenes and cycloalkane molecular formula
these are unsaturated hydrocarbons because they have fewer th…
each pi bond or ring removes 2 hydrogen atoms from a molecule…
for n carbons, what is the maximum number of H atoms?
CnH2n
acyclic alkenes and cycloalkane molecular formula
alkenes
these are unsaturated hydrocarbons because they have fewer th…
Organic Chemistry Chapter 2
Dipole Moment
Molecular Dipole Moment
Dipole-Dipole Forces
London Dispersion Forces
due to differences in electronegativity
vector sum of bond dipoles, lone pairs contribute
two polar molecules interact with opposite charged sides
temporary dipoles, main force in non polar molecules
Dipole Moment
due to differences in electronegativity
Molecular Dipole Moment
vector sum of bond dipoles, lone pairs contribute
Organic Chemistry Chapter 2
Bronsted-Lowry Acids
Bronsted-Lowry Base
Bronsted-Lowry Reaction
pKa=-log Ka
a molecule with a proton donor... H-A
proton acceptor... B and a lone pair
a proton transfer... H-A + B = A- + H-B+
low pKa= strong acid... high pKa= weak acid
Bronsted-Lowry Acids
a molecule with a proton donor... H-A
Bronsted-Lowry Base
proton acceptor... B and a lone pair
Organic Chemistry Chapter 2 Vocabulary
n-alkanes
molecular formula
methane
ethane
alkanes with unbranched carbon chains
gives atomic composition of a compound
CH₄
C₂H₆
n-alkanes
alkanes with unbranched carbon chains
molecular formula
gives atomic composition of a compound
62 terms
Organic Chemistry Exam 1
Atomic number
Mass number
Isotopes
Orbital
The number of protons in an atom.
The sum of protons and neutrons in an atom.
Atoms with the same number of protons but differing numbers o…
The area around an atom where an electron has the highest pro…
Atomic number
The number of protons in an atom.
Mass number
The sum of protons and neutrons in an atom.
69 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 2
Alkanes
Alkenes
Alkynes
What is the difference between benzene…
entirely single bonds between carbons and hydrogens
has a double bond and sp2 hybridization between some C and hy…
has a triple bond between some carbon and hydrogens, sp hybri…
Toluene has a methyl added to one of the Carbons in the ring
Alkanes
entirely single bonds between carbons and hydrogens
Alkenes
has a double bond and sp2 hybridization between some C and hy…
18 terms
MCAT Organic Chemistry Chapter 2
Structural isomers
Stereoisomers
Two classes of stereoisomers
Conformational isomers
also called constitutional isomers. Least similar of the isom…
have same molecular formula. Share the same atomic connectivi…
Conformational and configurational
differ in rotation around a single bond . Same molecule but a…
Structural isomers
also called constitutional isomers. Least similar of the isom…
Stereoisomers
have same molecular formula. Share the same atomic connectivi…
Organic Chemistry Exam 1
sigma bond
alkene
ethene
propene
overlap of sp3 and 1s orbitals; all single bonds are sigma bo…
are hydrocarbons with a carbon•carbon double bond; ethene & p…
C2H4; is an alkene
C3H6; is an alkene
sigma bond
overlap of sp3 and 1s orbitals; all single bonds are sigma bo…
alkene
are hydrocarbons with a carbon•carbon double bond; ethene & p…
37 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 2
Alkanes
Hydrocarbons
Methane
Ethane
compounds of only carbon and hydrogen atoms with single bonds
compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen
CH4
C2H6
Alkanes
compounds of only carbon and hydrogen atoms with single bonds
Hydrocarbons
compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen
organic chemistry exam 1
Do you understand why there are so man…
isomerism
hydrocarbon
alkane
(1) Catenation—carbon can bond to other carbon atoms in combi…
The possession by two or more distinct compounds of the same…
Compounds composed of only carbon and hydrogen
a hydrocarbon containing only single covalent bonds
Do you understand why there are so man…
(1) Catenation—carbon can bond to other carbon atoms in combi…
isomerism
The possession by two or more distinct compounds of the same…
73 terms
Organic Chemistry- Exam 1 (CHAPTERS 1 & 2)
# of protons
# of neutrons
# of electrons
change in electronegativity for covale…
atomic number
mass- atomic number
same as protons
0.0-0.5
# of protons
atomic number
# of neutrons
mass- atomic number
Organic Chemistry exam 1
Important properties of Carbon
Primordial soup
Vitalism
Isotopes
1. can form strong bonds to other carbons to form rings and c…
life on earth may have been developed through evolution of ca…
only living organisms produce organic compounds. Living thing…
atoms of the same elements with different masses due to diffe…
Important properties of Carbon
1. can form strong bonds to other carbons to form rings and c…
Primordial soup
life on earth may have been developed through evolution of ca…
Organic Chemistry: Chapter 2 Isomers
structural isomers
physical properties of isomers
chemical properties of isomers
stereoisomers... -definition ... -types
share molecular formula... molecular weight is the same
characteristics of processes that dont change composition of…
influence the reactivity of the molecule with other molecules…
isomers with the same atomic connectivity ... -conformational is…
structural isomers
share molecular formula... molecular weight is the same
physical properties of isomers
characteristics of processes that dont change composition of…
74 terms
chapter 2 Organic chemistry
reversible reaction
irreversible reaction
Most acid-base reactions are
An acid and its conjugate ____
A and B form C and D. C and D form A and B.
A and B form C and D, but C and D do not form A and B.
reversible
base
reversible reaction
A and B form C and D. C and D form A and B.
irreversible reaction
A and B form C and D, but C and D do not form A and B.
9 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 2
Hydrocarbons
Alkanes
Intermolecular Forces
Hydrogen Bonds
All organic compounds that contain only hydrogen atoms (inclu…
Organic compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms…
The forces that exist between molecules.
Strong dipole-dipole attraction that occurs when H is bonded…
Hydrocarbons
All organic compounds that contain only hydrogen atoms (inclu…
Alkanes
Organic compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms…
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