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Study sets matching "philosophy chapter 9"

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Study sets matching "philosophy chapter 9"

5 terms
Philosophy Chapter 9
Civil Rights
Democracy
Entitlement
Human Rights
Those rights which are determined by a particular state and i…
The form of government in which policies or, at least, the ma…
A right; for instance the right to own property
Those rights that are considered universal, and common to eve…
Civil Rights
Those rights which are determined by a particular state and i…
Democracy
The form of government in which policies or, at least, the ma…
12 terms
Philosophy Chapter 9
What is a cause?
Necessary condition?
Sufficient Condition?
Necessary AND Sufficient?
event or state of affairs that produces another event or stat…
if not x, then not y.
If X, then Y.
If not X, then not Y; AND if x, then Y.
What is a cause?
event or state of affairs that produces another event or stat…
Necessary condition?
if not x, then not y.
19 terms
Philosophy Chapter 9
The pre-WWII philosophy that developed…
Who advocated in the nineteenth centur…
Robert Nozick has argued for two initi…
The propensity for African Americans t…
Negritude
Charlotte Perkins Gilman
justice in transfer
double consciousness
The pre-WWII philosophy that developed…
Negritude
Who advocated in the nineteenth centur…
Charlotte Perkins Gilman
17 terms
Philosophy Chapter 9 (Descartes)
Modernity
Autonomous Individual
Rene Descartes
Paradigmatic Rationalist
- the age of questioning authority... - rise of science and conf…
- self-governed individual
- turned philosophy from metaphysics to epistemology... - "i thi…
- people can get to the truth on their own reasoning abilities
Modernity
- the age of questioning authority... - rise of science and conf…
Autonomous Individual
- self-governed individual
26 terms
Philosophy Chapter 9
rationalism
Plato
Forms
Rationalistic Philosophers
claims that knowledge comes from, or arises in, our minds. Ra…
claims that in addition to the physical world that we experie…
Knowledge of the Forms is the only thing that counts as knowl…
suggest that only the truths we arrive at through our minds a…
rationalism
claims that knowledge comes from, or arises in, our minds. Ra…
Plato
claims that in addition to the physical world that we experie…
59 terms
Little History of Philosophy Chapter 9 (Machiavelli)
city-state
absolute
issue
suspect
a city with political and economic control over the surroundi…
complete
give
believe someone something without certain proof
city-state
a city with political and economic control over the surroundi…
absolute
complete
21 terms
Philosophy Chapter 9
Deontological Theories
Conditional Moral Duty
Actual Moral Duty
Absolutist
reject consequences as a basis for morality and instead tend…
a moral duty that I ought to fulfill if there is no more impo…
the one conditional duty that turns out to be more important…
holds that no moral duty may ever be overridden; all duties r…
Deontological Theories
reject consequences as a basis for morality and instead tend…
Conditional Moral Duty
a moral duty that I ought to fulfill if there is no more impo…
5 terms
Philosophy - Chapter 9
Democracy
Civil rights
Entitlement
Human rights
That form of government in which policies or at least the mak…
Those rights that are determined by a particular state and it…
A right; for instance, a right to own property
Those rights that are considered to be universal, "unalienabl…
Democracy
That form of government in which policies or at least the mak…
Civil rights
Those rights that are determined by a particular state and it…
14 terms
Philosophy Chapter 9
Who believed that emotions ought to pl…
Who claimed that nothing exists indepe…
Who argued that, as a philosopher, he…
Who argued that we construct a knowabl…
Jaggar
Berkeley
Hume
Kant
Who believed that emotions ought to pl…
Jaggar
Who claimed that nothing exists indepe…
Berkeley
24 terms
Living Philosophy Chapter 9
Descartes had been disillusioned by hi…
Descartes says that, for all he knows,…
Descartes declares that an evil demon…
Descartes argues against trusting the…
c. (false)
a. (dreaming)
c. (could be possibly be deceiving him)
b. (they sometimes deceive him)
Descartes had been disillusioned by hi…
c. (false)
Descartes says that, for all he knows,…
a. (dreaming)
12 terms
Philosophy Chapter 9
aphorism
asceticism
autonomy
buddha
a short, striking general observation, usually a sentence or…
a life of self denial and material simplicity
intellectual independence and freedom from authority
"the awakened one"
aphorism
a short, striking general observation, usually a sentence or…
asceticism
a life of self denial and material simplicity
9 terms
Philosophy Chapter 9
epistemology
propositional knowledge
skepticism
a priori knowledge
the philosophical study of knowledge
knowledge of a proposition
the view that we lack knowledge in some fundamental way
knowledge gained independently of or prior to sense experience
epistemology
the philosophical study of knowledge
propositional knowledge
knowledge of a proposition
12 terms
Philosophy Chapter 9
Behavior Modification
Positive Reinforcement
Negative Reinforcement
Collective Culture
The shaping of behavior associating reward with certain choices
Incentive for certain behaviors by connecting them with a rew…
The demotivates of certain behavior by withholding or withdra…
Culture in which your identity is largely a function of the g…
Behavior Modification
The shaping of behavior associating reward with certain choices
Positive Reinforcement
Incentive for certain behaviors by connecting them with a rew…
12 terms
Philosophy - Chapter 9
Baruch Spinoza felt that God and Natte…
Baruch Spinoza was a respected member…
Thomas Hobbes felt that the only thing…
It is a well known fact that the Engli…
True
False
True
False
Baruch Spinoza felt that God and Natte…
True
Baruch Spinoza was a respected member…
False
13 terms
Philosophy chapter 9
Plato's 3 divisions of the republic
Divine Right of Kings
Social Contract Theroy
Hobbe's state of nature
philosopher-kings,... Guardians... workers.
If the king ruled by God's will, then individuals were in the…
view that persons' moral and/or political obligations are dep…
- Unconstrained by laws... - Equal- physically... - Selfish and des…
Plato's 3 divisions of the republic
philosopher-kings,... Guardians... workers.
Divine Right of Kings
If the king ruled by God's will, then individuals were in the…
16 terms
Chapter 9 philosophy
Social philosophy
Utilitarianism
Workers are alienated from
Materialism
The just distribution pf resources
Maximizing pleasure, minimizing pain
Value of labor, control of labor, value and control of life
World around us shapes and limits our possibilities
Social philosophy
The just distribution pf resources
Utilitarianism
Maximizing pleasure, minimizing pain
11 terms
Chapter 9; Philosophy
The "soul" (what are the different wor…
Res cogitans
Functional account/modern notion of th…
Mind-Body Dualism, a definition
Christian notion of the soul- religious belief that you have…
"thinking things" refers to notion of the soul, best translat…
-sense perception... -emotions/feelings... -recalling, remembering…
is the view that humans consist of two radically different su…
The "soul" (what are the different wor…
Christian notion of the soul- religious belief that you have…
Res cogitans
"thinking things" refers to notion of the soul, best translat…
9 terms
Philosophy Chapter 9
"In the beginning," the Bible tells us,
According to Jewish and Christian trad…
Human beings
Jesus says,
God created the heavens and the earth
God established a covenant with Abraham
fell away from their original goodness because they wanted to…
there will be more joy in heaven over one sinner who repents…
"In the beginning," the Bible tells us,
God created the heavens and the earth
According to Jewish and Christian trad…
God established a covenant with Abraham
Philosophy Chapter 9
Causal Necessary Condition
Causal sufficient condition
Contributory cause
Primary Cause
An event that's required for the production of another event
An event that, all by itself, will produce another event
if another even when the first even has an effect on the seco…
People pick out a particular necessary, sufficient, or contri…
Causal Necessary Condition
An event that's required for the production of another event
Causal sufficient condition
An event that, all by itself, will produce another event
15 terms
Philosophy Chapter 9
Liberalism
Communitarianism
Rawl's Position
Rawl's 2 Postitions
political philosophy focused on the idea of liberty and equal…
Rights do not precede community building; community precedes…
"original Position"-all people are fully rational but they ha…
each person is to have an equal right to the most extensive b…
Liberalism
political philosophy focused on the idea of liberty and equal…
Communitarianism
Rights do not precede community building; community precedes…
8 terms
Chapter 9 philosophy
How do you translate a claim into a st…
Equivalent claims
A claim
E claim
Take an ordinary claim and turn it into a standard form or a…
-would be true in all and exactly the same circumstances... Ex:…
All S are P
No S are P
How do you translate a claim into a st…
Take an ordinary claim and turn it into a standard form or a…
Equivalent claims
-would be true in all and exactly the same circumstances... Ex:…
Philosophy 101 Chapter 9 vocabulary
a posteriori
a priori
Empiricism
Epistemology
Knowledge that depends entirely on sense experience
Knowledge gained independently of or prior to sense experience
The view that our knowledge of the empirical world comes sole…
The philosophical study of knowledge
a posteriori
Knowledge that depends entirely on sense experience
a priori
Knowledge gained independently of or prior to sense experience
21 terms
Understanding the Times Chapter 9 - Philosophy
Philosophy
Metaphysics
Materialism
Monism
the study of knowledge, truth, and the nature of ultimate rea…
the branch of philosophy that seeks to understand the nature…
the belief that reality is composed solely of matter
the belief that reality is ultimately composed of one essenti…
Philosophy
the study of knowledge, truth, and the nature of ultimate rea…
Metaphysics
the branch of philosophy that seeks to understand the nature…
21 terms
Understanding the Times Chapter 9 - Philosophy
Philosophy
Metaphysics
Materialism
Monism
the study of knowledge, truth, and the nature of ultimate rea…
the branch of philosophy that seeks to understand the nature…
the belief that reality is composed solely of matter
the belief that reality is ultimately composed of one essenti…
Philosophy
the study of knowledge, truth, and the nature of ultimate rea…
Metaphysics
the branch of philosophy that seeks to understand the nature…
Philosophy: Chapter 9 - Deductive Arguments
Categorical Claims
Venn Diagrams:... A-Claim
Venn Diagrams: ... E-Claim
Venn Diagrams: ... I-Claim
A: All S are P... E: No S are P... I: Some S are P... O: Some S are no…
All S are P
No S are P
Some S are P
Categorical Claims
A: All S are P... E: No S are P... I: Some S are P... O: Some S are no…
Venn Diagrams:... A-Claim
All S are P
20 terms
Philosophy chapter 9: Descartes
a posteriori
a priori
empiricism
empiricist
(the latter) it gives us knowledge that depends entirely on s…
yields knowledge gained independently of or prior to sense ex…
the theory that all knowledge is derived from sense-experienc…
contended that our knowledge of the empirical world comes sol…
a posteriori
(the latter) it gives us knowledge that depends entirely on s…
a priori
yields knowledge gained independently of or prior to sense ex…
Living Philosophy: Chapter 9: Descartes
epistemology
propositional knowledge
skepticism
a priori knowledge
the philosophical study of knowledge
knowledge of a proposition
the view that we lack knowledge in some fundamental way
knowledge gained independently of or prior to sense experience
epistemology
the philosophical study of knowledge
propositional knowledge
knowledge of a proposition
21 terms
Worldviews Chapter 9: Philosophy
Philosophy
Metaphysics
Materialism
Monism
the study of knowledge, truth, and the nature of ultimate rea…
the branch of philosophy that seeks to understand the nature…
the belief that reality is composed solely of matter.
the belief that reality is ultimately composed of one essenti…
Philosophy
the study of knowledge, truth, and the nature of ultimate rea…
Metaphysics
the branch of philosophy that seeks to understand the nature…
Philosophy Chapter 9 Notes
Philosophy
Scientific Method
What is ultimately real? What does it…
Material world is all that exists
the seeking of wisdom and exploring the nature of reality and…
What is the key to all knowledge for Secularists
What 3 key questions do all philosophies seek to answer
Assumption do Secularists always start with
Philosophy
the seeking of wisdom and exploring the nature of reality and…
Scientific Method
What is the key to all knowledge for Secularists
12 terms
Philosophy Chapter 9 and 11
ad hoc hypothesis
Conservatism
Criteria of Adequacy
Fruitfulness
A hypothesis, or theory, that cannot be verified independentl…
A criterion of adequacy for judging the worth of theories. A…
The standards used to judge the worth of explanatory theories…
A criterion of adequacy for judging the worth of theories. A…
ad hoc hypothesis
A hypothesis, or theory, that cannot be verified independentl…
Conservatism
A criterion of adequacy for judging the worth of theories. A…
10 terms
Straighterline Philosophy Chapter 9
Which view about truth is common to al…
What does philosophical analysis attem…
What determines the meaning of a propo…
According to logical atomism, what doe…
Truth is relative to place, time, and purpose.
Reduce complex, philosophically puzzling propositions into si…
The possible observations that would verify it.
Atomic facts
Which view about truth is common to al…
Truth is relative to place, time, and purpose.
What does philosophical analysis attem…
Reduce complex, philosophically puzzling propositions into si…
25 terms
political philosophy: chapter 9
multiculturalism
cultural identity
exemptions
secession
Refers to the fact of cultural diversity in a country; may al…
Refers to an individual's sense of belonging to a cultural or…
Refers to not being subject to a rule that normally applies t…
Describes the process in which a portion of a political commu…
multiculturalism
Refers to the fact of cultural diversity in a country; may al…
cultural identity
Refers to an individual's sense of belonging to a cultural or…
40 terms
Philosophy for Living Chapter 9
justice
commutative justice
distributive justice
justice in the will
In general, Justice means to give to another what is owed., t…
a pure equality, a one-for-one justice is called commutative.
distributive justice involves treating unequals unequally.
Justice, a good habit (virtue) in the will which inclines us…
justice
In general, Justice means to give to another what is owed., t…
commutative justice
a pure equality, a one-for-one justice is called commutative.
17 terms
Bible- chapter 9 (philosophy) Vocab
Anti-realism
Constructivism
Dialectal Materialism
Dualism
The denial of the existence of an objective reality
Scientific knowledge is merely a helpful social construct for…
Class struggle is the only mechanism that causes society and…
The belief that reality is composed of two essential substances
Anti-realism
The denial of the existence of an objective reality
Constructivism
Scientific knowledge is merely a helpful social construct for…
31 terms
Understanding the Times Chapter 9- Philosophy
Anti-Realism
Constructivism
Dialectical Materialism
Dualism
the denial of the existence or accessibility of an objective…
the belief that scientific knowledge is merely a helpful soci…
the belief that only the material world exists and that class…
the belief that reality is ultimately composed of two essenti…
Anti-Realism
the denial of the existence or accessibility of an objective…
Constructivism
the belief that scientific knowledge is merely a helpful soci…
29 terms
philosophy chapter 9 animal rights
utilitarianism
sentience
speciesim
paternalism
the doctrine that actions are right if they are useful or for…
capacity to feel, perceive, or experience subjectively
the assumption of human superiority leading to the exploitati…
the policy or practice on the part of people in positions of…
utilitarianism
the doctrine that actions are right if they are useful or for…
sentience
capacity to feel, perceive, or experience subjectively
42 terms
Chapter 9 and 10 study philosophy
abductive argument (inference to the b…
minimum requirement consistency
internal consistency
external consistency
a form of inductive reasoning in which we reason from premise…
internal and external consistency makes up the
a theory that is free of contradictions
a theory that is consistent with the data it's supposed to ex…
abductive argument (inference to the b…
a form of inductive reasoning in which we reason from premise…
minimum requirement consistency
internal and external consistency makes up the
16 terms
Chapter 9: Hylomorphic Philosophy of the Mind
Hylomorphic Core Claim
Individuals
Materials
Inner Mind Picture
sensations and other psych phenomena are complex patterns of…
-consist of materials that are organized/structured in variou…
bodily movements
mental phenomena are inner states... occur in an interior domain…
Hylomorphic Core Claim
sensations and other psych phenomena are complex patterns of…
Individuals
-consist of materials that are organized/structured in variou…
9 terms
philosophy exam 3 chapter 9
Empiricism
classical empiricism
Modern empiricism
2 types of ideas, simple and complex
the theory that all knowledge of actual, existing things is d…
Aristotle and St. Thomas... -for A, knowledge of forms/universa…
Locke... *rejection of innate ideas; arguments (e.g., children…
-simple ideas via sensation (external experience; hot, cold,…
Empiricism
the theory that all knowledge of actual, existing things is d…
classical empiricism
Aristotle and St. Thomas... -for A, knowledge of forms/universa…
34 terms
Philosophy Test #3- Chapter 9 and 10
Chapter 9
Ideology
Political Philosophy
Social Philosophy
Politics
...
...
...
Chapter 9
Politics
Ideology
...
26 terms
Chapter 9: More Greece (Philosophy)
What does Philosophy mean?
What and when were the three phases of…
What was the main focus of Pre-Socrati…
Who was Hippocrates?
love of wisdom
Pre-Socratic (Early Hellenic) - 800-500 BCE... Classical Age - 5…
observe nature... -basically early scientists... not always look to…
The founder of scientific medicine
What does Philosophy mean?
love of wisdom
What and when were the three phases of…
Pre-Socratic (Early Hellenic) - 800-500 BCE... Classical Age - 5…
12 terms
Archetypes of Wisdom: An Introduction to Philosophy Chapter 9 The Rationalist: Rene Descartes
a posteriori knowledge
a priori ideas (innate ideas)
a priori knowledge
Cogito, ergo sum
Empirical knowledge derived from sense experience and not reg…
Truths that are not derived from observation or experiment, c…
Derived from reason without reference to sense experience. Ex…
Latin for "I think, therefore I am."
a posteriori knowledge
Empirical knowledge derived from sense experience and not reg…
a priori ideas (innate ideas)
Truths that are not derived from observation or experiment, c…
73 terms
Anatomy & Philosophy - Chapter 9: The Endocrine System
What does the Endocrine system do?
How does the speed of the nervous syst…
Hormones control 5 major processes
Hormones are produced by specialized c…
It coordinates and directs the activity of the body's cells
The nervous system is rapid, specific and immediate via nerve…
1. Reproduction... 2. Growth and development... 3. Body defenses... 4.…
Extracellular fluids
What does the Endocrine system do?
It coordinates and directs the activity of the body's cells
How does the speed of the nervous syst…
The nervous system is rapid, specific and immediate via nerve…
73 terms
Anatomy & Philosophy - Chapter 9: The Endocrine System
What does the Endocrine system do?
How does the speed of the nervous syst…
Hormones control 5 major processes
Hormones are produced by specialized c…
It coordinates and directs the activity of the body's cells
The nervous system is rapid, specific and immediate via nerve…
1. Reproduction... 2. Growth and development... 3. Body defenses... 4.…
Extracellular fluids
What does the Endocrine system do?
It coordinates and directs the activity of the body's cells
How does the speed of the nervous syst…
The nervous system is rapid, specific and immediate via nerve…
32 terms
Philosophy Chap 9
invalid inference
non-sequitor
does not follow
irrelevant reason
The fallacy of _______ ______ is committed when the conclusio…
The Latin for invalid inference is __________.
Non-sequitor means ____ ___ _____.
When someone gives a reason that does not have anything to do…
invalid inference
The fallacy of _______ ______ is committed when the conclusio…
non-sequitor
The Latin for invalid inference is __________.
5 terms
Philosophy Ch9
Friedrich Nietzsche
Ubermensch
The Will to Power
Naturalism
He was a nineteenth century German philosopher who became fam…
According to Nietzsche, this is the basic dynamic energy that…
According to F. Nietzsche, what is needed is a total, radical…
This is the belief that only the physical, material world exi…
Friedrich Nietzsche
He was a nineteenth century German philosopher who became fam…
Ubermensch
According to Nietzsche, this is the basic dynamic energy that…
10 terms
Into to Philosophy Chp 9
Truth is relative to place, time, and…
Reduce complex, philosophically puzzli…
The possible observations that would v…
Atomic facts.
Which view about truth is common to all pragmatists?
What does philosophical analysis attempt to do?
What determines the meaning of a proposition, according to th…
According to logical atomism, what does the world ultimately…
Truth is relative to place, time, and…
Which view about truth is common to all pragmatists?
Reduce complex, philosophically puzzli…
What does philosophical analysis attempt to do?
28 terms
Philosophy004_foothill_RAWAL_chapter 9_attributes of god
Theist believe that god is...
st. anselm defined god as
3 most powerful attributes:
other attributes
a supreme being
something that which nothing greater can be conceived
1. god must be all-powerful (omnipotent)... 2. all-knowing (omni…
perfect, personal, immutable, free, transcendent, all-loving,…
Theist believe that god is...
a supreme being
st. anselm defined god as
something that which nothing greater can be conceived
20 terms
Chapter 9
Columbian Exchange
Classical Greece
Crusade
Parliament
distribution of people, ideas and diseases around the world b…
Cradle of democracy
Christian Holy War
representative body that took power in England in the name of…
Columbian Exchange
distribution of people, ideas and diseases around the world b…
Classical Greece
Cradle of democracy
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