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Study sets matching "pharm pharmacology 4"

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Study sets matching "pharm pharmacology 4"

22 terms
Pharm 13 - Cholinergic Pharmacology
Choline has high affinity for uptake i…
How is ACh synthesized and stored?
ACh is hydrolyzed into ___ in how much…
Where do direct-acting cholinomimetics…
Na+; hemicholinium
Synthesis: via choline acetyl transferase (CHAT)... Storage: tak…
Choline and acetate; 1 millisecond
Direct - M or N receptor... Indirect: AChE inhibitor
Choline has high affinity for uptake i…
Na+; hemicholinium
How is ACh synthesized and stored?
Synthesis: via choline acetyl transferase (CHAT)... Storage: tak…
28 terms
PHARM 220: Pharmacology: VTE
What are the three categories of antit…
Which three substances that are import…
When platelets get activated, what hap…
Protein S causes proteolysis of factor…
Antiplatelet... Anticoagulant... Fibrinolytic
TxA2... Serotonin... ADP
Changes conformation to bind fibrinogen and cross-link platel…
VIIIa
What are the three categories of antit…
Antiplatelet... Anticoagulant... Fibrinolytic
Which three substances that are import…
TxA2... Serotonin... ADP
42 terms
PHARM Pharmacology of Psychotropic Medications
Elderly
40
women
Neurochemical
Who has the highest risk of suicide?
What is the mean onset of depression?
Who is depression more prevalent in?
Depression is ____________
Elderly
Who has the highest risk of suicide?
40
What is the mean onset of depression?
32 terms
Pharm - 6- Pharmacology of Pain
Primary afferent nerves
primary afferent transmitters
primary afferent fiber types
peripheral sensitization - overall eff…
- cell body in dorsal root ganglion... - projection to dorsal horn
- glutamate... - substance P... - CGRP... (pain carrying transmitters)
A-B (large, myelinated)... A-d (small, myelinated)... C (small, non…
↑ generator potentials... ↑ action potentials
Primary afferent nerves
- cell body in dorsal root ganglion... - projection to dorsal horn
primary afferent transmitters
- glutamate... - substance P... - CGRP... (pain carrying transmitters)
41 terms
Pharmacology - basic princ of pharm
toxicology
pharmacotherapeutics
pharmacodynamics
pharmacokinetics
the study of the harmful effects of chemicals
use of specific drugs to prevent, treat or diagnose disease
- analysis of drug impact on the body: mechanism of action... -…
how the drug is handled in the body... three divisions: absorpti…
toxicology
the study of the harmful effects of chemicals
pharmacotherapeutics
use of specific drugs to prevent, treat or diagnose disease
37 terms
Pharm 5221 Pharmacology
Pharmacology
Drug Substance
Drug Product
Pharmacokinetics
The study of the effects of chemical substances on living sys…
Substances that bring about a change in a biological function…
The finished dosage form (e.g., capsule or ointment) that con…
How the body handles a drug (ADME; Absorption, Distribution,…
Pharmacology
The study of the effects of chemical substances on living sys…
Drug Substance
Substances that bring about a change in a biological function…
Pharm Lecture 76- Receptor Pharmacology
Drug-Receptor Complex (DR)
Types of Receptors
voltage gated channel
Ligand gated channel
- Macromolecule by which the ligand interacts to induce a cel…
1)an agonist will bind which will open a channel (eg.sodium,…
*the channel is opened by a difference in voltage... *ex/ sodiu…
*something has to bind ... *ex/a barbiturate will bind to the G…
Drug-Receptor Complex (DR)
- Macromolecule by which the ligand interacts to induce a cel…
Types of Receptors
1)an agonist will bind which will open a channel (eg.sodium,…
56 terms
Pharmacology: orientation to pharm
therapeutic response
non-therapeutic response
onset
peak
target response
adverse effects (side effects)
time until initial effect
highest concentration
therapeutic response
target response
non-therapeutic response
adverse effects (side effects)
47 terms
Pharm - 22 - Endocrine Pharmacology
Agents used to treat DM
Anterior pituitary hormones
Diabetics are at increased risk for:
Oral health in diabetics is linked to:
- insulins... - Sulfonylureas... - Meglitinides... - Biguanides... - Thia…
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (T4, T3)
-periodontal disease... - fungal infections... - poor post-op healing
glucose homeostasis
Agents used to treat DM
- insulins... - Sulfonylureas... - Meglitinides... - Biguanides... - Thia…
Anterior pituitary hormones
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (T4, T3)
133 terms
PHARM: Pharmacology Test 1
define drug
define pharmacology
define therapeutics
how does the ideal medication exist?
Any chemical that can affect living processes. ... By this defi…
The study of drugs and their interactions with living systems…
aka pharmacotherapeutics. The medical use of drugs.
In theory only: there is no such thing as a perfect drug.
define drug
Any chemical that can affect living processes. ... By this defi…
define pharmacology
The study of drugs and their interactions with living systems…
22 terms
Pharm: Ocular Pharmacology Fitz
Closed angle glaucoma
Open angle glaucoma
Route of absorption of anti-glaucoma m…
Cholinergic Agonists MOA (Pilocarpine)
iris abnormally positioned to block aqueous outflow through a…
aqueous outflow pathway diminished, most common, usually due…
Topical as 1st line... -pass rapidly through nasolacrimal duct i…
Pilocarpine, incr trabecular aqueous outflow by contracting c…
Closed angle glaucoma
iris abnormally positioned to block aqueous outflow through a…
Open angle glaucoma
aqueous outflow pathway diminished, most common, usually due…
46 terms
Pharm Exam 1-Pharmacology for Nursing
Pharmacology comes from the greek work…
Pharmacology definition
Drug definition
Pharmacodynamics
Poision or potion/the study of poison
The study of the manner in which the function of living syste…
Any chemical substance other than those required for normal s…
How drugs interact with cells, tissues, and organs
Pharmacology comes from the greek work…
Poision or potion/the study of poison
Pharmacology definition
The study of the manner in which the function of living syste…
23 terms
Pharm TECH (pharmacology)(Digestive)
antacids
H2 antagonists
proton pump inhibitors
coating agent
neutralize stomach acid to prevent reflux
blocks gastric acid
helps with acid reflux
forms coat over ulcer against gastric acid, pepsin and bile s…
antacids
neutralize stomach acid to prevent reflux
H2 antagonists
blocks gastric acid
18 terms
Pharmacology- cardiovascular pharm- antihyperlipidemics (cholesterol)
Hyperlipidemia ... Ideal values
Hypertriglyceridemia
Total cholesterol (Tc) =
Low density lipoprotein is dependent o…
Causes about half of all deaths in the united states, correla…
Refers to elevation of triglycerides, such as acute pancreati…
Hdl+ ldl+ vldl (tg/5) ... So Tc-hdl-vldl=ldl (lol tells you if…
Risk factors such as sex, age, smoking history, high blood pr…
Hyperlipidemia ... Ideal values
Causes about half of all deaths in the united states, correla…
Hypertriglyceridemia
Refers to elevation of triglycerides, such as acute pancreati…
19 terms
Pharm- CNS Pharmacology
sedative/hypnotic, anxiolytics, hypnot…
insomnia, anxiety, seizures, alcohol w…
antidepressant
xerostomia and bruxism
What are the three types of antianxiety agents?
What are antianxiety agents used for?
What drugs inhibit reuptake of norepinephrine/serotonin and i…
What are adverse effects of antidepressants agents related to…
sedative/hypnotic, anxiolytics, hypnot…
What are the three types of antianxiety agents?
insomnia, anxiety, seizures, alcohol w…
What are antianxiety agents used for?
128 terms
Pharm- endocrine pharmacology
Endocrine Glands
Hypothalamus
Pituatry
Anterior lobe
...
-responsible for the control and release of hormones that are…
-gland is responsible for making a number of hormones that ar…
-GH... -LH... -FASH... -TSH... -ACTH... -Pr
Endocrine Glands
...
Hypothalamus
-responsible for the control and release of hormones that are…
108 terms
Pharm - Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Largest area of Pharmacology?
Control of BP
Classes of BP Medications
What do Diuretics do?
Cardiovascular meds
System BP ... MAP = (HR x SV) x TPR ... Therefore, any medication…
- diuretics ... - ACE inhibitors and ARBs... - vasodilators ... - alph…
Act on kidneys... - increase excretion of sodium and water ... - de…
Largest area of Pharmacology?
Cardiovascular meds
Control of BP
System BP ... MAP = (HR x SV) x TPR ... Therefore, any medication…
38 terms
Pharm 8 Introduction to Autonomic Pharmacology
What part of the ANS is known as the t…
What part of the ANS is known as the c…
The innervation of what organ does not…
Is the parasympathetic or sympathetic…
sympathetic
parasympathetic
adrenal medulla
sympathetic system
What part of the ANS is known as the t…
sympathetic
What part of the ANS is known as the c…
parasympathetic
16 terms
Pharm- Pharmacology Principles
Pharmacokinetics
Pharmacokinetics
Absorption
Distribution
Study of drug movement throughout the body
Composed of 4 processes: absorption, distribution, metabolism…
movement of a drug from its site of administration into the b…
drug movement from the blood to the interstitial space of tis…
Pharmacokinetics
Study of drug movement throughout the body
Pharmacokinetics
Composed of 4 processes: absorption, distribution, metabolism…
26 terms
Pharmacology: Intro to Pharm
Pharmacology:
Toxicology:
Pharmacy:
Prescription medication:
"Pharmacology is the biomedical science concerned with the in…
"Toxicology is the science of poisons and toxicity. It focuse…
"the science and profession concerned with the preparation, s…
drugs whose sale is restricted and available only with a pres…
Pharmacology:
"Pharmacology is the biomedical science concerned with the in…
Toxicology:
"Toxicology is the science of poisons and toxicity. It focuse…
79 terms
Pharmacology: General Pharm
Indications
Contraindications
Pharmacokinetics
Pharmacodynamics
reasons for using a drug
reasons for not using a drug
the way drugs move into, through, and out of the body
the mechanisms of action of a drug and its biological & physi…
Indications
reasons for using a drug
Contraindications
reasons for not using a drug
14 terms
Pharmacology- endocrine pharm- antithyroid drugs
Thyroid gland ... Together the hormones…
Thyroid hormones are critical for
The ratio between the two hormones is…
Thyroid metabolism affects
Gland of anatomical prominence that secretes the thyroid horm…
Nervous, skeletal, and reproductive tissues
4:1 (T4:T3), but T3 is is three to four times more potent tha…
the metabolism of drugs, food products, secretion of hormones
Thyroid gland ... Together the hormones…
Gland of anatomical prominence that secretes the thyroid horm…
Thyroid hormones are critical for
Nervous, skeletal, and reproductive tissues
18 terms
Pharmacology: Autonomic Pharm
Cholinomimetic Esters: acetylcholine
Cholinomimetic Esters: Methacholine
Cholinomimetic Esters: Carbachol
Cholinomimetic Esters: Bethanechol
Cataract surgery (produces complete miosis). Muscarinic and N…
Asthma Diagnosis Muscarinic. Very similar to ACh. Longer dura…
Glaucoma (lower intraocular pressure); eye surgery *Muscarini…
Relief of urinary retention; GER-gastroesphageal refulx Musca…
Cholinomimetic Esters: acetylcholine
Cataract surgery (produces complete miosis). Muscarinic and N…
Cholinomimetic Esters: Methacholine
Asthma Diagnosis Muscarinic. Very similar to ACh. Longer dura…
8 terms
Pharm - Ocular Pharmacology
Brimonidine
Timolol/ Carteolol
Betoxolol
Epinephrine
Decreases production. A2 autoreceptor agonist. Stimulated Gi…
B1/ B2 antagonists. Block activation of Gs and decreases cAMP
B1 antagonist. Less effective but will not cause breathing pr…
A1 and A2 agonist. Useful for open angle glaucoma due to vaso…
Brimonidine
Decreases production. A2 autoreceptor agonist. Stimulated Gi…
Timolol/ Carteolol
B1/ B2 antagonists. Block activation of Gs and decreases cAMP
114 terms
Pharmacology Pharm sem
Target protein mediated
Structural proteins
Tubulins... Microtubules
Vincristine and Paclitaxel -antineopla…
Alter the physiology
Form cell framework and cytoskeleton
Important during mitosis under structural protein, it has axo…
Example drugs of structural protein (3)
Target protein mediated
Alter the physiology
Structural proteins
Form cell framework and cytoskeleton
22 terms
Pharm Final: Intro to Pharmacology (FINAL)
What are the rights of medication admi…
Oral administration advantages/disadva…
GI tubes advantages/disadvantages
Sub Q injection advantages/disadvantages
right drug, right dose, right patient, right route, right tim…
Simple - can be used by most people. Convenient and inexpensi…
For patients who cannot take oral, can be used for long perio…
Generally painless, small needles can be used, insulin and he…
What are the rights of medication admi…
right drug, right dose, right patient, right route, right tim…
Oral administration advantages/disadva…
Simple - can be used by most people. Convenient and inexpensi…
54 terms
Pharm: CNS Pharmacology
______ was a drug use for hypertension…
____ inhibits the storage of amine NTs…
_____ is due to decreased amine-depend…
The prototypical agent of tricyclic an…
Reserpine
Reserpine
Depression
Amitriptyline
______ was a drug use for hypertension…
Reserpine
____ inhibits the storage of amine NTs…
Reserpine
58 terms
pharm 2 pharmacology
VTE
DVT
pain location associated with VTE
risk factors for VTE
venous thrombo embolism
deep vein thrombosis
not always in the same place as the clot
over 75 yrs. cancer. hx of VTE. obesity. immobility. (prego,…
VTE
venous thrombo embolism
DVT
deep vein thrombosis
116 terms
Pharm 38 Pharmacology of Cancer
antimetabolites
adenine and guanine
cytosine, thymine and uracil
nucleosides
inhibit the synthesis of nucleotides and thus DNA and RNA
purines
pyrimidines
purines/pyrimidines conjugated to ribose/deoxyribose
antimetabolites
inhibit the synthesis of nucleotides and thus DNA and RNA
adenine and guanine
purines
92 terms
Pharm 512 - Pharmacology of Hypertension
3 classes of Diuretics
3 Thiazide diuretics drugs
3 Loop diuretics
2 Potassium diuretics
Thiazide diuretics ... Loop diuretics ... Potassium- sparing diuret…
Chlorthalidone ... Hydrochlorothiazide... Indapamide
Bumetanide ... Furosemide ... Torsemide
Amiloride ... Triamterene
3 classes of Diuretics
Thiazide diuretics ... Loop diuretics ... Potassium- sparing diuret…
3 Thiazide diuretics drugs
Chlorthalidone ... Hydrochlorothiazide... Indapamide
160 terms
Pharm - Autonomic Pharmacology
why can't you just administer straight…
physiologic functions of Ach
what is bethanechol (urecholine) used…
how does bethanechol (urecholine) work?
it cannot penetrate membranes and it is rapidly inactivated b…
decreases heart rate, cardiac output, blood pressure; increas…
urinary atony (postpartum and post operative non-obstructive…
stimulates detrusor muscle while trigone and sphincter are re…
why can't you just administer straight…
it cannot penetrate membranes and it is rapidly inactivated b…
physiologic functions of Ach
decreases heart rate, cardiac output, blood pressure; increas…
543 terms
Pharmacology Final use for pharm!
2 pralidoxime (2-PAM) -
5-Fluorouracil (5-FU)
6-Mercaptopurine (6-MP)
6-Thioguanine (6-TG)
restore Acetyl cholinesterase activity after organophosphate…
Increases thyroid TBG levels
antimetabolite, antineoplasm, purine analog
inhib B and T cell fxn, prodrug of this is azathioprine, use…
2 pralidoxime (2-PAM) -
restore Acetyl cholinesterase activity after organophosphate…
5-Fluorouracil (5-FU)
Increases thyroid TBG levels
36 terms
Pharm 8 Introduction to Autonomic Pharmacology
What part of the ANS is known as the t…
What part of the ANS is known as the c…
The innervation of what organ does not…
Is the parasympathetic or sympathetic…
sympathetic
parasympathetic
adrenal medulla
sympathetic system
What part of the ANS is known as the t…
sympathetic
What part of the ANS is known as the c…
parasympathetic
23 terms
Pharmacology 3 pharm class
Escitalopram oxalate (Lexapro)
lorazepram (Ativan)
zolpidem (Ambien)
phenobarbital (Luminal)
selective serotonin uptake inhibitor
benzoodiazepine, GABA receptor agonist
nonbenzodiazepine GABA receptor agonist, non barbituate CNS d…
barbituate, GABA receptor aonist
Escitalopram oxalate (Lexapro)
selective serotonin uptake inhibitor
lorazepram (Ativan)
benzoodiazepine, GABA receptor agonist
160 terms
Pharm - Autonomic Pharmacology
why can't you just administer straight…
physiologic functions of Ach
what is bethanechol (urecholine) used…
how does bethanechol (urecholine) work?
it cannot penetrate membranes and it is rapidly inactivated b…
decreases heart rate, cardiac output, blood pressure; increas…
urinary atony (postpartum and post operative non-obstructive…
stimulates detrusor muscle while trigone and sphincter are re…
why can't you just administer straight…
it cannot penetrate membranes and it is rapidly inactivated b…
physiologic functions of Ach
decreases heart rate, cardiac output, blood pressure; increas…
160 terms
Pharm - Autonomic Pharmacology
why can't you just administer straight…
physiologic functions of Ach
what is bethanechol (urecholine) used…
how does bethanechol (urecholine) work?
it cannot penetrate membranes and it is rapidly inactivated b…
decreases heart rate, cardiac output, blood pressure; increas…
urinary atony (postpartum and post operative non-obstructive…
stimulates detrusor muscle while trigone and sphincter are re…
why can't you just administer straight…
it cannot penetrate membranes and it is rapidly inactivated b…
physiologic functions of Ach
decreases heart rate, cardiac output, blood pressure; increas…
52 terms
Pharm - Pulmonary Pharmacology
Reasons for Pulmonary Medications
Types of Meds for Respiratory Tract Ir…
What are Antitussives?
Types of Antitussives
1. Control of respiratory tract irritation and secretion... 2. B…
- antitussives... - decongestants ... -mucolytics/expectorants... - an…
Cough suppressants
- codeine (other opioids) ... - antihistamines ... - others
Reasons for Pulmonary Medications
1. Control of respiratory tract irritation and secretion... 2. B…
Types of Meds for Respiratory Tract Ir…
- antitussives... - decongestants ... -mucolytics/expectorants... - an…
20 terms
Pharmacology Ch. 1Orientation to Pharm.
drug
pharmacology
clinical pharmacology
therapeutics (aka pharmacotherapeutics)
any chemical that can affect living processes
study of drugs and their interactions with living systems; dr…
study of drugs in humans
the use of drugs to diagnose, prevent, or treat disease or to…
drug
any chemical that can affect living processes
pharmacology
study of drugs and their interactions with living systems; dr…
34 terms
Pharm: Intro to CNS Pharmacology
All _______ possess sedative-hypnotic…
______ are sedative-hypnotic drugs but…
_____ is a barbiturate used for anesth…
______ is a barbiturate used for treat…
Benzodiazepines
Barbiturates
Thiopental
Phenobarbital
All _______ possess sedative-hypnotic…
Benzodiazepines
______ are sedative-hypnotic drugs but…
Barbiturates
62 terms
Exam 1 Pharm - Pharmacology/Pharmacodynamics
What are pharmacodynamics?
Drugs can only do...
What is a response relationship as it…
What is maximal efficacy?
study of what drugs do to the body, how medicine changes the…
What the body knows, it can enhance something or stop somethi…
the relationship between the size of a dose and the intensity…
largest effect that a drug can produce
What are pharmacodynamics?
study of what drugs do to the body, how medicine changes the…
Drugs can only do...
What the body knows, it can enhance something or stop somethi…
91 terms
PharmTox--Cardiovascular Pharmacology
What causes a decrease in CO?
What are most common complications sec…
What two common CVDs intersect in meta…
Metabolic syndrome is what?
1) atherosclerosis and MI... 2) Hypertension... 3) Arrythmia
1) Arrythmia... 2) Cardiomyopathy... 3) Stroke
Atherosclerosis and hypertension
Metabolic/genomic relationship between ... 1) CAD/atherosclerosi…
What causes a decrease in CO?
1) atherosclerosis and MI... 2) Hypertension... 3) Arrythmia
What are most common complications sec…
1) Arrythmia... 2) Cardiomyopathy... 3) Stroke
48 terms
Pharmacology Test 2 - Pharm terminology
Toxicology
Contraindications
Adverse effect
Pharmacodynamics
study of poisons and organ toxicity
situations when a drug should not be used
harmful effects of a drug
action/effects a drug has on the body and the mechanisms of t…
Toxicology
study of poisons and organ toxicity
Contraindications
situations when a drug should not be used
12 terms
Pharm Ch. 8 Geriatric Pharmacology
A patient has nine medications prescri…
The nurse is reviewing a patient's lis…
The older adult patient has questions…
A 97 year old patient asks why a prote…
a) taking multiple drugs at one time... b) impaired memory... c) de…
d) increased pH of gastric secretions
a) first-pass effect
a) "You have increased circulation of free drug."
A patient has nine medications prescri…
a) taking multiple drugs at one time... b) impaired memory... c) de…
The nurse is reviewing a patient's lis…
d) increased pH of gastric secretions
41 terms
Pharm Exam #1 Principles of Pharmacology
Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906
Food and Drug Cosmetic Act of 1938
Durham-Humphrey Amendment (1952)
Controlled Substance Act of 1970
1. Forunner for the FDA... 2. Federal food inspection of meat pr…
1. Established safety and effectiveness of medications... 2. Had…
1. Defined legend drugs as RX and other meds as OTC... 2. RX nee…
1. Established DEA... 2. Public services to help with drug addic…
Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906
1. Forunner for the FDA... 2. Federal food inspection of meat pr…
Food and Drug Cosmetic Act of 1938
1. Established safety and effectiveness of medications... 2. Had…
33 terms
Pharm Respiratory Pharmacology
N-acetylcysteine
What do expectorants do?
Potassium iodide & Guaifenesin
Sympathomimetic drugs
Mucolytic->Makes it easier to remove... Breaks disulfide bonds w…
Make secretions less viscous, so they can be removed
Oral Expectorants... Vagal Reflex?? (Huh??-This is shady)
Work on alpha 1s in the vasculature of the nose ... (Ephedrine,…
N-acetylcysteine
Mucolytic->Makes it easier to remove... Breaks disulfide bonds w…
What do expectorants do?
Make secretions less viscous, so they can be removed
10 terms
Pharmacology- cardiovascular pharm- drugs for angina
Angina is not a disease, it is
Angina pectoris
Treatment options include
Nitrates ... MOA
A symptom
Characteristic chest pain caused by coronary blood flow that…
Nitrates and beta blockers/calcium channel blockers
Relaxation of the vascular smooth muscle producing dilation o…
Angina is not a disease, it is
A symptom
Angina pectoris
Characteristic chest pain caused by coronary blood flow that…
9 terms
Pharm TECH (pharmacology)(nervous system)
antianxiety
SSRI, selective serotonin reuptake inh…
SSNRIs, selective serotonin and norepi…
tricylic antidepressants
used to treat anxiety, panic disorders, and depression
blocks the reuptake of serotonin used to treat Major anxiety,…
inhibit norepinephrine and serotonin reuptake t treat major d…
blocks reuptake of norepinephrine or serotonin
antianxiety
used to treat anxiety, panic disorders, and depression
SSRI, selective serotonin reuptake inh…
blocks the reuptake of serotonin used to treat Major anxiety,…
59 terms
pharm.- Dermatological pharmacology
what layer of skin specifically is a l…
purpose of melanin pigment
purpose of vitamin D3 in the skin
what are 5 main things that affect abs…
stratum corneum
protects the skin against UV radiation
helps with calcium homeostasis
nature of the drug ... behavior of the vehicle ... status of the sk…
what layer of skin specifically is a l…
stratum corneum
purpose of melanin pigment
protects the skin against UV radiation
21 terms
Pharm TECH (pharmacology) (immune system)
sulfonamides
penicillins
cephalasporins
Carbapenems and monobactams
helps treat Lower respiratory infections, urinary tract infec…
prevent bacteria from forming a cell wall (respiratory infect…
prevent bacteria from forming a cell wall (detal work, heart…
inhibit bacterial walla synthesis to help with infection
sulfonamides
helps treat Lower respiratory infections, urinary tract infec…
penicillins
prevent bacteria from forming a cell wall (respiratory infect…
14 terms
pharmacology-introduction to vet pharm
are all drugs potential poisons?
FDA
EPA
USDA
yes, all drugs are potentially poisons; the amount and method…
(Food& Drug Administration) regulates drugs
(Environmental Protection Agency) regulates topical pesticides
(United States Dep't of Agriculture) regulates biologics=vacc…
are all drugs potential poisons?
yes, all drugs are potentially poisons; the amount and method…
FDA
(Food& Drug Administration) regulates drugs
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