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Study sets matching "philosophy 101"

2,000 terms
Philosophy 101
Metaphysics
Epistemology
Ethics
What do ethics philosophers specialize…
Ultimate reality: Free will, mind and body, supernatural exis…
Knowledge: asks questions about knowledge, nature and its ori…
Ethos: practical reasoning, good and bad, virtues and vices,…
Medical ethics, business ethics, and the nature of good life.
Metaphysics
Ultimate reality: Free will, mind and body, supernatural exis…
Epistemology
Knowledge: asks questions about knowledge, nature and its ori…
36 terms
Philosophy 101
Argument
Valid Argument
What does validity involve?
A collection of at least 2 statements, one of which is the ma…
A valid argument is one in which it is impossible for every p…
Validity involves the structure and form of the argument rath…
Argument
A collection of at least 2 statements, one of which is the ma…
Valid Argument
A valid argument is one in which it is impossible for every p…
46 terms
Philosophy 101
argument
deductively valid argument
sound argument
circular argument
a set of statements intended to provide rational support for…
an argument: if the premises are true, then the conclusion mu…
a deductively valid argument with true premises
an argument where the conclusion appears in the premises
argument
a set of statements intended to provide rational support for…
deductively valid argument
an argument: if the premises are true, then the conclusion mu…
44 terms
Philosophy 101
Cultural Relativism
Moral absolutism
Objection to moral absolutism
Moral skepticism
Moral, diversity, beliefs
There is one set of universally true moral principles
There are multiple sets determined by the culture you live in…
Each culture is going to have their own moral truths
Cultural Relativism
Moral, diversity, beliefs
Moral absolutism
There is one set of universally true moral principles
52 terms
Philosophy 101 Final
Metaphysical Freedom (HD)
Hard Determinism
Compatibilism (Soft Determinism)
Compatibilism VS Hard Determinism
Freedom at least requires the ability to do otherwise
Freedom requires the ability to do otherwise >we lack the abi…
simply doing what you want. ... Freedom and determinism are comp…
Both HD and SD say everything is determined. SD says freedom…
Metaphysical Freedom (HD)
Freedom at least requires the ability to do otherwise
Hard Determinism
Freedom requires the ability to do otherwise >we lack the abi…
60 terms
Philosophy 101
Euthyphro dilemma (Plato)
God is the standard for all good
Omniscient
God is eternal
God is perfectly good by definition. So, does God invent mora…
Not contained by moral law and not inventing it
God is all-knowing. God knows past, present and future.
Must accept 4-dimensional view of time. All of time exists at…
Euthyphro dilemma (Plato)
God is perfectly good by definition. So, does God invent mora…
God is the standard for all good
Not contained by moral law and not inventing it
2,000 terms
Philosophy 101
Metaphysics
Epistemology
Ethics
What do ethics philosophers specialize…
Ultimate reality: Free will, mind and body, supernatural exis…
Knowledge: asks questions about knowledge, nature and its ori…
Ethos: practical reasoning, good and bad, virtues and vices,…
Medical ethics, business ethics, and the nature of good life.
Metaphysics
Ultimate reality: Free will, mind and body, supernatural exis…
Epistemology
Knowledge: asks questions about knowledge, nature and its ori…
78 terms
Philosophy 101
Rule 1
Rule 2
Rule 3
Premise Indicators
Identify premises and conclusions.
Develop your ideas in a natural order.
Start from reliable premises.
becasue... since... given that... for... on the grounds that... this follows…
Rule 1
Identify premises and conclusions.
Rule 2
Develop your ideas in a natural order.
9 terms
Philosophy 101
Descartes
Arrupe
Russell
Plato
Meditation I, II, III
Men for Others
The Value of Philosophy
Apology
Descartes
Meditation I, II, III
Arrupe
Men for Others
67 terms
Philosophy 101
Matrix, The Thirteenth Floor, Total Re…
René Descartes
René Descartes
Bishop George Berkeley
Brain in Vat Movies
Imagined that we are deceived by evil spirit
How do we know we're not dreaming?
Only things that exist are minds and their ideas
Matrix, The Thirteenth Floor, Total Re…
Brain in Vat Movies
René Descartes
Imagined that we are deceived by evil spirit
20 terms
Philosophy 101
Cephalus definition of Justice and Sac…
Cephalus Beliefs in a good life
Three Aspects of Justice
Polymarchus definition of justice and…
Speaking the truth and paying whatever debts one has incurred…
Peoples characters and habits, not age, determine what their…
1. Telling the truth and giving to each other what is owed/ne…
Justice is benefiting friends and harming enemies... Socrates:…
Cephalus definition of Justice and Sac…
Speaking the truth and paying whatever debts one has incurred…
Cephalus Beliefs in a good life
Peoples characters and habits, not age, determine what their…
36 terms
Philosophy 101
Metaphysics
Epistemology
Ethics
Politics
Study of existence. Whats out there? Answers "what is" and qu…
Study of knowledge. How do i know about it?
Study of action. What should i do
Study of force. What actions are permissable?
Metaphysics
Study of existence. Whats out there? Answers "what is" and qu…
Epistemology
Study of knowledge. How do i know about it?
26 terms
Philosophy 101
Fallacy
Relevance Fallacy
Argumentum Ad Hominem
Poisoning the Well
a mistake in reasoning, and argument that doesn't really supp…
premise not relevant to the issue in question, also called re…
occurs when someone attempts to dismiss another persons posit…
speaker/writer sometimes try to get us to dismiss what someon…
Fallacy
a mistake in reasoning, and argument that doesn't really supp…
Relevance Fallacy
premise not relevant to the issue in question, also called re…
24 terms
philosophy 101
Monistic
Pluralistic
W. D. Ross
Prima facie duties
this describes theories or systems that have a single standar…
this describes theories or systems that have multiple standar…
proposed pluralist system of duties; we do not derive moral f…
(on the surface or on the face of things) duties. We do have…
Monistic
this describes theories or systems that have a single standar…
Pluralistic
this describes theories or systems that have multiple standar…
66 terms
Philosophy 101
Descartes' epistemological goal in the…
The technique used by Descartes to dis…
The difficulty Descartes finds with th…
The difficulty Descartes finds with th…
Unshakeable and incontestably certain.
Systematic doubt;
he senses deceive us;
an evil demon could be deceiving us.
Descartes' epistemological goal in the…
Unshakeable and incontestably certain.
The technique used by Descartes to dis…
Systematic doubt;
101 terms
Philosophy 101
4 main divisions of philosophy
The Socratic Method
Reductio and Absurdum
The Philosophical Method
metaphysics, epistemology, axiology, logic
a question-and-answer dialogue in which propositions are meth…
If you assume a set of statements is true, and yet you can de…
The systematic use of critical reasoning to try to find answe…
4 main divisions of philosophy
metaphysics, epistemology, axiology, logic
The Socratic Method
a question-and-answer dialogue in which propositions are meth…
84 terms
Philosophy 101
What is Heraclitus's claim?
What is Parmenides attempted refutation?
What is the distinction of Mythos and…
How does "the psychologist C.G Jung an…
"That you cannot step in the same river twice."... Everything ch…
Nothing is nothing.... Nothing ever changes.
Mythos makes use of supernatural explanations, while Logos ut…
They ask if Logos is really just glorified mythos and not act…
What is Heraclitus's claim?
"That you cannot step in the same river twice."... Everything ch…
What is Parmenides attempted refutation?
Nothing is nothing.... Nothing ever changes.
75 terms
Philosophy 101
Gottlob Frege
Frege and Logic
Analytic Philosophy
Pragmatism
Efforts to support mathematical hypotheses led him to develop…
Explained math in terms of logical operations.... Showed importa…
Leaves out words like "beauty" and "goodness"
Promotion of effective action and practical considerations to…
Gottlob Frege
Efforts to support mathematical hypotheses led him to develop…
Frege and Logic
Explained math in terms of logical operations.... Showed importa…
Philosophy 101
Axion
Absolute space and Absolute time
Apeiron
Becoming (in plato)
A principle that is generally accepted from the beginning and…
The view that space and time exist independently of objects a…
In Anaximander, "the unlimited," the basic stuff of the unive…
The "world of becoming is the changing world of our daily exp…
Axion
A principle that is generally accepted from the beginning and…
Absolute space and Absolute time
The view that space and time exist independently of objects a…
96 terms
PHILOSOPHY 101
Descartes' Method and Findings
Descartes' Argument for the External W…
Descartes sees it as...
Descartes Wax Example
The Meditations... Thinks if he finds stuff he can be certain o…
Direct deductive argument is not a solid argument:... 1. If I ha…
(beliefs about psychological states, beliefs about necessary…
What is a material object?... Take a piece of wax... At T1, the sen…
Descartes' Method and Findings
The Meditations... Thinks if he finds stuff he can be certain o…
Descartes' Argument for the External W…
Direct deductive argument is not a solid argument:... 1. If I ha…
31 terms
philosophy 101
The Jew
Reasoning
Rationalism
Particularism
disregardful of the body, man of reason, takes reasoning over…
Passion for the jew; passion of the universal of man
the escape of the universal for the jew
treating people differently based on certain criteria such as…
The Jew
disregardful of the body, man of reason, takes reasoning over…
Reasoning
Passion for the jew; passion of the universal of man
67 terms
Philosophy 101
Argument
Deductive argument
Valid
Sound
set of statements intended to provide rational support for an…
an argument that is intended to be deductively valid
Argument that has a reasonable conclusion based on the premises
a valid argument that has true premises
Argument
set of statements intended to provide rational support for an…
Deductive argument
an argument that is intended to be deductively valid
72 terms
Philosophy 101
The term Philosophy comes from two Gre…
Socrates said,"the unexamined life is…
The difference between an archetype an…
We said that a threefold realization l…
False
True
True
We make Choices... We seek truth... We die
The term Philosophy comes from two Gre…
False
Socrates said,"the unexamined life is…
True
36 terms
Philosophy 101
Argument
Valid Argument
What does validity involve?
A collection of at least 2 statements, one of which is the ma…
A valid argument is one in which it is impossible for every p…
Validity involves the structure and form of the argument rath…
Argument
A collection of at least 2 statements, one of which is the ma…
Valid Argument
A valid argument is one in which it is impossible for every p…
26 terms
Philosophy 101
Philosophy
Six Major Themes of Philosophy
Metaphysics
Logic
Love of wisdom
1. Metaphysics... 2. Logic... 3. Epistemology... 4. Aesthetics... 5. Poli…
The study of the universe and reality
How to create a valid argument
Philosophy
Love of wisdom
Six Major Themes of Philosophy
1. Metaphysics... 2. Logic... 3. Epistemology... 4. Aesthetics... 5. Poli…
21 terms
Philosophy 101
priori
posteriori
the free will defense
soul building theodicicy
valid independently from observation
based on observed data
A great good that humans have a certain sort of free will whi…
the experiences of moral choices builds you soul
priori
valid independently from observation
posteriori
based on observed data
57 terms
Philosophy 101
Theist
Agnostic
Faith
necessitarianism
someone who believes in god (defined as omnipotent, omniscien…
withholds belief in god
belief without sufficient evidence
view that 1 or more beings necessarily had to exist
Theist
someone who believes in god (defined as omnipotent, omniscien…
Agnostic
withholds belief in god
30 terms
Philosophy 101
What is Cultural Moral Relativism?
What is the typical argument supported…
What is Rachel's response to the logic…
According to Rachel's, what are some o…
The position that says there is no objective truth in moralit…
Different cultures have different moral codes, therefore ther…
The conclusion does not follow the premise because the differ…
Consequences are no moral progress, no criticizing other cult…
What is Cultural Moral Relativism?
The position that says there is no objective truth in moralit…
What is the typical argument supported…
Different cultures have different moral codes, therefore ther…
11 terms
Philosophy 101
Philosophy
Philo
sophy
metaphysics
is the science that by natural light of reason Studies the fi…
to love
wisdom
the branch of philosophy that deals with the first principles…
Philosophy
is the science that by natural light of reason Studies the fi…
Philo
to love
44 terms
Philosophy 101
All sound arguments are valid
A valid argument can have all false pr…
According to my lecture, divine comman…
Leibniz said " I think, therefore I am"
True
True
True
False
All sound arguments are valid
True
A valid argument can have all false pr…
True
100 terms
Philosophy 101
Philosophy begins in...
Why does Philosophy begin in wonder?
Describe "All men by nature desire to…
Philosophy is built up from one philos…
wonder
because it is the nature of the human mind to want to know; t…
everyone has the desire to know, but it all depends on WHAT y…
that no one philosopher will ever have the complete truth, an…
Philosophy begins in...
wonder
Why does Philosophy begin in wonder?
because it is the nature of the human mind to want to know; t…
66 terms
Philosophy 101
Descartes' epistemological goal in the…
The technique used by Descartes to dis…
The difficulty Descartes finds with th…
The difficulty Descartes finds with th…
Unshakeable and incontestably certain.
Systematic doubt;
he senses deceive us;
an evil demon could be deceiving us.
Descartes' epistemological goal in the…
Unshakeable and incontestably certain.
The technique used by Descartes to dis…
Systematic doubt;
26 terms
Philosophy 101
Who is Euthyphro?
Under what circumstances does Socrates…
How does Euthyphro first define piety?
Why is Socrates dissatisfied with Euth…
man testifying against father who killed a slave
a man Socrates (in a suit for impiety) meets Euthyphro waitin…
piety is what he is doing. testifying against his own father
because he did not ask for examples of piety, he asked for a…
Who is Euthyphro?
man testifying against father who killed a slave
Under what circumstances does Socrates…
a man Socrates (in a suit for impiety) meets Euthyphro waitin…
15 terms
Philosophy 101
In the 3rd Meditation Descartes says t…
In the 5th Meditation. Descartes says…
Some critics say that Descartes' reaso…
Descartes believes that even though he…
God himself;
perfect
True
False
In the 3rd Meditation Descartes says t…
God himself;
In the 5th Meditation. Descartes says…
perfect
55 terms
Philosophy 101
Dualism?
Describe Plato's two worlds
What does Plato say about the essence…
How does Aristotle see the world?
Spiritual world and physical world
Experience and essence
They can be separated
A is A
Dualism?
Spiritual world and physical world
Describe Plato's two worlds
Experience and essence
32 terms
philosophy 101
meaning*
agency*
Weltanschauungen
finitude
...
agency is the capacity of an actor (a person or other entity,…
German translation of "world view"... Heidegger... This term is sig…
the state of having limits or bounds; subject to limitations…
meaning*
...
agency*
agency is the capacity of an actor (a person or other entity,…
19 terms
Philosophy 101
Philo
Sophia
Philosophia
Empirical
Love
Wisdom
Love of wisdom
Five senses
Philo
Love
Sophia
Wisdom
12 terms
Philosophy 101
philosophy
normative eithics
metaethics
empirical or descriptive claims
asks and attempts to answer basic questions about key areas o…
defends a thesis about what is good, right or just
inquiry into the nature of ethics... ex: instead of asking if th…
claims that state factual beliefs, usually used to support a…
philosophy
asks and attempts to answer basic questions about key areas o…
normative eithics
defends a thesis about what is good, right or just
71 terms
Philosophy 101 Exam 101
Logic
Statement
Argument
Aristotle
The science, or organized body of knowledge, of evaluating ar…
A sentence that has a truth value (true or false)
A group of statements, one or more of which (the premise/s) a…
"the person who is generally credited as the father of logic…
Logic
The science, or organized body of knowledge, of evaluating ar…
Statement
A sentence that has a truth value (true or false)
8 terms
Philosophy 101
Metaphysics
Qualitative
Numerical
Lockean identity
The study of the fundamental nature of reality: time, space,…
Characteristically the same
Amount (could do one thing to an object without doing it to a…
Believes we can physically change radically and as long as we…
Metaphysics
The study of the fundamental nature of reality: time, space,…
Qualitative
Characteristically the same
33 terms
Philosophy 101
Deduction
Induction
categorical syllogism
Deism
An instance of reasoning from one principle to another in acc…
The process of inferring general conclusions (ex. "All swans…
an argument consisting of exactly three categorical propositi…
God must of existed to create he universe and its laws. Also…
Deduction
An instance of reasoning from one principle to another in acc…
Induction
The process of inferring general conclusions (ex. "All swans…
90 terms
Philosophy 101
Philosphy
Isn't science enough?
Why do history of Philosophy
Thales
Love of Wisodm- both content and methodology
Outside realm of science
A. See how ideas fit together.... B. See how philosophy happens.…
First philosopher, lived in the greek city of miletus. Everyt…
Philosphy
Love of Wisodm- both content and methodology
Isn't science enough?
Outside realm of science
32 terms
Philosophy 101
Trivium
Logic
Grammar
Rhetoric
Logic, Grammar, Rhetoric
art of thinking
art of inventing and combining symbols
art of communication
Trivium
Logic, Grammar, Rhetoric
Logic
art of thinking
10 terms
Philosophy 101
Virtue
Habit
Temperance
Courage
A good habit
a set of complex activities that are chosen, learned through…
A good habit which helps us control our concupiscible appetite.
A good habit that helps us control fear and weakness in the f…
Virtue
A good habit
Habit
a set of complex activities that are chosen, learned through…
34 terms
Philosophy 101
substance dualism
property dualism
syntax
semantics
the mind and the body are two separate things... -the body is ph…
-there's two fundamentally different properties in the world…
-the rules that say that languages are regulated by a series…
-the ways in which meanings are assigned to the words and sen…
substance dualism
the mind and the body are two separate things... -the body is ph…
property dualism
-there's two fundamentally different properties in the world…
15 terms
Philosophy 101
Empirical
Normative
Contingent
Metaphysics
Claims made through test and observations
Value Questions (how we ought to live)
Neither necessarily true or necessarily false
The study of the ultimate nature of reality
Empirical
Claims made through test and observations
Normative
Value Questions (how we ought to live)
20 terms
philosophy 101
retributivism
5 conditions of responsibility
causal condition
intentionality condition
a theory of justice that considers punishment, if proportiona…
casual, intentionality, voluntariness, epistemic
person is guilty
caused harm/committed act intentionally
retributivism
a theory of justice that considers punishment, if proportiona…
5 conditions of responsibility
casual, intentionality, voluntariness, epistemic
9 terms
Philosophy 101
Thesis and Supporting Argumentationt
Presuppositions
Implications
The Stakes
What's the author's thesis and what arguments are used to su…
What does the author need to believe in order to hold their…
What conclusions seem to follow from the argument that are N…
What's at stake in the argument? Why is the author writing t…
Thesis and Supporting Argumentationt
What's the author's thesis and what arguments are used to su…
Presuppositions
What does the author need to believe in order to hold their…
18 terms
Philosophy 101
Physicalism
Identity Theory
Physically Possible
Metaphysically Possible
All facts are physical facts
Every mental state is identical to some physical state
A state of affairs is physically possible if it has possible…
A state of affairs is metaphysically possible if it doesn't e…
Physicalism
All facts are physical facts
Identity Theory
Every mental state is identical to some physical state
38 terms
Philosophy 101
Proposition
Argument
Thesis
Syllogism
A statement about the world ... ex. "the cat is on the mat"
If P then Q... example of Modus Ponens
Philosophical position... strong thesis- "ALL knowledge comes fr…
Consists of three statements, two of which are premises, and…
Proposition
A statement about the world ... ex. "the cat is on the mat"
Argument
If P then Q... example of Modus Ponens
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