How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

Study sets matching "organic chemistry exam 2"

Study sets
Classes
Users

Study sets matching "organic chemistry exam 2"

16 terms
Organic Chemistry Exam 2
Alkane
Tert
Constitutional Isomer
Stereoisomer
Single Bond Carbon. Saturated since they contain the maximum…
Same structure, different connection. ... Cis (1,3) Dimethylcycl…
Same Structure, different 3D structure. Cis vs Trans.
Alkane
Single Bond Carbon. Saturated since they contain the maximum…
Tert
173 terms
Organic chemistry exam 2
sources of alkanes
natural sources of alkanes
what is in methane ice
what is in natural gas
natural and synthetic
methane ice... natural gas... petroleum... tar sands... oil shales
CH4
mehtane, ethane, propane,butane, and Helium
sources of alkanes
natural and synthetic
natural sources of alkanes
methane ice... natural gas... petroleum... tar sands... oil shales
32 terms
Organic Chemistry Exam 2
Determining acidity by looking at stab…
Thermodynamic product vs kinetic product
Substituted alkenes
Delta G activation
A less stable acid is more acidic so it wants to lose its H+…
The thermodynamic product is the more stable one; produced at…
Tetrasubstituted is more stable than trisubstituted is more s…
Difference in energy between starting material and activation…
Determining acidity by looking at stab…
A less stable acid is more acidic so it wants to lose its H+…
Thermodynamic product vs kinetic product
The thermodynamic product is the more stable one; produced at…
50 terms
Organic Chemistry Exam 2 Notes
isomer
Newman projection formula
conformation
conformational analysis
different compounds have same molecular formula
representation of spatial relationships of groups attached to…
particular temporary orientation of a molecule (shape) that r…
analysis of energy changes that a molecule undergoes as its g…
isomer
different compounds have same molecular formula
Newman projection formula
representation of spatial relationships of groups attached to…
115 terms
Organic Chemistry Exam 2
Lewis Base
Nucleophiles
Lewis Acid
Electrophiles
species with available electrons that can be donated to form…
"nucleus loving"; seek a proton or some other positively char…
species that can accept these electrons to form new bonds. Al…
"electron loving"; seek electrons to obtain a stable valence…
Lewis Base
species with available electrons that can be donated to form…
Nucleophiles
"nucleus loving"; seek a proton or some other positively char…
54 terms
Organic Chemistry Exam 2
Reaction Mechanism
Intermediates
Reaction Coordinate diagram (Rx Diagram)
Transition State
Shows e- flow in bond making/breaking events
Are unstable (reactive) species formed in a mechanism... they…
Shows the energies involved in a Reaction
(1) Highest energy species on a Rx coordinate diagram... (2) Not…
Reaction Mechanism
Shows e- flow in bond making/breaking events
Intermediates
Are unstable (reactive) species formed in a mechanism... they…
46 terms
Organic Chemistry Exam 2
Vitamin C
Chloroform
vinyl chloride
BHA
inhibitor ... -reacts with free radical to stabilize... -free radic…
(left structure only)
(after it reacts with the free radical, it has a double bond…
Vitamin C
inhibitor ... -reacts with free radical to stabilize... -free radic…
Chloroform
31 terms
Organic Chemistry: Exam 2
Initiation
Propagation
Termination
Bromination
What step creates two free radicals?
What step preserves the two free radicals?
What step destroys the two free radicals?
What free-radical mechanism is endothermic (bromination or ch…
Initiation
What step creates two free radicals?
Propagation
What step preserves the two free radicals?
29 terms
Organic Chemistry Exam 2
Constitutional isomers
Cis-trans isomers (geometric isomers)
Trans isomers
Cis isomers
Isomers that have the same formula, but are put together diff…
1. Type of isomers that occur when one part of the molecule i…
The functional groups are on opposite sides of a molecule wit…
The functional groups are on the same side of a molecule with…
Constitutional isomers
Isomers that have the same formula, but are put together diff…
Cis-trans isomers (geometric isomers)
1. Type of isomers that occur when one part of the molecule i…
77 terms
Organic Chemistry Exam 2
Aromatic compounds must have
Benzene has a
what did Michael Faraday and Kekuli ha…
Benzene has a resonance structure whic…
all sp2 or some sp hybridized C, cyclic, obey Huckles rule (4…
1:1 ratio of carbon to hydrogen
discovered it, then composed a structure, this happened two d…
the structures exists at the same time.
Aromatic compounds must have
all sp2 or some sp hybridized C, cyclic, obey Huckles rule (4…
Benzene has a
1:1 ratio of carbon to hydrogen
103 terms
Organic Chemistry Exam 2
double bond consists of what type of b…
a triple bond consists of what type of…
alkenes and alkynes are saturated or u…
what else can they be called
1 sigma bond 1 pi bond
1 sigma bond 2 pi bonds
unsaturated
olefins
double bond consists of what type of b…
1 sigma bond 1 pi bond
a triple bond consists of what type of…
1 sigma bond 2 pi bonds
13 terms
Organic Chemistry Exam 2
Carbocation
Carbocation Stability decreasing
Diastereomers
Constitutional Isomers
Carbocation
Carbocation Stability decreasing
38 terms
Exam 2 - Organic Chemistry Nomenclature Guide
Amine.
Aniline.
Aziridine.
Pyrrole.
Amine.
Aniline.
102 terms
Organic Chemistry Exam 2
H2O
ROH
H2S
OH-
weak nucleophile, weak base, STRONG leaving group
weak nucleophile, weak base
weak nucleophile, weak base
strong nucleophile, strong base
H2O
weak nucleophile, weak base, STRONG leaving group
ROH
weak nucleophile, weak base
64 terms
Organic Chemistry EXAM 2
Acid and Bases
HCl
H3O+-
HF
...
pka= -7
pka= -1.7
pka=3.17
Acid and Bases
...
HCl
pka= -7
Organic Chemistry II: Exam 2
1, everything
-al
-one
formaldehyde
aldehydes always get the # _____ position and trump _________…
what suffix means aldehyde?
what suffix means ketone?
1, everything
aldehydes always get the # _____ position and trump _________…
-al
what suffix means aldehyde?
18 terms
Organic Chemistry Exam 2
Which of these is the rate-determining…
In electrophilic aromatic substitution…
the electrophilic bromination or chlor…
Which of these liquids would be unsuit…
Addition of the nitronium to benzene to produce the arenium i…
lewis acid
a lewis acid
chlorobenzene
Which of these is the rate-determining…
Addition of the nitronium to benzene to produce the arenium i…
In electrophilic aromatic substitution…
lewis acid
57 terms
Organic Chemistry 2, Exam 2 (Chamberland, UVU)
What is an enolate?
What is the pKa of ethanol?
What is the pKa of propanone?
What is the pKa of propyne?
Planar, highly reactive, cannot isolate
16
20
25
What is an enolate?
Planar, highly reactive, cannot isolate
What is the pKa of ethanol?
16
29 terms
Organic Chemistry II Exam 2
POCl3 w/ Pyridine (base)
SOCl3 w/ Pyridine
PBr3 w/Pyridine
Alkyl Tosylate (TsCl)
Always E2 on primary, secondary, or tertiary alcohol
Always Sn2 (with tertiary alcohols it is not reactive)
Always Sn2 (with tertiary alcohols it is not reactive)
POCl3 w/ Pyridine (base)
Always E2 on primary, secondary, or tertiary alcohol
SOCl3 w/ Pyridine
Always Sn2 (with tertiary alcohols it is not reactive)
17 terms
Organic Chemistry Exam 2
Stereoisomers
Chiral
Chiral Center
Sterocenter
Have the same bonding squence, but they differ in the orienta…
Nonsuperimposable mirror images of each other
IUPAC name for an atom holding a set of ligands in a spatial…
Any atom at which the interchange of two groups gives a stere…
Stereoisomers
Have the same bonding squence, but they differ in the orienta…
Chiral
Nonsuperimposable mirror images of each other
49 terms
Organic Chemistry Exam 2
Constitutional Isomers
Chiral
Achiral
Enantiomers
Different names, different physical and chemical properties
Molecule that is not superposable on its mirror image. Optica…
Molecule that is superposable on its mirror image. Usually ha…
Mirror images that are not superposable. Are chiral. Have exa…
Constitutional Isomers
Different names, different physical and chemical properties
Chiral
Molecule that is not superposable on its mirror image. Optica…
51 terms
Organic Chemistry Exam 2
Define a functional group
The chemistry of every organic molecul…
Functional Groups to memorize Pt. 1
Functional Groups to memorize Pt. 2
an atom or group of atoms that is part of a larger molecule a…
the functional groups it contains
...
...
Define a functional group
an atom or group of atoms that is part of a larger molecule a…
The chemistry of every organic molecul…
the functional groups it contains
22 terms
Organic Chemistry Exam 2
Acid
Element Effect
Charge Effect
Resonance Effect
Gives up an H
Acidity increases as you go to the right of the table, and ac…
Atom with a charge is a stronger acid
The more resonance a compound has the more stable the conjuga…
Acid
Gives up an H
Element Effect
Acidity increases as you go to the right of the table, and ac…
42 terms
Exam 2 Organic Chemistry
what type (class) of alcohol will unde…
CH3... | [O]... CH3CH2-C-OH ---> ?... |... CH2C…
which of the following is the starting…
reduction of organic compounds means:…
b. secondary
no reaction
a. 1-butanol ... or .. ... c. 2-butanol
adding hydrogen to the compound
what type (class) of alcohol will unde…
b. secondary
CH3... | [O]... CH3CH2-C-OH ---> ?... |... CH2C…
no reaction
23 terms
Organic Chemistry
Alkane
Alkene
Alkyne
Ketone
Alkane
Alkene
40 terms
Organic Chemistry
alkanes
naming branched alkanes/alkenes/alkynes
condensed formula
alkenes
single bonds
-longest carbon chain... -add "-yl" to the branch groups... -use nu…
summarizing how many Hs are bonded to each C ... (ex: CH3CH2CH2O…
contains at least 1 double-bond
alkanes
single bonds
naming branched alkanes/alkenes/alkynes
-longest carbon chain... -add "-yl" to the branch groups... -use nu…
Organic Chemistry Exam 2
Tosyl
Mesyl (Ms)
Dimethyl Sulfoxide
Dimethylformamide
Tosyl
Mesyl (Ms)
13 terms
Organic Chemistry Exam 2
Define enantiomers.
Define chirality.
What is optical activity?
How is optical activity measured?
Stereoisomers that are non superimposable mirror images
A carbon that has four different groups around it
When plane polarized light is passed through a solution of an…
A Polarizer
Define enantiomers.
Stereoisomers that are non superimposable mirror images
Define chirality.
A carbon that has four different groups around it
8 terms
Organic Chemistry Exam 2
Not a carboxylic acid derivative (CAD)
In acidic conditions, an aldehyde or k…
NaBH(OAc)3 will reduce which of the fo…
PKa value of a carboxylic acid
acetophenone
acetal
imminium ion
5
Not a carboxylic acid derivative (CAD)
acetophenone
In acidic conditions, an aldehyde or k…
acetal
21 terms
Exam 2 (Organic Chemistry)
Alkylhalides nomenclature
Alcohols nomenclature
Classes of Alkylhalides and alcohols
Factors effecting boiling point
treat the halogen like a substituent: Flouro-, Chloro-, Bromo…
OH is a principal functional group: most important group with…
how many carbons are attached to the central carbon... 1c = prim…
1. vander walls: larger mw = higher BP... 2. dipole-dipole inter…
Alkylhalides nomenclature
treat the halogen like a substituent: Flouro-, Chloro-, Bromo…
Alcohols nomenclature
OH is a principal functional group: most important group with…
42 terms
Organic Chemistry Exam 2
SN2 (substrate)
SN2 (Reagents)
SN2 (Results)
SN1(substrate)
primary, secondary
Nu only, strong Nu/ strong base
Substitute at alpha position, inversion of configuration
(secondary), tertiary
SN2 (substrate)
primary, secondary
SN2 (Reagents)
Nu only, strong Nu/ strong base
15 terms
Organic Chemistry Exam 2
toluene
cumene
styrene
phenol
toluene
cumene
81 terms
Organic Chemistry Exam 2
Which of the following is more saturat…
The suffix -ane is used for __________…
4 rules for naming alkanes
parent chain
alkanes
saturated carbons
1) Identify the parent chain (longest consecutive chain of ca…
longest consecutive chain of carbons
Which of the following is more saturat…
alkanes
The suffix -ane is used for __________…
saturated carbons
40 terms
Organic Chemistry Exam 2
Ethalpy
homolytic bond cleavage
heterolytic bond cleavage
bond dissociation energy
used to measure the exchange of energy between the system and…
generates two uncharged species (radicals) each which bears a…
generate charged species called ions
the energy required to break a covalent bond via homolytic bo…
Ethalpy
used to measure the exchange of energy between the system and…
homolytic bond cleavage
generates two uncharged species (radicals) each which bears a…
70 terms
Organic Chemistry Exam 2
Toulene
Nitration of aromatics
Halogenation of aromatics
Phenol
Substitute a nitro group (-NO2)
Substitute a halogen
Toulene
Nitration of aromatics
Substitute a nitro group (-NO2)
55 terms
Organic Chemistry Exam 2
Alkane
Alkenes
Alkyl Halides
Alkyne
the simplest organic molecules, consisting of only carbon and…
are a class of hydrocarbons compounds with at least one carbo…
(also known as haloalkanes) are compounds in which one or mor…
hydrocarbon containing at least one carbon—carbon triple bond…
Alkane
the simplest organic molecules, consisting of only carbon and…
Alkenes
are a class of hydrocarbons compounds with at least one carbo…
Organic Chemistry Exam 2
Bromine/CCl4 test
flame test
beilstein test
silver nitrate test
test for alkenes, immediate decolorization of solution indica…
test for aromatic compounds; black sooty smoke means aromatic…
test for alkyl or aryl halides, transient green color forms i…
test for alkyl or aryl halides; immediate ppt formation at ro…
Bromine/CCl4 test
test for alkenes, immediate decolorization of solution indica…
flame test
test for aromatic compounds; black sooty smoke means aromatic…
36 terms
Organic Chemistry Exam 2
Factors that influence acidity
achiral
chiral
R configuration
-atom on which the proton resides ... -inductive effect (depends…
symmetry, imposible on mirror image
non superimposable
clockwise
Factors that influence acidity
-atom on which the proton resides ... -inductive effect (depends…
achiral
symmetry, imposible on mirror image
77 terms
Organic Chemistry Exam 2
Aromatic compounds must have
Benzene has a
what did Michael Faraday and Kekuli ha…
Benzene has a resonance structure whic…
all sp2 or some sp hybridized C, cyclic, obey Huckles rule (4…
1:1 ratio of carbon to hydrogen
discovered it, then composed a structure, this happened two d…
the structures exists at the same time.
Aromatic compounds must have
all sp2 or some sp hybridized C, cyclic, obey Huckles rule (4…
Benzene has a
1:1 ratio of carbon to hydrogen
37 terms
Organic Chemistry Exam 2
T
T
F
T
T or F: kinetically controlled product forms faster
T or F: thermodynamically controlled product is more stable
T or F: high temperature favors kinetically controlled product
T or F: longer reaction time favors thermodynamically control…
T
T or F: kinetically controlled product forms faster
T
T or F: thermodynamically controlled product is more stable
12 terms
Organic Chemistry Exam 2
HCl (Hydrogen chloride)
H₃O⁺ (Hydronium)
CH₃COOH (Acetic Acid)
NH₄⁺
pKa= -7
pKa= -1.74
pKa= 5
pKa= 9
HCl (Hydrogen chloride)
pKa= -7
H₃O⁺ (Hydronium)
pKa= -1.74
43 terms
organic chemistry exam 2
Isomers
newman projection formula
conformation
conformational analysis
different compounds that have the same molecular formula
a means of representing the spatial relationships of groups a…
a particular temporary orientation of a molecule that results…
an analysis of the energy changes that a molecule undergoes a…
Isomers
different compounds that have the same molecular formula
newman projection formula
a means of representing the spatial relationships of groups a…
35 terms
Organic Chemistry Exam 2
Alkynes are ______ reactive than alken…
Why are alkynes less reactive than alk…
Alkynes are _____ stable than alkenes.
Why are alkynes less stable than alken…
Less
Because the vinyl carbocation intermediate formed is higher i…
Less
The center of reactivity in an alkyne is the pi bond, which i…
Alkynes are ______ reactive than alken…
Less
Why are alkynes less reactive than alk…
Because the vinyl carbocation intermediate formed is higher i…
47 terms
Exam 2 Organic Chemistry
isopropyl
tert-butyl
isobutyl
steps for naming
1.) identify parent chain... 2.) identify substituents... 3.) # par…
isopropyl
tert-butyl
26 terms
Organic Chemistry Exam 2
achiral
BF3
radical chain initiator
1,2-dibromocyclopentane
When ionization occurs at the single stereocenter of chiral c…
which of the following species is least nucleophilic ... a. CH3S…
HBr can be added to an alkene in the presence of peroxides (H…
which of the following is a vicinal dihalide?... a. isobutyl chl…
achiral
When ionization occurs at the single stereocenter of chiral c…
BF3
which of the following species is least nucleophilic ... a. CH3S…
23 terms
Organic Chemistry Exam 2
Alcohol
Alkyl Halide
Amine
Epoxide
ROH
R-CL
R-NH2
Alcohol
ROH
Alkyl Halide
R-CL
107 terms
Organic Chemistry Exam 2
Cyclopentane vs. cyclohexane, and how…
Cyclopentane Conformation
Conformational Analysis of Cyclohexane
Chair conformation
Carbon's most stable bonding angle is in 109.5 angle tetrahed…
Cyclopentane will NOT be flat. It will exist in a staggered c…
The bonding angle of cyclohexane is 111 degrees. There are se…
The most stable conformation of cyclohexane; it is what trump…
Cyclopentane vs. cyclohexane, and how…
Carbon's most stable bonding angle is in 109.5 angle tetrahed…
Cyclopentane Conformation
Cyclopentane will NOT be flat. It will exist in a staggered c…
33 terms
Organic Chemistry Exam 2
Ethylene
Isoprene
Isobutylene
Propylene
Plant hormone that induces ripening in fruit
Ethylene
Plant hormone that induces ripening in fruit
Isoprene
18 terms
Organic Chemistry Exam 2
carboxylic acid
ester
aldehyde
ketone
-oic acid
-oate
-al
-one
carboxylic acid
-oic acid
ester
-oate
21 terms
Organic Chemistry Exam 2
Saturated Functional Groups
Unsaturated Functional Groups
Ethene
Propene
Alkanes and Cycloalkanes
Alkenes and Alkynes
Common Name: Ethylene
Common Name: Propylene
Saturated Functional Groups
Alkanes and Cycloalkanes
Unsaturated Functional Groups
Alkenes and Alkynes
1 of 10