How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

Study sets matching "pain pharmacology"

Study sets
Classes
Users

Study sets matching "pain pharmacology"

15 terms
Pain Pharmacology
Local anesthetic MOA
Bupivicane
Lidocaine
Local anesthetics given with _____
Block voltage gated sodium channels or through hydrophobic me…
Longer duration, often given for surgeries; given parentally;…
More for shorter procedures; given parentally; causes CNS exc…
Epi to increase uptake and vasoconstrict
Local anesthetic MOA
Block voltage gated sodium channels or through hydrophobic me…
Bupivicane
Longer duration, often given for surgeries; given parentally;…
10 terms
Pharmacology: Pain
all of the following are opiate agonis…
an important principle in the manageme…
which class of antidepressant medicati…
The MOA of opiate analgesics can best…
hydrocodone/ibuprofen or Vicoprofen
prostaglandins are a trigger for type C fibers
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
binding of mu receptors to inhibit nociceptors in the CNS
all of the following are opiate agonis…
hydrocodone/ibuprofen or Vicoprofen
an important principle in the manageme…
prostaglandins are a trigger for type C fibers
41 terms
Pharmacology of pain
Define pain:
Define nociception:
What are the nociceptive fibres?
Where are cell bodies of nociceptors f…
Unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with a…
The neural processes of encoding noxious stimuli
Aδ (thin myelin)... C (no myelin)
1) Dorsal root ganglia... 2) Trigeminal ganglia (head and neck)
Define pain:
Unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with a…
Define nociception:
The neural processes of encoding noxious stimuli
33 terms
Pharmacology - Pain
"Receptors" are either _______________…
Nociception is stimulation of ________…
What are nociceptors?
What is the difference between pain an…
Neuroepithelium, sensory, transmitters (glutamate)... Neurons,…
Nociceptors
Primary afferents that respond to noxious stimuli - Adelta an…
Pain requires cortical awareness (thalamus/cortex)
"Receptors" are either _______________…
Neuroepithelium, sensory, transmitters (glutamate)... Neurons,…
Nociception is stimulation of ________…
Nociceptors
49 terms
Pain Pharmacology
Local Anesthetics
MOA: Block Voltage Gated Na Channels
MOA: Hydrophobic Pathway
Routes of admin Local Anesthesia (phar…
Inhibit propagation or degrade sensory impulses... - first analg…
Local Anesthetics... - weak bases = ionized easily in blood, can…
Local Anesthetics... - unionized form can traverse membrane to r…
-Topical... -Infiltration (inject dilute sol subcut and let diff…
Local Anesthetics
Inhibit propagation or degrade sensory impulses... - first analg…
MOA: Block Voltage Gated Na Channels
Local Anesthetics... - weak bases = ionized easily in blood, can…
43 terms
Pain Pharmacology
Nociception Pathways
1.) Transduction/Nociception
Transduction/Nociception receptors
2.) Transmission
4 stages- ability to feel pain... 1.) Transduction/Nociception... 2…
-nociceptors (specialized primary afferent neurons) convert p…
-activate based in impulse... TRPV1/2/3/TREK1 = heat (ex: capsa…
-up dorsal point of spinal cord to the brain... A-delta and C ar…
Nociception Pathways
4 stages- ability to feel pain... 1.) Transduction/Nociception... 2…
1.) Transduction/Nociception
-nociceptors (specialized primary afferent neurons) convert p…
93 terms
Pharmacology: Pain
What is Pain?
What are the types of pain?
Chronic pain
Nociceptive pain
Subjective to the patient; whatever the patient is feeling
Acute, Chronic, Nociceptive, Neuropathic, and Cancer pain
lasting longer than 6 months
responds to pain by nerve endings
What is Pain?
Subjective to the patient; whatever the patient is feeling
What are the types of pain?
Acute, Chronic, Nociceptive, Neuropathic, and Cancer pain
38 terms
Pain Pharmacology
5 steps of pain
Nociceptive Pain
Neuropathic Pain
Pain receptors
transduction, conduction, transmission, modulation, perception
Goes through transduction, somatic is most common (easy to ID…
damage to nerve terminal, bypasses transduction, hard to treat
free nerve endings that respond to painful stimuli, found in…
5 steps of pain
transduction, conduction, transmission, modulation, perception
Nociceptive Pain
Goes through transduction, somatic is most common (easy to ID…
36 terms
Pain Pharmacology
morphine
codeine
pentazocine
pain
prototype strong narcotic agonist
prototype mild narcotic agonist
prototype narcotic agonist-antagonist
a multidimensional subjective experience encompassing the phy…
morphine
prototype strong narcotic agonist
codeine
prototype mild narcotic agonist
151 terms
Pain Pharmacology
Nonpharm Treatments
Pharmacologic treatment groups
Steps of Analgesic ladder
Acetaminophen:... MOA
Physical therapy, CBT, Stimulation therapy (TENS units), cold…
Analgesics... Adjuvants
Bottom: non-opioid + Adjuvant... Step 2: Opioid for mild to mode…
PEROXIDE DEPENENT COX inhibition vs. COX-1 splice variant... - S…
Nonpharm Treatments
Physical therapy, CBT, Stimulation therapy (TENS units), cold…
Pharmacologic treatment groups
Analgesics... Adjuvants
28 terms
Pain Pharmacology
Acute Pain
Chronic Pain
A-Delta Fiber
C-Fiber
-Occurs in response to tissue trauma... -Accompanied by high le…
-Extends beyond healing period... -Low levels of identified pat…
-Fast, thin, myelinated fiber ... -Localized intense pain ... -Re…
-Small unmyelinated fiber ... -Long lasting pain ... -Slow, throb…
Acute Pain
-Occurs in response to tissue trauma... -Accompanied by high le…
Chronic Pain
-Extends beyond healing period... -Low levels of identified pat…
49 terms
Pharmacology-pain
Opioid identifiers
Opioid MOA
Opioid indications
Opioid contraindications
-morphone, -codone, -morph
Acts on mu, kappa, or delta receptors
Severe pain, induce anesthesia
Severe respiratory disease, GI obstructions, head injury
Opioid identifiers
-morphone, -codone, -morph
Opioid MOA
Acts on mu, kappa, or delta receptors
43 terms
Pharmacology Pain
Opioid
Nonopioids
Opioid Risks
Opioid Benefits
Narcotic... Acts centrally (within CNS), addiction/dependence/t…
Act peripherally, not habit forming, not controlled drugs, no…
Respiratory depression, sedation, nausea, and vomiting. Poten…
Analgesia, surpass the caught reflex, slow the motility of GI…
Opioid
Narcotic... Acts centrally (within CNS), addiction/dependence/t…
Nonopioids
Act peripherally, not habit forming, not controlled drugs, no…
pharmacology; pain
KEY TERMS
Acute pain
Addiction
Adjuvant analgesic drugs
...
Pain that is sudden in onset, usually subsides when treated,…
A chronic, neurobiologic disease whose development is influen…
Drugs that are added for combined therapy with a primary drug…
KEY TERMS
...
Acute pain
Pain that is sudden in onset, usually subsides when treated,…
27 terms
Pain Pharmacology
opioid
Mu receptors
Kappa receptors
morphine
any drug with actions similar to morphine; natural or synthet…
most important opioid receptors - elicit analgesia along with…
2nd most important opioid receptors - only elicit analgesia,…
pure opioid agonist, strong, causes respiratory depression
opioid
any drug with actions similar to morphine; natural or synthet…
Mu receptors
most important opioid receptors - elicit analgesia along with…
35 terms
Pain Pharmacology
WHO Analgesic ladder: step 1
WHO Analgesic ladder: step 2
WHO Analgesic ladder: step 3
AS fibers vs C pain fibers
Non-opiods/adjuvants... - NSAIDs, tylenol, antidepressants, anti…
Weak opioids or strong opioid + adjuvant... - Codeine, tramadol,…
Strong opioids... - Morphine, oxy, hydro, fentanyl
Adelta: fast, sharp pain... C: slow, aching pain
WHO Analgesic ladder: step 1
Non-opiods/adjuvants... - NSAIDs, tylenol, antidepressants, anti…
WHO Analgesic ladder: step 2
Weak opioids or strong opioid + adjuvant... - Codeine, tramadol,…
31 terms
Pain Pharmacology
Aspirin
Ibuprofen... Naproxen
Celecoxib
Acetominophen
NSAID - 1st gen... MOA: irreversibly inhibits COX-1 and COX-2, p…
NSAIDs 1st Gen... MOA: Inhibit COX-1 and COX-2, but not irrevers…
NSAID 2nd gen... MOA: Selectively inhibits COX-2, which preferen…
MOA: inhibits prostaglandin synthesis in the CNS, no PNS acti…
Aspirin
NSAID - 1st gen... MOA: irreversibly inhibits COX-1 and COX-2, p…
Ibuprofen... Naproxen
NSAIDs 1st Gen... MOA: Inhibit COX-1 and COX-2, but not irrevers…
30 terms
Pain Pharmacology
What are the three main subtypes of op…
FOR A BONUS POINT, which is the newly…
Which two neurotransmitters are releas…
Which opioid receptors dominate the an…
Mu, Delta, Kappa
Nociceptor (NOR)
Glutamate AND Substance P
Mu
What are the three main subtypes of op…
Mu, Delta, Kappa
FOR A BONUS POINT, which is the newly…
Nociceptor (NOR)
42 terms
Pain - Pharmacology
Which medication class do you use for…
What do you use for mild migraines?
How is a mild migraine classified?
How is a moderate migraine classified?
Triptans (aka 5-HT1 agonists)
- NSAIDs... - Acetaminophen w/ caffiene or NSAID... - Triptans/ Erg…
Occasional headaches w/ no functional impairment
Has nausea w/ some functional impairment
Which medication class do you use for…
Triptans (aka 5-HT1 agonists)
What do you use for mild migraines?
- NSAIDs... - Acetaminophen w/ caffiene or NSAID... - Triptans/ Erg…
62 terms
Pain Pharmacology
Pain is...
pain that lasts < 3-6 months, or pain…
most caused by tumor pressing on bones…
pain that lasts > 6 months, no underly…
Whatever the patient says it is
Acute Pain
Cancer Pain
Chronic Pain
Pain is...
Whatever the patient says it is
pain that lasts < 3-6 months, or pain…
Acute Pain
69 terms
Pharmacology of pain
2 effects with opioids
Describe the spinal opiate receptor lo…
Describe the supraspinal opiate recept…
Why would you administer a systemic ad…
decrease voltage gated calcium currents (decrease stimulatory…
pre and postsynaptic (dorsal horn); synergistic analgesia wit…
medulla, hypothalamus, periaqueductal grey area, amygdala, ce…
spinal and supraspinal analgesia
2 effects with opioids
decrease voltage gated calcium currents (decrease stimulatory…
Describe the spinal opiate receptor lo…
pre and postsynaptic (dorsal horn); synergistic analgesia wit…
40 terms
PHARMACOLOGY- PAIN
Acute Pain
Chronic Pain
Somatic Pain "healthy nerve ending"
Somatic "body pain"
presence of severe discomfort or... uncomfortable sensation, las…
persistent or recurring pain that continues for more than 6 m…
Pain that occurs because of an actual injury, generally... well-…
pertaining to or characteristic of the body or... wall of the bo…
Acute Pain
presence of severe discomfort or... uncomfortable sensation, las…
Chronic Pain
persistent or recurring pain that continues for more than 6 m…
Pain Pharmacology
transduction
dorsal horn
prostaglandins
voltage activated sodium channels
nociceptors convert a painful stimulus into a nervous impulse
the pain signal first travels to where?
receptors at pain terminals which can activate nociceptive fi…
primary mediators of signal conduction
transduction
nociceptors convert a painful stimulus into a nervous impulse
dorsal horn
the pain signal first travels to where?
16 terms
pharmacology - pain
Morphine
Hydrocodone
Lomotil (Diphenoxylate)
Fentanyl
CII opioid analgesic, derived from poppy and PCA t1/2 = 1.5-7…
CIII semi-synthetic opioid analgesic and antitussive, compoun…
CV if compounded with atropine, antidiarrheal, t1/2 = 12-14 hrs
CII synthetic opioid analgesic indicated for chronic pain, in…
Morphine
CII opioid analgesic, derived from poppy and PCA t1/2 = 1.5-7…
Hydrocodone
CIII semi-synthetic opioid analgesic and antitussive, compoun…
34 terms
Pharmacology of pain
What are some types of pain
Opioids that are naturally produced in…
Opioid receptors in the body
Mechanism of action of morphine
Acute pain... Tissue injury pain... Neuropathic pain... Dysfunctional…
Proopiomelacortin ... Proenkephalin... Prodynorphin
Mu (mu1 and mu2)... Delta (delta1, delta2)... Kappa (kappa1, kappa2…
Binds to opioid receptors and causes an outflux of potassium…
What are some types of pain
Acute pain... Tissue injury pain... Neuropathic pain... Dysfunctional…
Opioids that are naturally produced in…
Proopiomelacortin ... Proenkephalin... Prodynorphin
11 terms
Pharmacology of pain
How is nociceptive pain treated?
How is neuropathic pain treated?
What is somatic nociceptive pain?
What is visceral nociceptive pain?
With opioids and other analgesics
With anticonvulsants, TCA, gabapentin
Easy to describe and locate
Difficult to describe and locate
How is nociceptive pain treated?
With opioids and other analgesics
How is neuropathic pain treated?
With anticonvulsants, TCA, gabapentin
25 terms
Pharmacology - Pain
Physiological Pain
Pathological Pain
Somatic Pain
Visceral Pain
Protective function... Stimulation of pain receptors or nocicep…
Generally no benefit... Central neuropathic pain... Disorders with…
Caused by injury and stimulation of pain receptors in the ski…
Results from the activation of pain receptors in the thoracic…
Physiological Pain
Protective function... Stimulation of pain receptors or nocicep…
Pathological Pain
Generally no benefit... Central neuropathic pain... Disorders with…
53 terms
pharmacology for pain
Are non opioid medications addicting?
Which drug does NOT have anti inflamma…
Which non NSAID medication is safe in…
What is the MAJOR adverse effect of Ac…
Non opioid meds are non addicting
Acetaminophen (tylenol)
Acetaminophen (tylenol)
liver toxicity
Are non opioid medications addicting?
Non opioid meds are non addicting
Which drug does NOT have anti inflamma…
Acetaminophen (tylenol)
30 terms
Pain Pharmacology
Factors to consider for providing anal…
Approaches
Concept of prescribing
WHO Analgesic Ladder Step 1 ... Outdated…
Intensity of pain ... Expected course of pain ... Ability to take o…
WHO Analgesic ladder ... Multi-modal analgesia ... - simultaneous…
Baseline analgesia ... - usually paracetamol ... Stand-by analgesia…
Step 1: Mild Pain ... - aspirin (ASA) ... - acetaminophen (APAP) ... -…
Factors to consider for providing anal…
Intensity of pain ... Expected course of pain ... Ability to take o…
Approaches
WHO Analgesic ladder ... Multi-modal analgesia ... - simultaneous…
40 terms
Pharmacology pain
fifth vital sign
nociceptors
detects pain first
transduction
pain
special type of nerve cell to detect noxious stimuli
nociceptors
noxious stimulus transformed to electrical signals in nerves
fifth vital sign
pain
nociceptors
special type of nerve cell to detect noxious stimuli
Pain Pharmacology
Lidocaine - Local anesthetic
NSAIDs e.g. aspirin, ibuprofen, parace…
Opioids e.g. morphine, codeine
Nitrates
Na channel blockers, highest affinity for inactivated or clos…
Inhibit COX which produces eicosanoids ... Prostaglandins sensit…
Interact with the endogenous opioid system
...
Lidocaine - Local anesthetic
Na channel blockers, highest affinity for inactivated or clos…
NSAIDs e.g. aspirin, ibuprofen, parace…
Inhibit COX which produces eicosanoids ... Prostaglandins sensit…
39 terms
Pain Pharmacology
Classification of types of pain
Nociceptive pain
neuropathic pain
Neuropathic pain treatment
Duration (acute, chronic, or mixed), Etiology (CA related or…
ascending pain transmission via spinal cord to cortex for pro…
either peripheral or central from changes in dorsal horn neur…
NSAIDs generally not effective and opioids have limited effic…
Classification of types of pain
Duration (acute, chronic, or mixed), Etiology (CA related or…
Nociceptive pain
ascending pain transmission via spinal cord to cortex for pro…
26 terms
Pain Pharmacology
Morphine, Codeine, Oxycodone, hydromor…
Meperidine, fentanyl
Methadone, propoxyphene
Morphine
Phenanthrenes
Phenylpiperidines
Diphenylheptanes
pure agonist
Morphine, Codeine, Oxycodone, hydromor…
Phenanthrenes
Meperidine, fentanyl
Phenylpiperidines
52 terms
Pain Pharmacology
Local anaesthetics mode of action
NSAIDs mode of action
NSAID effects
Prostaglandins
Na channel blockers. Decrease number of channels available to…
COX inhibitors
Anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic, analgeisc
Sensitise nociceptors to other mediators
Local anaesthetics mode of action
Na channel blockers. Decrease number of channels available to…
NSAIDs mode of action
COX inhibitors
70 terms
Pain Pharmacology
Anesthetics
Analgesics
Gate Control Theory
Adjuvant medications
Depresses CNS characterized by absence of all sensory modalit…
Relieve pain without LOC
Non-painful stimuli shuts the gate to painful stimuli, preven…
-Medications that enhance efficacy of primary medications... -Ca…
Anesthetics
Depresses CNS characterized by absence of all sensory modalit…
Analgesics
Relieve pain without LOC
19 terms
Pain Pharmacology
NSAIDs
Corticosteroids
Antiseptics/disinfectants
Antibiotics, penicillins
aspirin, naproxen, ibuprofen, ketorolac, diclofenac, celecoxib
Hydrocortisone (Cortef, Solu-Cortef), methylprednisolone (Sol…
alcohol, providone-iodine, chlorhexidine, hydrogen peroxide
ampicillin (Omnipen), dicloxacillin (Dycill)
NSAIDs
aspirin, naproxen, ibuprofen, ketorolac, diclofenac, celecoxib
Corticosteroids
Hydrocortisone (Cortef, Solu-Cortef), methylprednisolone (Sol…
33 terms
Pain pharmacology
Transduction
Transmission
Perception
Modulation
Delta (sharp) and beta (proprioception) for peripheral nocice…
Peripheral nerve to dorsal horn. Action of opioids, alpha 2 a…
Ascending input to brain. Action of opioid alpha 2 agonists,…
Feedback to spinal tract. Action of TCAs, SSRIs, SNRIs
Transduction
Delta (sharp) and beta (proprioception) for peripheral nocice…
Transmission
Peripheral nerve to dorsal horn. Action of opioids, alpha 2 a…
91 terms
Pain pharmacology
Angelgesic means?
Non-option drugs mean?
Opioids drugs mean?
Anesthesia means?
Pain relief
Containing no opioid
Do contain opioid
Loss of sensation or feeling
Angelgesic means?
Pain relief
Non-option drugs mean?
Containing no opioid
35 terms
Pharmacology of pain
pain
nociception
mutation in NGF or its receptor (TrKa)
nociceptor fibres
unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with a…
neural process of encoding noxious stimuli
congenital insensitivity to pain ... fibres that sense noxious s…
c/ A-delta
pain
unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with a…
nociception
neural process of encoding noxious stimuli
47 terms
Pharmacology & pain
Opioids adverse effects
Opioids transdermal patches
Opioids breakthrough pain
Opioid tolerance
euphoria, CNS depression leading to respiratory depression, N…
rotate sites, remove old before applying new, gloves, put in…
between high, long standing doses of this, PRN meds used for…
everyone has a different tolerance, take so many that you bui…
Opioids adverse effects
euphoria, CNS depression leading to respiratory depression, N…
Opioids transdermal patches
rotate sites, remove old before applying new, gloves, put in…
51 terms
Pain Pharmacology
morphine
3 receptor classes of opioid receptors
4 classifications of opiod analgesics
stong agonists examples
opioid
mu, kappa, delta
strong agonists... mild to moderate agonists... mixed agonists-an…
fetanyl... hyrdomorphone (Dilaudid)... meperidine (demerol)... morp…
morphine
opioid
3 receptor classes of opioid receptors
mu, kappa, delta
58 terms
pain pharmacology
local anesthesetics
mechanism of action
ion trapping
hydrophobic pathway
loss of sensation in limited region of the body by BLOCKING V…
block voltage gated Na channels ... at body pH, they are ionized…
At a pH equal to the protonatedbase's pKa, the ionized and un…
move laterally through plasma membrane to reach site of action
local anesthesetics
loss of sensation in limited region of the body by BLOCKING V…
mechanism of action
block voltage gated Na channels ... at body pH, they are ionized…
25 terms
PHARMACOLOGY and PAIN
Two parts to pain
noxious stimuli
Pain pathway (STT)
sensory cortex
physical and psychological
stimuli that causes pain
nocireceptor to dorsal horn to synapse-->STT to ascend to tha…
conciousness of pain
Two parts to pain
physical and psychological
noxious stimuli
stimuli that causes pain
12 terms
Pharmacology of Pain
Prototype for opioid agonist
indications/MOA for morphine sulfate
adverse effects and contraindications…
Mixed agonist and antagonist opioid in…
Morphine sulfate
acute and chronic severe pain, chest pain with MI, SOB in ter…
CNS and respiratory depression, decrease peristalsis and urin…
ability to treat severe pain is not as good, but less fewer a…
Prototype for opioid agonist
Morphine sulfate
indications/MOA for morphine sulfate
acute and chronic severe pain, chest pain with MI, SOB in ter…
31 terms
Pharmacology - pain
Barriers to pain management?
What are the 2 classifications of pain?
What are the 5 principles when treatin…
What is the dose for acetaminophen?
Inadequate knowledge of HC professionals... Cultural and social…
Nociceptive - Somatic and Visceral... Neuropathic
1. treat around the clock... 2. use max dose... 3. switch to a diff…
325mg or less q 4-6 hours
Barriers to pain management?
Inadequate knowledge of HC professionals... Cultural and social…
What are the 2 classifications of pain?
Nociceptive - Somatic and Visceral... Neuropathic
51 terms
Pain Pharmacology
Mechanism of Action of Local Anesthetics
Local Anesthetics in teh flood
Where do you inject an epidural block?
Where do you inject a spinal block?
Blocks voltage gated sodium channels.
Most are weak bases so in the blood they are ionized and don'…
just above the dura
into the cerebral spinal fluid via the subarachnoid space
Mechanism of Action of Local Anesthetics
Blocks voltage gated sodium channels.
Local Anesthetics in teh flood
Most are weak bases so in the blood they are ionized and don'…
155 terms
Pharmacology of Pain
Basic Strategies of Pain Control
Drugs used for Periphery intervention
Central acting drugs
Analgesic Ladder
Attenuation or blockade of pain through intervention at the p…
NSAIDs - Later... Capsaicin... Local anesthetics... Glucocorticoids (a…
Antiepileptics ... Antidepresants ... Opioids... Muscle relaxants (adj…
Step 1: Mild pain: non-opioid, with or without adjuncts and n…
Basic Strategies of Pain Control
Attenuation or blockade of pain through intervention at the p…
Drugs used for Periphery intervention
NSAIDs - Later... Capsaicin... Local anesthetics... Glucocorticoids (a…
35 terms
Pharmacology of Pain
Non-opioid analgesics
Opioid analgesics
Anticoagulants
Glucocorticoids
Act primarily in peripheral tissues to inhibit the formation…
Act primarily in the spinal cord and brain to inhibit the neu…
Intensify anticoagulant effects
Promote gastric ulceration
Non-opioid analgesics
Act primarily in peripheral tissues to inhibit the formation…
Opioid analgesics
Act primarily in the spinal cord and brain to inhibit the neu…
61 terms
Pharmacology of pain
step 1 (WHO) - mild pain
step 2 (WHO) - moderate pain
step 3 (WHO) - severe pain
Non-opioids include...
non-opioid, with or without adjuncts and non-drug strategies
Weak opioids +/- Step 1 +/- adjunct / non-drug strategies
Potent opioids +/- Step 1 +/- adjunct / non-drug strategies
APAP ... NSAIDS: ... - Celexcoxib (Celebrex) ... - Diclofenac (Voltare…
step 1 (WHO) - mild pain
non-opioid, with or without adjuncts and non-drug strategies
step 2 (WHO) - moderate pain
Weak opioids +/- Step 1 +/- adjunct / non-drug strategies
45 terms
Pain Pharmacology
What is the an opioid?
What is an opiate?
What are the three families of endogen…
Most of the opioids act on what type o…
opioids are agents that have function and pharmacological pro…
An opiate is a compound that is structurally related to opium
enkephalins... endorphins... dynorphins
mu receptors (MOR)
What is the an opioid?
opioids are agents that have function and pharmacological pro…
What is an opiate?
An opiate is a compound that is structurally related to opium
1 of 10