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Study sets matching "patho"

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Study sets matching "patho"

97 terms
Pathology
Cell adaptation
atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, met…
atrophy
thymus undergoing involution, ovaries…
prolonged exposure of cells to adverse or exaggerated normal…
6 ways a cell adapts to change
decrease in the size of a tissue, organ, or the entire body
examples of physiologic atrophy
Cell adaptation
prolonged exposure of cells to adverse or exaggerated normal…
atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, met…
6 ways a cell adapts to change
5 terms
Pathology
Fat Embolism Skin
Fat Embolism X-ray
Pop eye sign
Types of Gastric Ulcers
Torn Long Head of Biceps:... Weakness with Supination, flexion s…
Fat Embolism Skin
Fat Embolism X-ray
178 terms
pathology
heart muscles become enlarged as a for…
cell death... can be caused by ischemia,…
reduced blood supply
enlarged cells - resulting in increase…
what will the heart do in response to increased hemodynamic l…
what is the end result of progressive cell injury
ischemia
hypertrophy
heart muscles become enlarged as a for…
what will the heart do in response to increased hemodynamic l…
cell death... can be caused by ischemia,…
what is the end result of progressive cell injury
166 terms
Pathology
Oedema
Autophagy
Senescence
Proliferation
Swelling due to build of fluid in the tissue.
Intracellular degradation, self digestion. Lysosomal degradat…
Biological aging
Growing expansion of cells in number and size
Oedema
Swelling due to build of fluid in the tissue.
Autophagy
Intracellular degradation, self digestion. Lysosomal degradat…
429 terms
Pathology
Other side first
Swelling (from cellular accumulations…
Gathering of cells e.g. neutrophils at…
Intracellular degradation of cytoplasm…
This side first
Define oedema.
Define cellular accumulations.
Define autophagy.
Other side first
This side first
Swelling (from cellular accumulations…
Define oedema.
84 terms
Pathology
4 Types of Cell Adaptation
2 Patterns of Cell Death
Difference between postmortem and ante…
3 Outcomes of Cell Injury
Hypertrophy, Atrophy, Hyperplasia, Metaplasia
Necrosis, Apoptosis
Antemortem will show a host immune system
Recovery, Die, Live Damaged
4 Types of Cell Adaptation
Hypertrophy, Atrophy, Hyperplasia, Metaplasia
2 Patterns of Cell Death
Necrosis, Apoptosis
68 terms
Pathology
Serous Cystadenoma... Single layer fallop…
Primary endometriod carcinoma
Clear Cell Carcinoma
Granulosa Cell Tumor... Call exner bodies
Serous Cystadenoma... Single layer fallop…
Primary endometriod carcinoma
27 terms
Pathology
Define Alveolar, what's the appearance…
Define Basaloid, what's the appearance…
Define biphasic what's the appearance…
Define cribiform what's the appearance…
Resembles alveoli, little sacs or nests that has structure to…
Resembles a basal cell CA, a blue nested tumor with packed, p…
Has 2 cell lineages, spindled cells with islands epitheloid c…
Perforated with well formed holes within a glandular lumen... P…
Define Alveolar, what's the appearance…
Resembles alveoli, little sacs or nests that has structure to…
Define Basaloid, what's the appearance…
Resembles a basal cell CA, a blue nested tumor with packed, p…
84 terms
Pathology
Normal esophagus... • Non-keratinizing sq…
GERD... • Basal cell hyperplasia exceedin…
Barrett's esophagus... • Replacement of s…
Eosinophilic esophagitis... • Eosinophili…
Normal esophagus... • Non-keratinizing sq…
GERD... • Basal cell hyperplasia exceedin…
76 terms
Pathology
BRCA1 and BRCA 2
philadelphia chromosome (:22 in chroni…
Dominant negative effect
Oncogenes
Are tumor suppressor genes whose protein products function in…
produced from a reciprocal translocation invloving the ABL on…
loss of one allele leads to disease, Osteogenesis imperecta,…
c-myc in burkitts lymphoma
BRCA1 and BRCA 2
Are tumor suppressor genes whose protein products function in…
philadelphia chromosome (:22 in chroni…
produced from a reciprocal translocation invloving the ABL on…
72 terms
Pathology
hypertrophy and atrophy of heart
hypertrophy and atrophy of heart (micr…
hyperplasia vs normal (prostate)
metaplasia (lung)
hypertrophy and atrophy of heart
hypertrophy and atrophy of heart (micr…
106 terms
Pathology
Pathology
Pathophysiology
Disease
Illness
Study of the nature and course of disease and its impact on b…
The study of how normal physiological processes are altered b…
Measured by objective data; significant physiological change;…
Subjective; individuals perception of not feeling well and th…
Pathology
Study of the nature and course of disease and its impact on b…
Pathophysiology
The study of how normal physiological processes are altered b…
99 terms
Pathology
Cell adaptation
atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, met…
atrophy
physiologic vs. pathologic
prolonged exposure of cells to adverse or exaggerated normal…
6 ways a cell adapts to change
decrease in the size of a tissue, organ, or the entire body
two types of atrophy
Cell adaptation
prolonged exposure of cells to adverse or exaggerated normal…
atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, met…
6 ways a cell adapts to change
241 terms
Pathology
fordyce granules
torus palatinus
mandibular tori
melanin pigmentation
-most common buccal mucosa and lips... -tiny, yellow lobules in…
-exophytic growth of normal compact bone... -more common in fema…
-exophytic growth of normal compact bone... -genetic
-variant of normal... -brown-gray pigmented mucosa... -most promine…
fordyce granules
-most common buccal mucosa and lips... -tiny, yellow lobules in…
torus palatinus
-exophytic growth of normal compact bone... -more common in fema…
359 terms
Pathology
Coalescence
Stafne bone cyst contains what?
what is apparent in leukoedema?
angular cheilitis, NUG, and nutritiona…
lesion in which part or a whole are fused, or joined, togethe…
salivary gland tissue
- intercellular edema in spinal cell... - acanthosis of epitheli…
stafne bone cyst
Coalescence
lesion in which part or a whole are fused, or joined, togethe…
Stafne bone cyst contains what?
salivary gland tissue
321 terms
Pathology
edema
effusion
exudate
transudate
accumulation of fluids within tissues
accumulation of fluids within body cavities
inflammatory edema with pus and inflammatory cells
noninflammatory, straw-colored edema without inflammatory cells
edema
accumulation of fluids within tissues
effusion
accumulation of fluids within body cavities
98 terms
Pathology
Hypertrophy
Hyperplasia
Hypertrophy and Hyperplasia
Atrophy
(heart): increase cell/tissue size, non-dividing, in response…
increase cell # by cell division, in response to hormones and…
frequently together, from same external stimulus to increase…
(brain): Decreased cell and organ size, from decreased nutrie…
Hypertrophy
(heart): increase cell/tissue size, non-dividing, in response…
Hyperplasia
increase cell # by cell division, in response to hormones and…
263 terms
Pathology
Pathology
Lesion
Pathogenesis
Etiology
science and study of disease
pathological change in a cell/tissue
a sequence of events that lead to or underlie a disease
the causative agent
Pathology
science and study of disease
Lesion
pathological change in a cell/tissue
82 terms
Pathology
Giant cell arteritis
2 types of granulomatous vasculitis
Takayasu arteritis
Polyarteritis nodosa
"Temporal arteritis"... Affects muscular arteries ... usually affec…
Giant cell... Takayasu
"Pulseless disease"... most commonly affects aorta, near aortic…
involves renal and visceral arteries and their branches... hallm…
Giant cell arteritis
"Temporal arteritis"... Affects muscular arteries ... usually affec…
2 types of granulomatous vasculitis
Giant cell... Takayasu
176 terms
pathology
elastic
coronary
renal
aorta
able to stretch and return to its original size and shape
connected with the heart, particularly the arteries that take…
relating to or involving the kidneys
the main artery that carries blood from the heart to the rest…
elastic
able to stretch and return to its original size and shape
coronary
connected with the heart, particularly the arteries that take…
88 terms
Pathology
Hyperplasia
Physiological hyperplasia
Pathological hyperplasia
Hypertrophy
An increase in size due to increase in the number of cells…
Hormonal ... Compensatory
Excess hormones or growth factors
An increase in size due to increase in the size of cells du…
Hyperplasia
An increase in size due to increase in the number of cells…
Physiological hyperplasia
Hormonal ... Compensatory
110 terms
pathology
hyperplasia
hypertrophy
size
hypertrophy
increased number of cells from stress; stem cells necessary
increased size of cells via protein synthesis and production…
hyperplasia and hypertrophy both result in increase of _____…
cardiac muscle gets bigger by what method?
hyperplasia
increased number of cells from stress; stem cells necessary
hypertrophy
increased size of cells via protein synthesis and production…
600 terms
pathology
What is the term for an abnormal amoun…
True or false? Klinefelter syndrome ca…
What form of sunlight is the most carc…
What renal pathology involves uniform…
Keloid
True
Ultraviolet B (UVB) sunlight
Membranous glomerulonephritis
What is the term for an abnormal amoun…
Keloid
True or false? Klinefelter syndrome ca…
True
524 terms
Pathology
liquefactive necrosis
gangrenous necrosis
caseous necrosis
fat necrosis
- brain infarction (ischemic stroke, red neurons!)... - abscess…
- ischemia of lower limb & GI tract (dry gangrene)... - if super…
- soft, friable necrotic tissue with "cottage cheese-like" ap…
- necrotic adipose tissue with chalky-white appearance due to…
liquefactive necrosis
- brain infarction (ischemic stroke, red neurons!)... - abscess…
gangrenous necrosis
- ischemia of lower limb & GI tract (dry gangrene)... - if super…
63 terms
Pathology
Intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis path…
What apoptosis pathway is involved wit…
BAX and BAK
Bcl2
Both pathways lead to activation of cytosolic caspases that m…
Intrinsic pathway
pro-apoptotic proteins
Anti-apoptotic. Prevents cytochrome c release by binding and…
Intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis path…
Both pathways lead to activation of cytosolic caspases that m…
What apoptosis pathway is involved wit…
Intrinsic pathway
156 terms
Pathology
hypertrophy
hyperplasia
atrophy
metaplasia
Increased demand of a cell will cause the cell to increase in…
Increased stimulation of certain cells will lead to an increa…
Decreased demand of a certain cell will cause it to decrease…
Chronic chemical or physical irritation (such as cigarette sm…
hypertrophy
Increased demand of a cell will cause the cell to increase in…
hyperplasia
Increased stimulation of certain cells will lead to an increa…
393 terms
Pathology
relating to or denoting any disease or…
is a chronic idiopathic inflammatory s…
Contraindication for Ance Rosacea
is a condition of sebaceous glands usu…
Idiopathic
Acne Rosacea
Local massage is contraindicated to due exacerbation
Acne Vulgaris
relating to or denoting any disease or…
Idiopathic
is a chronic idiopathic inflammatory s…
Acne Rosacea
534 terms
Pathology
Sepsis
Exotic Infections
Childhood Infections
Gynecologic Tumor Epidemiology
A constellation of clinical/lab findings that lead to suspici…
Treponema (not sexually transmitted)... - Yaws: papillomatous no…
Measles (Rubeola)... - paramyxovirus (-ssRNA w/ envelope)... - 4Cs…
Incidence (US)... endometrial>ovarian>cervical... Incidence (world…
Sepsis
A constellation of clinical/lab findings that lead to suspici…
Exotic Infections
Treponema (not sexually transmitted)... - Yaws: papillomatous no…
725 terms
Pathology
Often precedes squamous cell carcinoma
1° adrenocortical deficiency
Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia (in and…
Albuminocytologic dissociation
Actinic keratosis
Addison's disease
Albright's syndrome (aka McCune-Albright syndrome)
Guillain-Barre (↑ protein in CSF with only modest ↑in cell co…
Often precedes squamous cell carcinoma
Actinic keratosis
1° adrenocortical deficiency
Addison's disease
151 terms
PATHOLOGY
2 major proteins in plasma
RBCs contain __________________
megakaryocytes
functions of blood
ALBUMIN ... GLOBULINS
hemoglobin for oxygen transportation
found in bones only... no nucleus... platelets / thrombocytes bre…
TRANSPORTS... REGULATES... RESPONDS-STRESS... COAGULATES
2 major proteins in plasma
ALBUMIN ... GLOBULINS
RBCs contain __________________
hemoglobin for oxygen transportation
162 terms
Pathology
Constantly dividing cells such as hema…
Cells with normally a low level of rep…
Example of stable tissues
Steps of wound healing:
Labile tissues
Stable (quiescent) tissues
epithelial cells of the liver, kidney, adrenal, and thyroid g…
1) Hemostasis: clotting of blood (platelets & fibrin)... 2) Infl…
Constantly dividing cells such as hema…
Labile tissues
Cells with normally a low level of rep…
Stable (quiescent) tissues
182 terms
Pathology
Describe cytoplasm changes that indica…
How does the nucleus react to the chan…
What is the ultimate indication of dea…
The pattern of necrosis depends on wha…
Loss of cytoplasmic RNA ... disaggregation of polysomes... denatura…
Chromatin condensation - pyknosis... Chromatin fragmentation - k…
Irreparable damage to cell membrane
-type of injury... -the tissue involved... -the environment surroun…
Describe cytoplasm changes that indica…
Loss of cytoplasmic RNA ... disaggregation of polysomes... denatura…
How does the nucleus react to the chan…
Chromatin condensation - pyknosis... Chromatin fragmentation - k…
494 terms
Pathology
Four Aspects of Disease
Gross observations
Size
Hypertrophy
1)Etiology/cause... 2)Pathogenesis... 3)Morphological changes... 4)Fun…
-size... -shape... -color... -consistency/texture... -location
Increased: hypertrophy, hyperplasia, accumulation of material…
increase in cell SIZE... no new cells, just bigger
Four Aspects of Disease
1)Etiology/cause... 2)Pathogenesis... 3)Morphological changes... 4)Fun…
Gross observations
-size... -shape... -color... -consistency/texture... -location
8 terms
Pathology
Spinal Ependymoma
Spinal Hemangioma
Spinal Meningioma
Spinal Metastasis
Most common tumor of spinal cord. Benign, slow-growing.
Benign lesion, slow-growing vascular tumor. Do not cause prob…
Spinal Meningioma are benign, slow-growing, hard, vascular, i…
Metastatic disease that affects the vertebrae. Devastation co…
Spinal Ependymoma
Most common tumor of spinal cord. Benign, slow-growing.
Spinal Hemangioma
Benign lesion, slow-growing vascular tumor. Do not cause prob…
Pathology
Define Alveolar, what's the appearance…
Define Basaloid, what's the appearance…
Define biphasic what's the appearance…
Define cribiform what's the appearance…
Resembles alveoli, little sacs or nests that has structure to…
Resembles a basal cell CA, a blue nested tumor with packed, p…
Has 2 cell lineages, spindled cells with islands epitheloid c…
Perforated with well formed holes within a glandular lumen... P…
Define Alveolar, what's the appearance…
Resembles alveoli, little sacs or nests that has structure to…
Define Basaloid, what's the appearance…
Resembles a basal cell CA, a blue nested tumor with packed, p…
136 terms
Pathology
Benign gland with basal and secretory…
chronic abacterial prostatitis
mechanism of infection for bacterial p…
acute bacterial prostatitis causative…
-it is indistinguishable from chronic bacterial prostatitis c…
-intraprostatic reflux of urine... -seed prostate via lymphohema…
Results from bacterial similar to those seen in urinary tract…
Benign gland with basal and secretory…
chronic abacterial prostatitis
-it is indistinguishable from chronic bacterial prostatitis c…
37 terms
Pathology
Localized TYPe hypersensitity insect b…
Urticaria, type I hypersentitivit
Asthma,... smooth muscle hypertrohpy:... Typ…
asthma;... yellow thickening/wrinkling of…
Localized TYPe hypersensitity insect b…
Urticaria, type I hypersentitivit
38 terms
Pathology
Leiomyosarcoma
Leiomyoma
Leiomyosarcoma
Rhabdomyosarcoma
Leiomyosarcoma
Leiomyoma
25 terms
Pathology
adenocarcinoma (glands)
adenocarcinoma (glands)
Tubulovillous Adenoma of Colon on Stal…
Sqamous cells with prominent intercell…
adenocarcinoma (glands)
adenocarcinoma (glands)
280 terms
Pathology
What are the 5 Ts of early cyanosis, o…
[...] is a congenital heart disease ca…
[...] is a congenital heart disease ca…
D-transposition of great vessels is du…
Truncus arteriosis (1 vessel)... Transposition (2 switched vesse…
Persistent truncus arteriosus... pg 288
D-transposition of great vessels... Failure of aorticopulmonary…
D-transposition of great vessels is due to a failure of aorti…
What are the 5 Ts of early cyanosis, o…
Truncus arteriosis (1 vessel)... Transposition (2 switched vesse…
[...] is a congenital heart disease ca…
Persistent truncus arteriosus... pg 288
145 terms
pathology
3 ways to active mast cell
4 things to active neutrophils
immunology 介導的pain(dolor)跟什麼因子有關
inflammation, lead to vasodilation by…
1. tissue trauma... 2. C3a, C5a... 3. IgE binding
LTB4... C5a... IL-8... bacterial products... -----------------... mast cell:…
LTE2(fever and pain)... kinin system(bradykinin)
histamine... PGI,D,E2(I Do dilEation)--E2(fever and pain)... bradyk…
3 ways to active mast cell
1. tissue trauma... 2. C3a, C5a... 3. IgE binding
4 things to active neutrophils
LTB4... C5a... IL-8... bacterial products... -----------------... mast cell:…
60 terms
Pathology
Bartter's syndrome
Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (…
Gitelman's syndrome
Liddle's syndrome
Genetic mutation resulting in diminished function of the Na+/…
AD genetic disorder resulting in hypercalcemia.... CaSR is mutat…
Genetic disorder resulting in a mutated (reduced function) Na…
Genetic disorder resulting in a gain of function of... ENaC chan…
Bartter's syndrome
Genetic mutation resulting in diminished function of the Na+/…
Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (…
AD genetic disorder resulting in hypercalcemia.... CaSR is mutat…
Pathology
Apoptosis - Intrinsic Pathway
Apoptosis - Extrinsic Pathway
Neoplasia
G6PD Isoforms
Involved in tissue remodeling in embryogenesis... Occurs when th…
Pathway activated by (1) FasL/Fas binding or (2) Cytotoxic T-…
Unregulated, irreversible, monoclonal tissue growth... Can be be…
Can determine clonality in women... G6PD genes are X linked and…
Apoptosis - Intrinsic Pathway
Involved in tissue remodeling in embryogenesis... Occurs when th…
Apoptosis - Extrinsic Pathway
Pathway activated by (1) FasL/Fas binding or (2) Cytotoxic T-…
130 terms
Pathology
What are the 4 stages of the inflammat…
What is a bronchopneumonia? What type…
What is the most common community acqu…
What are the distinguishing features o…
1. Congestion. Heavy, red boggy lung. Few neutrophils and bac…
Acute, suppurative inflammation ... Often bilateral, multi-lobar…
Streptococcus pneumoniae... (most lobar PNA)
Gram (+) lancet shaped diplococci... Young, old, CHF, COPD, DM
What are the 4 stages of the inflammat…
1. Congestion. Heavy, red boggy lung. Few neutrophils and bac…
What is a bronchopneumonia? What type…
Acute, suppurative inflammation ... Often bilateral, multi-lobar…
77 terms
Pathology
List and explain 2 types of necrosis
What is liquefactive necrosis and give…
What is coagulative necrosis and give…
What is caseous necrosis and give exam…
COAGULATIVE NECROSIS: this occurs to denaturing of proteins (…
type of necrosis of tissue, ex in the brain ... > enzymatic dige…
ex: myocardial infarct ... degeneration of proteins ... in MI: ther…
>"cheesy" white appearance on gross specimens ... >characteristi…
List and explain 2 types of necrosis
COAGULATIVE NECROSIS: this occurs to denaturing of proteins (…
What is liquefactive necrosis and give…
type of necrosis of tissue, ex in the brain ... > enzymatic dige…
99 terms
Pathology
Atrophy
Hypertrophy
Hyperplasia
Metaplasia
Decrease in size and function of organ or tissue due to decre…
Increase in the size of cells resulting in larger/increased v…
Increase in the number of cells in organ or tissue. Breast hy…
The replacement of one differentiated cell type by another. F…
Atrophy
Decrease in size and function of organ or tissue due to decre…
Hypertrophy
Increase in the size of cells resulting in larger/increased v…
266 terms
Pathology
Histone modifications (methylation, ac…
DNA methylation
Lymphatic metastasis happens in what t…
Neoplasia definition
Methylation - lysine and arginine; transcriptionally activate…
Done by methyltransferases; silences
Carcinomas
uncontrolled disorderly proliferation of cells; result = new…
Histone modifications (methylation, ac…
Methylation - lysine and arginine; transcriptionally activate…
DNA methylation
Done by methyltransferases; silences
60 terms
Pathology
genetic inheritance pattern for marfan's
gene mutation that causes a mutation o…
mutated gene in ehler's danlos that pl…
CGG repeats
autosomal dom
fibrilin
tenascin-X
fragile X
genetic inheritance pattern for marfan's
autosomal dom
gene mutation that causes a mutation o…
fibrilin
160 terms
Pathology
Normal human breast undergoes changes…
Lobules stain with?
lobule lactational change is determine…
lobule benign age related change:
Sex steroid hormones... Pituitary peptide hormones... Autocrine and…
lactalbumin
hobnail cytoplasm
columnar cell change
Normal human breast undergoes changes…
Sex steroid hormones... Pituitary peptide hormones... Autocrine and…
Lobules stain with?
lactalbumin
55 terms
pathology
sessile
pedunculated
polypoid tumour
papillary tumour
What is this?
What is this?
What is this?
What is this?
sessile
What is this?
pedunculated
What is this?
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