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Study sets matching "oxidation"

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Study sets matching "oxidation"

Oxidation
Autoxidation
Autoxidation: O2
Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)
Free radical mechanism of Oxidation
Slow process - uncatalyzed oxidation of a substance by O2.
O-O... Triple diradical with 2 unpaired electrons w/parallel s…
Includes superoxide (O2*-), hydrogen peroxide, and the very r…
Involves INITIATION-PROPAGATION-TERMINATION!... 1. I: formation…
Autoxidation
Slow process - uncatalyzed oxidation of a substance by O2.
Autoxidation: O2
O-O... Triple diradical with 2 unpaired electrons w/parallel s…
21 terms
Oxides
AO Group
ice
periclase
periclase (MgO) with H2O present in th…
examples: ZnO - zincite - minor ore of zinc... MgO - periclase -…
H2O... -crystal system: Hexagonal
MgO... Magnesium Oxide... -Crystal System: is Isometric... -Face cent…
may further alter to form ... brucite: Mg(OH)2
AO Group
examples: ZnO - zincite - minor ore of zinc... MgO - periclase -…
ice
H2O... -crystal system: Hexagonal
20 terms
Oxides
Sulfur
Diamond
Graphite
Gold
S
C
C
Au
Sulfur
S
Diamond
C
16 terms
Oxides
Cuprite
Zincite
Hematite Group(X2O3): Corundum
Hematite
Cu2O... Metallic-adamantine, red, ruby-red in transparent crysta…
ZnO ... Distinguished by: red color, orange-yellow streak, assoc…
Al2O3 (hexagonal)... Distinguished by: great hardness, high lust…
Fe2O3 (Hexagonal)... Distinguished by: red streak (black on heat…
Cuprite
Cu2O... Metallic-adamantine, red, ruby-red in transparent crysta…
Zincite
ZnO ... Distinguished by: red color, orange-yellow streak, assoc…
23 terms
Oxides
What three categories can elemental ox…
What do acids release in solution?
What do bases release in solution?
Metallic oxides are?
Basic, acidic or amphoteric
H+ ( proton) or hydronium (H3O+)
(OH-) hydroxide in solution
Basic, reacts with water to form metal hydroxides
What three categories can elemental ox…
Basic, acidic or amphoteric
What do acids release in solution?
H+ ( proton) or hydronium (H3O+)
9 terms
Oxidation and Reduction
Oxidation
Reduction
Reducing Agent
Oxidising agent
= gain of oxygen or loss of electrons
= loss of oxygen or gain of electrons
= Reductant = this is the species that is oxidised and causin…
= Oxidant = this is the species that is reduced and causes th…
Oxidation
= gain of oxygen or loss of electrons
Reduction
= loss of oxygen or gain of electrons
7 terms
Oxidation - reduction
Oxidation
Reduction
Oxidising agent
Reducing agent
Oxidation is the loss of electrons during a reaction by a mol…
Reduction is the gain of electrons during a reaction by a mol…
In chemistry, an oxidising agent (oxidant, oxidizer) is a sub…
A reducing agent (also called a reductant or reducer) is an e…
Oxidation
Oxidation is the loss of electrons during a reaction by a mol…
Reduction
Reduction is the gain of electrons during a reaction by a mol…
26 terms
Oxidation/Reduction
oxidation
reduction
LEO says GER
OIL RIG
- loss of electrons... - gain of oxygen... - ex. Na (s) -> Na+ + e-
- gain of electrons... - loss of oxygen... - ex. Ag+ + e- -> Ag
Losing Electrons Oxidation... Gaining Electrons Redu…
Oxidation Is Losing... Reduction Is Gaining
oxidation
- loss of electrons... - gain of oxygen... - ex. Na (s) -> Na+ + e-
reduction
- gain of electrons... - loss of oxygen... - ex. Ag+ + e- -> Ag
13 terms
Oxidation Numbers
Ferrous ion
ferric ion
cuprous ion
cupric ion
iron (II)
iron (III)
copper (I)
copper (II)
Ferrous ion
iron (II)
ferric ion
iron (III)
11 terms
Oxidation and Reduction
redox
oxidation
reduction
OILRIG
general term for reactions or processes involving oxidation a…
Definition 1: species gaining oxygen or losing hydrogen... Defin…
Definition 1: species losing oxygen or gaining hydrogen... Defin…
Way to remember the electron definition of redox - Oxidation…
redox
general term for reactions or processes involving oxidation a…
oxidation
Definition 1: species gaining oxygen or losing hydrogen... Defin…
72 terms
Beta Oxidation
During lipid digestion, which compenen…
Which enzyme attacks the emulsified fat?
What are produced from the breakdown o…
Which protein provides assistance to p…
Bile salts, ... lecithin, ... and cholesterol
Pancreatic lipase
Free fatty acids and a monoglyceride
Colipase... binds to surface of lipid droplet
During lipid digestion, which compenen…
Bile salts, ... lecithin, ... and cholesterol
Which enzyme attacks the emulsified fat?
Pancreatic lipase
50 terms
Beta Oxidation
Oxidation of Fatty Acids is a Major En…
The advantage of fats over polysacchar…
Glucose and glycogen are for short-ter…
Triacylglycerols
About one third of our energy needs comes from dietary triacy…
Fatty acids carry more energy per carbon because they are mor…
Fats are for long term energy needs (months), good storage, s…
Hydrolyzed to glycerol and fatty acids (3) by lipases... Glycero…
Oxidation of Fatty Acids is a Major En…
About one third of our energy needs comes from dietary triacy…
The advantage of fats over polysacchar…
Fatty acids carry more energy per carbon because they are mor…
12 terms
Oxidation & Reduktion
Oxidation
Reduktion
Redox-Reaktion
Oxid
...ist ein (chem.) Vorgang, bei dem sich ein Stoff mit Sauers…
...ist ein (chem.) Vorgang, bei dem Sauerstoff entzogen wird.
Oxidation und Reduktion finden immer gleichzeitig statt.
Produkt einer Oxidation
Oxidation
...ist ein (chem.) Vorgang, bei dem sich ein Stoff mit Sauers…
Reduktion
...ist ein (chem.) Vorgang, bei dem Sauerstoff entzogen wird.
46 terms
Oxidation Quiz
+3
-1
-1
+1
Aluminum (Al)
Fluorine (F)
Chlorine (Cl)
Sodium (Na)
+3
Aluminum (Al)
-1
Fluorine (F)
13 terms
11. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
Reactions that involve the transfer of…
The law of conservation of charge stat…
Oxidation numbers... are assigned to atom…
KEY CONCEPT 1
oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions.
Note that biochemical redox reagents such as NAD tend to act…
1. The oxidation number of a free element is zero. For exampl…
The conventions of formula writing put cation first and anion…
Reactions that involve the transfer of…
oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions.
The law of conservation of charge stat…
Note that biochemical redox reagents such as NAD tend to act…
23 terms
beta oxidation
steps of beta oxidation
B ox enzymes
Conversion of propionyl coA to Succiny…
First step difference in peroxisomal B…
Acyl CoA... Trans delta2 enoyl CoA ... L-B-hydroxyacyl CoA... B-ketoac…
Acyl CoA dehydrogenase... enoyl coA hydratase... 3-L hydroxyacyl de…
methylmalonyl CoA intermediate ... catalyzed by carboxylase (use…
acyl CoA oxidase... 2H + FADH2 to O2 producing H2O2... following st…
steps of beta oxidation
Acyl CoA... Trans delta2 enoyl CoA ... L-B-hydroxyacyl CoA... B-ketoac…
B ox enzymes
Acyl CoA dehydrogenase... enoyl coA hydratase... 3-L hydroxyacyl de…
12 terms
Oxidation State?
Ag: 0
Ag: +1
Ca: +2, F: -1
H: +1, S: -2
Ag
Ag+
Ag: 0
Ag
Ag: +1
Ag+
6 terms
Oxidation Numbers
Free Element
Most elements in compounds follow patt…
Important exceptions
Three or more elements
Rule 1: Elements that have an oxidation number of 0. For exam…
Rule 2:
Rule 3: Hydrides - H + Metals / Peroxide - Pairs of oxygen th…
Rule 4: The middle element balances
Free Element
Rule 1: Elements that have an oxidation number of 0. For exam…
Most elements in compounds follow patt…
Rule 2:
26 terms
Oxidation/Reduction
oxidation
reduction
LEO says GER
OIL RIG
- loss of electrons... - gain of oxygen... - ex. Na (s) -> Na+ + e-
- gain of electrons... - loss of oxygen... - ex. Ag+ + e- -> Ag
Losing Electrons Oxidation... Gaining Electrons Redu…
Oxidation Is Losing... Reduction Is Gaining
oxidation
- loss of electrons... - gain of oxygen... - ex. Na (s) -> Na+ + e-
reduction
- gain of electrons... - loss of oxygen... - ex. Ag+ + e- -> Ag
8 terms
Beta oxidation
Odd # fatty acids
Acetyl Coa... Propionyl Coa
oxidation of Propionyl-CoA
step 1 of oxid. of Propionyl-CoA
Are oxidized in the same pathway as even # acids
The final products of beta oxid. Of odd # fatty acids. When f…
propionyl-CoA -> D-methylmalonyl- CoA ... ATP + HCO3- + biotin…
Odd # fatty acids
Are oxidized in the same pathway as even # acids
Acetyl Coa... Propionyl Coa
The final products of beta oxid. Of odd # fatty acids. When f…
13 terms
Oxidation Number
Oxidation Number
Oxidation
Reduction
Rules for Oxidation Numbers
positive or negative number assigned to an atom to indicate i…
loss of electrons
gain of electrons... (gaining electric charge --> reducing oxida…
assign oxidation # above element
Oxidation Number
positive or negative number assigned to an atom to indicate i…
Oxidation
loss of electrons
65 terms
oxidation numbers
ammonium
acetate
chlorate
chlorite
NH4+
ammonium
NH4+
acetate
21 terms
oxidation susceptibility
phenol
aniline
pyrrole
furan
very susceptible
very susceptible
very susceptible
very susceptible
phenol
very susceptible
aniline
very susceptible
10 terms
Reduction-Oxidation
Basic Notes
LEO
GER
Determining Spontaneity
Simultaneous... Due to competition for e⁻... Never in double replac…
lose electrons oxidation
gain electrons reduction
Use Table J... If LEO is higher up than GER, reaction is spontan…
Basic Notes
Simultaneous... Due to competition for e⁻... Never in double replac…
LEO
lose electrons oxidation
14 terms
beta oxidation
beta oxidation
beta oxidation regulation
after beta oxidation
fasting state (blood/adipose tissue)
breaking down of long chain fatty acids for energy ... -energy i…
malonyl CoA from fatty acid synthesis ... -high levels inhibit c…
two pathways for energy production from fatty acids... -Krebs cy…
-the blood has low glucose levels... -in adipose tissue, lipolys…
beta oxidation
breaking down of long chain fatty acids for energy ... -energy i…
beta oxidation regulation
malonyl CoA from fatty acid synthesis ... -high levels inhibit c…
23 terms
Oxidation Reactions:
Define oxidation in three ways:
Define reduction in three ways:
Covalent oxidation rule (2 rules):
Oxygen's oxidation state (2):
1. Loss of electrons.... 2. Gain of oxygen.... 3. Loss of hydrogen.
1. Gain of electrons.... 2. Loss of oxygen.... 3. Gain of hydrogen.
1. More electronegative= negative state.... 2. Less electronegat…
1. Normally= -2.... 2. Peroxides= -1.
Define oxidation in three ways:
1. Loss of electrons.... 2. Gain of oxygen.... 3. Loss of hydrogen.
Define reduction in three ways:
1. Gain of electrons.... 2. Loss of oxygen.... 3. Gain of hydrogen.
14 terms
Beta Oxidation
Palmitoyl-CoA
Trans-Δ2-enoyl-CoA
L-β-hydroxy-acyl-CoA
β-ketoacyl CoA
Palmitoyl-CoA
Trans-Δ2-enoyl-CoA
9 terms
Oxidation and Reduction
Oxidation
Reduction
Reducing Agent
Oxidising agent
= gain of oxygen or loss of electrons
= loss of oxygen or gain of electrons
= Reductant = this is the species that is oxidised and causin…
= Oxidant = this is the species that is reduced and causes th…
Oxidation
= gain of oxygen or loss of electrons
Reduction
= loss of oxygen or gain of electrons
7 terms
Oxidation and reduction
Hydrogenation of alkenes, a reduction…
Hydrogenation of alkynes
Rxn of alkenes with KMnO4- a oxidation…
Rxyn with OsO4- an oxidation reaction
Pd-C is a catalyst... you add hydrogens to the double bond... this…
you can use Pd-C and H2 to convert alkyne to alkene.... Lindlar…
If you add potassium permanganate, H2O, and NaOH ... you can pro…
you produce the same product, a vicinal diol through syn addi…
Hydrogenation of alkenes, a reduction…
Pd-C is a catalyst... you add hydrogens to the double bond... this…
Hydrogenation of alkynes
you can use Pd-C and H2 to convert alkyne to alkene.... Lindlar…
11 terms
Oxidation and Reduction
redox
oxidation
reduction
OILRIG
general term for reactions or processes involving oxidation a…
Definition 1: species gaining oxygen or losing hydrogen... Defin…
Definition 1: species losing oxygen or gaining hydrogen... Defin…
Way to remember the electron definition of redox - Oxidation…
redox
general term for reactions or processes involving oxidation a…
oxidation
Definition 1: species gaining oxygen or losing hydrogen... Defin…
11 terms
Oxidation and reduction
redox
oxidation
reduction
OILRIG
general term for reactions or processes involving oxidation a…
Definition 1: species gaining oxygen or losing hydrogen... Defin…
Definition 1: species losing oxygen or gaining hydrogen... Defin…
Way to remember the electron definition of redox - Oxidation…
redox
general term for reactions or processes involving oxidation a…
oxidation
Definition 1: species gaining oxygen or losing hydrogen... Defin…
15 terms
reduction and oxidation
reduction
oxidation
redox reaction
oxidation number
when a substance gains elections and the oxidation state decr…
when a substance loses elections and the oxidation state incr…
a reaction in which two substances change in oxidation number…
a number assigned to an element as a way of electron book kee…
reduction
when a substance gains elections and the oxidation state decr…
oxidation
when a substance loses elections and the oxidation state incr…
34 terms
Hydrolysis and Oxidation
principal physiochemical parameters
physiochemical parameters determine
chemical reactions in pharmaceuticals
dielectric constant
1. aqueous solubility... 2. lipophilicity... 3. pKa
1. bioavailability... 2. biopharmaceutical classification... 3. for…
acyl transfer reactions, oxidation, nucleophilic substitution…
strength of polarity
principal physiochemical parameters
1. aqueous solubility... 2. lipophilicity... 3. pKa
physiochemical parameters determine
1. bioavailability... 2. biopharmaceutical classification... 3. for…
50 terms
Oxidation and antioxidation
Warburg effect
Cancer cells are over reliant on glyco…
Reactive oxygen species
Oxidation reaction
In hypoxic conditions, normal cells break down glucose to pyr…
Even in aerobic conditions, glycolysis is the major end point…
Superoxide O2-... Peroxide O22+ as in H2O2... Hydroxide radical OH…
a reaction that results in a loss of electron density by carb…
Warburg effect
In hypoxic conditions, normal cells break down glucose to pyr…
Cancer cells are over reliant on glyco…
Even in aerobic conditions, glycolysis is the major end point…
64 terms
Lipid Oxidation
What are complication isn cystic fibro…
Cystic Fibrosis and Pancreatic function
Why do we need lipids?
What are the sources of lipids?
Growth failure... Fat-soluble vitamins deficiencies... Bone disease
Pancreatic Function in CF varies:... - Pancreatin sufficient (10…
Building blocks for phospholipids and glycolipids.... Modificat…
Obtained from 3 sources:... 1. Diet... 2. Stored in cells as lipid…
What are complication isn cystic fibro…
Growth failure... Fat-soluble vitamins deficiencies... Bone disease
Cystic Fibrosis and Pancreatic function
Pancreatic Function in CF varies:... - Pancreatin sufficient (10…
11 terms
Oxidation and Reduction
redox
oxidation
reduction
OILRIG
general term for reactions or processes involving oxidation a…
Definition 1: species gaining oxygen or losing hydrogen... Defin…
Definition 1: species losing oxygen or gaining hydrogen... Defin…
Way to remember the electron definition of redox - Oxidation…
redox
general term for reactions or processes involving oxidation a…
oxidation
Definition 1: species gaining oxygen or losing hydrogen... Defin…
12 terms
B Oxidation
Step A
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Fatty acid to fatty acyl-CoA
Palmitoyl-CoA to Enoyl-CoA
Enoyl-CoA to Hydroxy-acyl-CoA
Hydroxy-acyl-CoA to B-ketoacyl-CoA
Step A
Fatty acid to fatty acyl-CoA
Step 1
Palmitoyl-CoA to Enoyl-CoA
61 terms
Lipid oxidation
what is the basic overview of lipid di…
pancreatic lipase
colipase
how are lipids absorbed after hydrolysis
1. fats enter from the stomach... 2. bile salts, lecithin and ch…
enzyme used in fat hydrolysis. produces fatty acids and a mon…
a protein that binds to the surface of the lipid droplet; req…
fatty acids and monoglycerides pass through the wall of the S…
what is the basic overview of lipid di…
1. fats enter from the stomach... 2. bile salts, lecithin and ch…
pancreatic lipase
enzyme used in fat hydrolysis. produces fatty acids and a mon…
11 terms
Pyruvate Oxidation
Is the next step in capturing the rema…
In eukaryotes, where does pyruvate oxi…
In prokaryotes, where does pyruvate ox…
What is the first step of pyruvate oxi…
pyruvate oxidation
matrix, the innermost compartment of the mitochondria
cytoplasm
a carboxyl group is snipped off of pyruvate and released as a…
Is the next step in capturing the rema…
pyruvate oxidation
In eukaryotes, where does pyruvate oxi…
matrix, the innermost compartment of the mitochondria
21 terms
oxidation & phosphorylation
How many ATP can we get through ox phos
Inner mitochondrial membrane
How many protein complexes are in the…
Where does NADH pass it's e
30 atp
Very impermeable, ATP, Pyruvate, NADH must be actively transp…
4, only 3 pump H's. ... Named in Roman numerals 1-4.
Complex I, NADH oxidoreductase
How many ATP can we get through ox phos
30 atp
Inner mitochondrial membrane
Very impermeable, ATP, Pyruvate, NADH must be actively transp…
52 terms
Hydrolysis and Oxidation
What are the major drug degradation me…
What is Hydrolysis?
What is an ester bond?
What is an amide bond?
∙Hydrolysis... ∙Oxidation... ∙Photolysis... ∙Trace Metal Catalysis
A reaction involving the breaking of a bond in a molecule usi…
In combination of an amine group and carboxyl acid
What are the major drug degradation me…
∙Hydrolysis... ∙Oxidation... ∙Photolysis... ∙Trace Metal Catalysis
What is Hydrolysis?
A reaction involving the breaking of a bond in a molecule usi…
12 terms
Fatty acid oxidation (B-oxidation)
what determines (Tm) melting point of…
how is fatty acid activated? where
what is the driving force for FA activ…
How is FA transported into the mitocho…
increased melting temp with:... -longer chain... -less double bonds…
-FA is activated by FA+ ATP--> FA-AMP +PPi--> pyrophosphate i…
-inorganic pyrophosphatase enzyme
-FA-Coa cannot go into mito without help... -CAT I: uses carn…
what determines (Tm) melting point of…
increased melting temp with:... -longer chain... -less double bonds…
how is fatty acid activated? where
-FA is activated by FA+ ATP--> FA-AMP +PPi--> pyrophosphate i…
21 terms
Oxidation and reduction
What is Oxidation?
What is reduction?
What is the conversion from an alkyne…
What are the three types of reducing a…
An increase in the number of C-Z bonds(usually C-O bonds_ or…
An increase in the number of C-H bonds or a decrease in the n…
Reduction because each process adds two new C-H bonds to the…
1. H2... 2. Na/ NH2 --- dissolving metal reductions... 3. Na BH4 or…
What is Oxidation?
An increase in the number of C-Z bonds(usually C-O bonds_ or…
What is reduction?
An increase in the number of C-H bonds or a decrease in the n…
9 terms
CH 7 - Oxidation and Reduction
Oxidation
Reduction
Reducing Agent
Oxidising agent
= gain of oxygen or loss of electrons
= loss of oxygen or gain of electrons
= Reductant = this is the species that is oxidised and causin…
= Oxidant = this is the species that is reduced and causes th…
Oxidation
= gain of oxygen or loss of electrons
Reduction
= loss of oxygen or gain of electrons
8 terms
Beta-Oxidation
Erster Schritt der Beta-Oxidation
Zweiter Schritt der Beta-Oxidation
Dritter Schritt der Beta-Oxidation
Vierter Schritt der Beta-Oxidation
Knüpfung einer Doppelbindung durch das Abspalten von 2H auf F…
Enoyl-CoA-Hydratase addiert Wasser an die neu entstandene Dop…
Aufnahme von 2H durch Hydroxyacyl-CoA-Dehydrogenase. 2H auf N…
Thiolase spaltet ein Acetyl-Coa ab und kürzt das Acyl-CoA um…
Erster Schritt der Beta-Oxidation
Knüpfung einer Doppelbindung durch das Abspalten von 2H auf F…
Zweiter Schritt der Beta-Oxidation
Enoyl-CoA-Hydratase addiert Wasser an die neu entstandene Dop…
14 terms
Stage Two: Pyruvate Oxidation
pyruvate oxidation
carbon dioxide
pyruvate decarboxylase
NAD+, acetate
this is the second step of aerobic cellular respiration
during pyruvate oxidation a low energy carboxyl group is remo…
the decarboxylation reaction during pyruvate oxidation is cat…
after the decarboxylation the two carbon molecule is oxidized…
pyruvate oxidation
this is the second step of aerobic cellular respiration
carbon dioxide
during pyruvate oxidation a low energy carboxyl group is remo…
18 terms
Oxidation States Rules + Definitons
Oxidation state of an element
Oxidation state of a monatomic ion
Oxidation state of group 1 elements
Oxidation state of group 2 elements
0
Equals the charge of the ion
+1
+2
Oxidation state of an element
0
Oxidation state of a monatomic ion
Equals the charge of the ion
15 terms
Reduction / Oxidation Reagents
alkane
cis alkene
trans alkene
alkane
(2 equiv) of H2 are added and four new C-H bonds are formed.
Syn addition of H2 occurs.... The Lindlar catalyst is deactivate…
Anti addtion of H2 occurs
The rxn follows an SN2 mechanism
alkane
(2 equiv) of H2 are added and four new C-H bonds are formed.
cis alkene
Syn addition of H2 occurs.... The Lindlar catalyst is deactivate…
13 terms
Oxidation-Reduction (REDOX)
Oxidation
Reduction
Salt bridge
Anode
A loss of electrons; an increase of oxidation state
A gain of electrons; a decrease of oxidation state
allows for transfer of ions in an electrochemical cell
Electrode at which oxidation occurs
Oxidation
A loss of electrons; an increase of oxidation state
Reduction
A gain of electrons; a decrease of oxidation state
29 terms
Oxidative Phosphorylation
# of ATP from glycolysis
# of NADH from glycolysis
# of ATP from CAC
Complex I oxidizes
2 ATP
2 NADH
30-40
NADH
# of ATP from glycolysis
2 ATP
# of NADH from glycolysis
2 NADH
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