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Study sets matching "pathophysiology exam 5"

91 terms
Pathophysiology Exam 5 (New Topics)
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Causes
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Patho
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease S/S
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Major Comp…
- acute inflammatory process caused by infection ... - mostly ca…
- microbial infection ... - ascend into the cervix into the intr…
- infertility ... - tubular abscesses ... - dull abdominal pain gra…
- vary: sudden low bilateral abdomen pain, slow steady onset,…
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Causes
- acute inflammatory process caused by infection ... - mostly ca…
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Patho
- microbial infection ... - ascend into the cervix into the intr…
188 terms
Pathophysiology Exam 5
UNIT 9
Greatest volume of pulmonary blood flow
What are expected changes in the pulmo…
Changes in lung volume with age
...
Usually occurs in gravity dependent areas of the lung. Body p…
Lung compliance increases and VC decreases, RV increases, Ven…
UNIT 9
...
Greatest volume of pulmonary blood flow
Usually occurs in gravity dependent areas of the lung. Body p…
26 terms
Pathophysiology Exam 5
What is Immunity
Innate immunity
Adaptive Immunity
Types of innate immunity
Cells & molecules responsible for defending against pathogens…
Natural/Native Response... Present at birth,Cells and proteins a…
Acquired/specific Response... Cells silent and react to infectio…
Microbes gets into Epithelial barriers, phagocytes, complemen…
What is Immunity
Cells & molecules responsible for defending against pathogens…
Innate immunity
Natural/Native Response... Present at birth,Cells and proteins a…
66 terms
Exam 5 - Pathophysiology
3 major components of the endocrine sy…
Positive feedback system effects
Negative feedback system effects
Growth hormone (GH) is also called...
glands, hormones, and receptors
to amplify or accentuate
to control and stabilize
somatotropin
3 major components of the endocrine sy…
glands, hormones, and receptors
Positive feedback system effects
to amplify or accentuate
168 terms
Pathophysiology exam 5
Osteoclasts
Osteoblasts
Role of PTH in maintaining bone mass/c…
Sources of vitamin D
break down bone
build up bone
PTH is released when blood calcium levels decrease... Sustained…
Vitamin D is needed to absorb dietary calcium, and is absorbe…
Osteoclasts
break down bone
Osteoblasts
build up bone
99 terms
Pathophysiology Exam 5
(5.1) cerebral edema
(5.2) the cause of vasogenic cerebral…
(5.3) the meaning and cause of cytotox…
(5.4) intracranial pressure meaning an…
- produces increased cranial pressure and this disturbs norma…
- usual edema mechanism → ↑ ISF... - often due to capillary netw…
- cellular swelling (not truly edema) ... - cause: pump failure…
- measured by measuring pressure on the CSF... - compress arteri…
(5.1) cerebral edema
- produces increased cranial pressure and this disturbs norma…
(5.2) the cause of vasogenic cerebral…
- usual edema mechanism → ↑ ISF... - often due to capillary netw…
99 terms
Pathophysiology Exam 5
(5.1) cerebral edema
(5.2) the cause of vasogenic cerebral…
(5.3) the meaning and cause of cytotox…
(5.4) intracranial pressure meaning an…
- produces increased cranial pressure and this disturbs norma…
- usual edema mechanism → ↑ ISF... - often due to capillary netw…
- cellular swelling (not truly edema) ... - cause: pump failure…
- measured by measuring pressure on the CSF... - compress arteri…
(5.1) cerebral edema
- produces increased cranial pressure and this disturbs norma…
(5.2) the cause of vasogenic cerebral…
- usual edema mechanism → ↑ ISF... - often due to capillary netw…
157 terms
Pathophysiology Exam 5
Skeletal system
Elements of bone tissue
Bone cells
Osteiod
Forms the body... Supports tissues and provides leverage and giv…
Rigid connective tissue... Consists of:... Cells and fibers... Ground…
Enable bone to grill, repair, synthesize new bone tissue and…
Non-mineralized bone matrix... Osteoblasts initiate new bone for…
Skeletal system
Forms the body... Supports tissues and provides leverage and giv…
Elements of bone tissue
Rigid connective tissue... Consists of:... Cells and fibers... Ground…
1,026 terms
Pathophysiology Exam 5
what are the functions of the pancreas?
what do all three of these take part in?
what does insulin do?
what does insulin do to serum glucose?
-produces insulin ... -produces amylin... -produces glucagon
either the production or uptake of glucose
transports glucose to the cell to be utilized. can also store…
lowers it
what are the functions of the pancreas?
-produces insulin ... -produces amylin... -produces glucagon
what do all three of these take part in?
either the production or uptake of glucose
99 terms
Pathophysiology Exam 5
(5.1) cerebral edema
(5.2) the cause of vasogenic cerebral…
(5.3) the meaning and cause of cytotox…
(5.4) intracranial pressure meaning an…
- produces increased cranial pressure and this disturbs norma…
- usual edema mechanism → ↑ ISF... - often due to capillary netw…
- cellular swelling (not truly edema) ... - cause: pump failure…
- measured by measuring pressure on the CSF... - compress arteri…
(5.1) cerebral edema
- produces increased cranial pressure and this disturbs norma…
(5.2) the cause of vasogenic cerebral…
- usual edema mechanism → ↑ ISF... - often due to capillary netw…
55 terms
Pathophysiology Exam 5
GERD
Pyloric stenosis
Achalasia
Hiatal Hernia
A condition causing a backflow of stomach acid through an inc…
narrowing of the pyloric sphincter that blocks the passage of…
muscles of the lower part of the esophagus fail to relax, pre…
A condition in which part of the stomach pushes through an op…
GERD
A condition causing a backflow of stomach acid through an inc…
Pyloric stenosis
narrowing of the pyloric sphincter that blocks the passage of…
136 terms
Pathophysiology Exam 5
Define hormone, ligand, receptor
Allostasis
Permissive hormone action
what happens when the negative feedbac…
Hormone- chem messenger released into body that binds target…
Modifies homeostasis the brain will change regulations, suc…
1st hormone binds which in turn allows the cell to respond fu…
T3 and T4 work as negative feedback to halt secretion of thyr…
Define hormone, ligand, receptor
Hormone- chem messenger released into body that binds target…
Allostasis
Modifies homeostasis the brain will change regulations, suc…
124 terms
Pathophysiology Exam 5
neoplasia
benign neoplasm
malignant neoplasm
what is the second leading cause of de…
cancer, a development of abnormal growth that is unresponsive…
-no invasion to adjacent tissue boarders... -slow growth rate... -n…
-invade adjacent tissue boarders... -usually undifferentiated ... -…
cancer... -men: prostate... -women: breast
neoplasia
cancer, a development of abnormal growth that is unresponsive…
benign neoplasm
-no invasion to adjacent tissue boarders... -slow growth rate... -n…
92 terms
Pathophysiology Exam 5 Flashcards
What does cerebral edema cause?
What causes vasogenic cerebral edema?
What is cytotoxic cerebral edema? What…
What is intracranial pressure? How doe…
- increased intracranial pressure... - disturbs normal functioni…
- usual mechanism of edema (upset in 4 forces, disruption of…
- cellular swelling (not true edema)... decreased energy -> decr…
- pressure in the cranial vault, measured by pressure on CSF…
What does cerebral edema cause?
- increased intracranial pressure... - disturbs normal functioni…
What causes vasogenic cerebral edema?
- usual mechanism of edema (upset in 4 forces, disruption of…
99 terms
Pathophysiology Exam 5
(5.1) cerebral edema
(5.2) the cause of vasogenic cerebral…
(5.3) the meaning and cause of cytotox…
(5.4) intracranial pressure meaning an…
- produces increased cranial pressure and this disturbs norma…
- usual edema mechanism → ↑ ISF... - often due to capillary netw…
- cellular swelling (not truly edema) ... - cause: pump failure…
- measured by measuring pressure on the CSF... - compress arteri…
(5.1) cerebral edema
- produces increased cranial pressure and this disturbs norma…
(5.2) the cause of vasogenic cerebral…
- usual edema mechanism → ↑ ISF... - often due to capillary netw…
245 terms
Pathophysiology Exam 5 (Reproductive)
Milky breast secretion of a non-pregna…
What is another name for galactorrhea?
What are some causes of galactorrhea?
Women with galactorrhea may also have
Galctorrhea
Nonpeurperal hyperprolactinemia
1) Drugs... 2) Hypothyroidism... 3) Pituitary tumors... 4) Neurologic…
1) Hirsutism ... 2) Infertility... 3) Headache... 4) Visual disturbanc…
Milky breast secretion of a non-pregna…
Galctorrhea
What is another name for galactorrhea?
Nonpeurperal hyperprolactinemia
192 terms
Pathophysiology Exam 5 (Endocrine)
What are two endocrine disorders of th…
What are three endocrine disorders of…
What are three endocrine disorders of…
What is one endocrine disorder of the…
1) Hypothyroidism ... 2) Hyperthyroidism
1) Adrenal insufficiency... 2) Cushing's Disease/Syndrome... 3) Phe…
1) Diabetes Insipidus ... 2) SIADH ... 3) Growth alterations
Diabetes mellitus
What are two endocrine disorders of th…
1) Hypothyroidism ... 2) Hyperthyroidism
What are three endocrine disorders of…
1) Adrenal insufficiency... 2) Cushing's Disease/Syndrome... 3) Phe…
142 terms
Pathophysiology Exam 5 (GI)
The "upper" GI includes which part of…
The "lower" GI includes which part of…
Not having the desire to eat
Anorexia can be _________ or _________
Duodenum
Jejunum
Anorexia
Psychological or physical
The "upper" GI includes which part of…
Duodenum
The "lower" GI includes which part of…
Jejunum
83 terms
NU 327 Pathophysiology Exam 5
pH
HCO3- bicarbonate
PaCO2
metabolic acidosis- low pH
7.35-7.45
22-26
35-45
Relative excess of any acid except carbonic or a decrease in…
pH
7.35-7.45
HCO3- bicarbonate
22-26
123 terms
Pathophysiology Exam 5 (Renal)
What are (2) congenital issues of the…
What are some obstructive disorders of…
What are some infections of the kidneys?
Small kidney with decreased number of…
1) Hypoplastic Kidneys... 2) Polycystic Kidneys
1) Calculi ... 2) Neurogenic Bladder ... 3) Anatomic Problems ... 4) T…
1) Cystitis ... 2) Pyelonephritis ... 3) Glomerulonephritis
Hypoplastic Kidney
What are (2) congenital issues of the…
1) Hypoplastic Kidneys... 2) Polycystic Kidneys
What are some obstructive disorders of…
1) Calculi ... 2) Neurogenic Bladder ... 3) Anatomic Problems ... 4) T…
26 terms
pathophysiology exam 5
congenital cataracts
nystagmus
anotia
microtia
clouding of lense that is present at birth
rapid involuntary eye movement
abscence of auricle
underdeveloped small auricle
congenital cataracts
clouding of lense that is present at birth
nystagmus
rapid involuntary eye movement
Pathophysiology Exam 5
what are the pathophysiological altera…
what is osmotic diarrhea?
what is secretory diarrhea?
what is motility diarrhea?
neurogenic disorders... functional or mechanical conditions... low-…
something non-absorbable in intestines draws in more water (e…
mucosal lining secretes more fluid and electrolytes... usually b…
an increase in peristalsis... food is not mixed properly --> imp…
what are the pathophysiological altera…
neurogenic disorders... functional or mechanical conditions... low-…
what is osmotic diarrhea?
something non-absorbable in intestines draws in more water (e…
Pathophysiology Exam 5
Fracture and Inflammatory Stage
Granulation tissue formation
Callus Formation
Lamellar bone deposition
In the inflammatory phase, bleeding initially occurs between…
Fibroblasts are attracted to the area of injury and there is…
During this phase of healing, a callus is formed, which consi…
This fourth phase is a strengthening phase where ossification…
Fracture and Inflammatory Stage
In the inflammatory phase, bleeding initially occurs between…
Granulation tissue formation
Fibroblasts are attracted to the area of injury and there is…
Pathophysiology Exam 5
Pathophysiology of retinopothy
manifestations of retinopothy
treatments of retinopothy
diabetic retinopothy
...
...
...
...
Pathophysiology of retinopothy
...
manifestations of retinopothy
...
14 terms
Pathophysiology Exam 5
Osteoblasts
Osteoclasts
Released when blood calcium levels dec…
Three ways PTH level raise blood calci…
-Build up bone (lay down the extracellular matrix)
-Chew up bone (break down the extracellular matrix)
PTH
1. from bone... 2. from kidneys... 3. from intestines
Osteoblasts
-Build up bone (lay down the extracellular matrix)
Osteoclasts
-Chew up bone (break down the extracellular matrix)
64 terms
Pathophysiology Exam 5
nephroblastoma
acute renal failure
chronic kidney disease
hemodialysis
(Wilm's Tumor) affects infants and children under 4 / usually…
results from decreased blood flow to the kidney, disorders th…
represents the progressive decline in kidney function due to…
patients circulation connected to artificial kidney machine
nephroblastoma
(Wilm's Tumor) affects infants and children under 4 / usually…
acute renal failure
results from decreased blood flow to the kidney, disorders th…
334 terms
Pathophysiology Exam 5
Endocrine Structure and Function
Endocrine Functions
Hormones
Autocrine hormones
...
-differentiate reproductive system ... -stimulate growth and dev…
-Autocrine... -Paracrine ... -Endocrine
signals within cell (ex: when insulin is released from the be…
Endocrine Structure and Function
...
Endocrine Functions
-differentiate reproductive system ... -stimulate growth and dev…
157 terms
Pathophysiology exam 5
importance of nervous system
identify the parts of the nervous system
central nervous system
peripheral nervous system
-nervous system receives stimuli from the internal and extern…
-central nervous system... -peripheral nervous system... -autonomic…
-brain and spinal cord
-cranial and spinal nerves... -somatic nervous system regulates…
importance of nervous system
-nervous system receives stimuli from the internal and extern…
identify the parts of the nervous system
-central nervous system... -peripheral nervous system... -autonomic…
134 terms
Pathophysiology Exam-5
Myelin sheath- CNS
Myelin sheath- PNS
Glial cell types
Astroglia
oligodendroglia
schwann cells
astroglia, oligodendroglia, microglia
link between neurons and capillaries, contribute to the blood…
Myelin sheath- CNS
oligodendroglia
Myelin sheath- PNS
schwann cells
74 terms
Exam 5 Pathophysiology
renal cortex
nephron
concentration of urine
Nephron inside the kidney
Where is the location of the glomeruli?
What is the functional unit of the kidney?
What is the purpose of juxtamedullary nephrons?
Where is urine made?
renal cortex
Where is the location of the glomeruli?
nephron
What is the functional unit of the kidney?
147 terms
Pathophysiology Exam 5
Conducting
Respiratory
Tidal Volume
What are the parts of the airway?
Sections of the respiratory tract which do not directly parti…
Sections of the respiratory tract that DO participate in gas…
At rest breathing
Mouth, Larynx, Pharyx, Bronchi, Trachea
Conducting
Sections of the respiratory tract which do not directly parti…
Respiratory
Sections of the respiratory tract that DO participate in gas…
1,026 terms
Pathophysiology Exam 5
what are the functions of the pancreas?
what do all three of these take part in?
what does insulin do?
what does insulin do to serum glucose?
-produces insulin ... -produces amylin... -produces glucagon
either the production or uptake of glucose
transports glucose to the cell to be utilized. can also store…
lowers it
what are the functions of the pancreas?
-produces insulin ... -produces amylin... -produces glucagon
what do all three of these take part in?
either the production or uptake of glucose
18 terms
Pathophysiology Exam 5
Osmolality
Osmotic forces
Aquaporins
Starling hypothesis
the body's electrolyte-water balance
always changing (not static) & determine if fluid moves out o…
a family of water channel proteins that provide permeability…
Net filtration= forces favoring filtration - opposing filtrat…
Osmolality
the body's electrolyte-water balance
Osmotic forces
always changing (not static) & determine if fluid moves out o…
101 terms
Pathophysiology Exam 5
Iron Deficiency Anemia
Pernicious Anemia (Vitamin B12 Deficie…
Folic Acid Deficiency
Chronic Disease Anemia
Caused by low iron. Microcytic. MCV is 76.
Macrocytic. Caused by Atrophic gastritis, autoimmune destruct…
Macrocytic. MCV is 110. Caused by alcoholism, dietary deficie…
Normocytic. MCV is 82. The most common etiology is an autoimm…
Iron Deficiency Anemia
Caused by low iron. Microcytic. MCV is 76.
Pernicious Anemia (Vitamin B12 Deficie…
Macrocytic. Caused by Atrophic gastritis, autoimmune destruct…
448 terms
Pathophysiology Exam 5
1. Spermatogenesis... 2. Sexual performan…
Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
Testosterone
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
3 function of the male reproductive system
Stimulates Leydig cells to secrete testosterone
Secreted by Leydig cells in the teste for growth/differentiat…
Stimulates Sertoli cells (convert spermatids to sperm)
1. Spermatogenesis... 2. Sexual performan…
3 function of the male reproductive system
Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
Stimulates Leydig cells to secrete testosterone
29 terms
Exam 5 Pathophysiology
Between S1 and S2
Between S2 and S1
Stenosis of aortic/pulmonic valves res…
Regurgitation of aortic/pulmonic valve…
systole
diastole
systolic murmur
diastolic murmur
Between S1 and S2
systole
Between S2 and S1
diastole
Pathophysiology Exam 5
(5.1) cerebral edema
(5.2) the cause of vasogenic cerebral…
(5.3) the meaning and cause of cytotox…
(5.4) intracranial pressure meaning an…
- produces increased cranial pressure and this disturbs norma…
- usual edema mechanism → ↑ ISF... - often due to capillary netw…
- cellular swelling (not truly edema) ... - cause: pump failure…
- measured by measuring pressure on the CSF... - compress arteri…
(5.1) cerebral edema
- produces increased cranial pressure and this disturbs norma…
(5.2) the cause of vasogenic cerebral…
- usual edema mechanism → ↑ ISF... - often due to capillary netw…
333 terms
Pathophysiology Exam 5
What is the site of MAJOR hormone secr…
What classification of hormones are re…
What are the polypeptide hormones
What are the modified amino acid hormo…
Gland
Paracrine or Autocrine
1. Hypothalamic Hormones... 2. Pituitary Hormones... 3. Pancreatic…
Thyroid ... Catecholamines
What is the site of MAJOR hormone secr…
Gland
What classification of hormones are re…
Paracrine or Autocrine
13 terms
Pathophysiology exam 5
Respiratory obstructive diseases
Emphysema
Alveolar tissue is referring to....
The reduction in alveolar number _____…
Respiratory Ventilation diseases can be obstructive or restri…
1. Destroys your lungs and alveoli ... 2. Defined more by change…
Lung paremchyma
Reduces surface area for gas exchange; ability of bronchioles…
Respiratory obstructive diseases
Respiratory Ventilation diseases can be obstructive or restri…
Emphysema
1. Destroys your lungs and alveoli ... 2. Defined more by change…
250 terms
Pathophysiology Exam 5
small intestine
what does the small intestine extend f…
parts of the small intestine
duodenum
-major digestive and absorptive organ of the body... -digestion…
-the pyloric sphincter to the ileocecal valve
-duodenum... -jejunum... -ileum
-receives the pancreas and liver secretions that mix with the…
small intestine
-major digestive and absorptive organ of the body... -digestion…
what does the small intestine extend f…
-the pyloric sphincter to the ileocecal valve
182 terms
Pathophysiology Exam 5
CHAPTER 56
Stages of Bone Remodeling:
Lay down the extracellular matrix... (bui…
Break down the extracellular matrix... (c…
2 questions
1. Osteoblasts and osteoclasts are formed when they are neede…
Osteoblasts
Osteoclasts
CHAPTER 56
2 questions
Stages of Bone Remodeling:
1. Osteoblasts and osteoclasts are formed when they are neede…
74 terms
Pathophysiology Exam 5
Peristalsis
Sphincters involved in propulsion of f…
Melena
Hematemesis
coordinated, sequential contraction and relaxation that trans…
Upper esophageal: keeps air from entering esophagus during re…
black or tarry stools; caused by blood protein; increased BUN
blood in vomit; fresh and bright red or digested and coffee g…
Peristalsis
coordinated, sequential contraction and relaxation that trans…
Sphincters involved in propulsion of f…
Upper esophageal: keeps air from entering esophagus during re…
171 terms
Pathophysiology Exam 5
glomerular filtration rate
urea
obstructive uropathy
uropathy
renal blood filtered per unit of time... -directly related to re…
a composite of nitrogenous waste that needs to be excreted
any conditions tat blocks out such free flow of urine out of…
can cause urine to back up from the ureter into the renal pel…
glomerular filtration rate
renal blood filtered per unit of time... -directly related to re…
urea
a composite of nitrogenous waste that needs to be excreted
142 terms
Pathophysiology Exam 5
Tumors
What suffix means tumor
Characteristics of benign neoplasms
Undifferentiated cells
Neoplasms- mass of cells due to overgrowth... Malignant- bad, ca…
Oma
Slow progressive rate of growth that may come to a standstill…
Less like tissue of origin, more stem cell like... As cells beco…
Tumors
Neoplasms- mass of cells due to overgrowth... Malignant- bad, ca…
What suffix means tumor
Oma
99 terms
Pathophysiology Exam 5
(5.1) cerebral edema
(5.2) the cause of vasogenic cerebral…
(5.3) the meaning and cause of cytotox…
(5.4) intracranial pressure meaning an…
excess accumulation of fluid in the intracellular or extracel…
breakdown of the tight endothelial junctions that make up the…
- cellular swelling (not truly edema; no increase in ISF) ... -…
- MEANING = the pressure inside the skull and thus in the bra…
(5.1) cerebral edema
excess accumulation of fluid in the intracellular or extracel…
(5.2) the cause of vasogenic cerebral…
breakdown of the tight endothelial junctions that make up the…
99 terms
Pathophysiology Exam 5
(5.1) cerebral edema
(5.2) the cause of vasogenic cerebral…
(5.3) the meaning and cause of cytotox…
(5.4) intracranial pressure meaning an…
- produces increased cranial pressure and this disturbs norma…
- usual edema mechanism → ↑ ISF... - often due to capillary netw…
- cellular swelling (not truly edema) ... - cause: pump failure…
- measured by measuring pressure on the CSF... - compress arteri…
(5.1) cerebral edema
- produces increased cranial pressure and this disturbs norma…
(5.2) the cause of vasogenic cerebral…
- usual edema mechanism → ↑ ISF... - often due to capillary netw…
261 terms
EXAM 5 PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
Neuropathic Pain
Neuropathic Pain: ETIOLOGY
Neuralgias
3 types of Neuralgias
different types of pain... Injury associated with injury or dise…
Nerve "entrapment or compression" from External Forces or Dis…
severe... brief... reoccurring ... - throbbing pain associated with a…
Trigeminal ... Postherpetic... Phantom Limb pain
Neuropathic Pain
different types of pain... Injury associated with injury or dise…
Neuropathic Pain: ETIOLOGY
Nerve "entrapment or compression" from External Forces or Dis…
150 terms
Pathophysiology Exam 5
Water soluble vs water insoluble hormo…
Factors that change ratio of free vs b…
Paracrine
Endocrine
Soluble: free; peptides, catecholemines... - second messengers (…
1. change in concentration of proteins (liver damage, malnutr…
affects same cell type within the same tissue
goes into blood to affect another tissue
Water soluble vs water insoluble hormo…
Soluble: free; peptides, catecholemines... - second messengers (…
Factors that change ratio of free vs b…
1. change in concentration of proteins (liver damage, malnutr…
99 terms
Pathophysiology Exam 5
(5.1) cerebral edema
(5.2) the cause of vasogenic cerebral…
(5.3) the meaning and cause of cytotox…
(5.4) intracranial pressure meaning an…
- produces increased cranial pressure and this disturbs norma…
- usual edema mechanism → ↑ ISF... - often due to capillary netw…
- cellular swelling (not truly edema) ... - cause: pump failure…
- measured by measuring pressure on the CSF... - compress arteri…
(5.1) cerebral edema
- produces increased cranial pressure and this disturbs norma…
(5.2) the cause of vasogenic cerebral…
- usual edema mechanism → ↑ ISF... - often due to capillary netw…
89 terms
Pathophysiology exam 5
What is the function of osteoblasts?
What do osteoblasts respond to?
What do osteoclasts respond to?
What is the function of osteoclasts?
to form new bone
Parathyroid hormones
low levels of circulating calcium
Bone resorption, releasing calcium and phosphate
What is the function of osteoblasts?
to form new bone
What do osteoblasts respond to?
Parathyroid hormones
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