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Study sets matching "physiology anatomy chapter 13"

118 terms
Anatomy and Physiology chapter 13
spinal cord
four principle functions of the spinal…
central pattern generators
spinal cord is divided into these regi…
cylinder of nervous tissue that arises from the brainstem, at…
-conduction (moves info up and down cord)... - neural integratio…
simple, repetitive muscle contractions that put one foot in f…
- cervical... - thoracic... - lumbar... - sacral
spinal cord
cylinder of nervous tissue that arises from the brainstem, at…
four principle functions of the spinal…
-conduction (moves info up and down cord)... - neural integratio…
23 terms
Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 13
spinal meninges
layers of the spinal meninges
dura mater
arachnoid mater
specialized membranes surrounding the spinal cord that provid…
3 fibrous layers: dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater
tough collagenous membrane surrounded by epidural space fille…
layer of simple squamous epithelium lining dura mater and loo…
spinal meninges
specialized membranes surrounding the spinal cord that provid…
layers of the spinal meninges
3 fibrous layers: dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater
90 terms
Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 13
Reflex Circuits
Grey Matter in the spinal cord:
White Matter in the spinal cord:
What is the spinal cord a continuation…
-respond to environmental changes... -autonomic reaction
responsible for integration of EPSP and IPSP
contains major sensory and motor tracts to and from brain
Medulla Oblongata
Reflex Circuits
-respond to environmental changes... -autonomic reaction
Grey Matter in the spinal cord:
responsible for integration of EPSP and IPSP
12 terms
Anatomy & Physiology - Chapter 13
Lymphatic System
Pathogens
Bacteria
Disease
The system that protects your body from foreign invaders
Harmful germs
One-celled organisms that can multiply quickly
Something that upsets the natural working of a body
Lymphatic System
The system that protects your body from foreign invaders
Pathogens
Harmful germs
131 terms
Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 13
__________ are receptors that can resp…
Pressure, pain, and temperature recept…
Potentially damaging stimuli that resu…
Which receptors adapt most slowly?... A)…
mechanocreceptors
B) exteroceptors
C) nociceptors
C) nociceptors
__________ are receptors that can resp…
mechanocreceptors
Pressure, pain, and temperature recept…
B) exteroceptors
54 terms
Anatomy and Physiology: Chapter 13
True/False: The spinal cord is as long…
Conus medullaris
What is the longitudinal groove that i…
What are the two enlargements on the s…
False
The region where the spinal cord becomes tapered and conical
Posterior median sulcus
Cervical enlargement and lumbar enlargement
True/False: The spinal cord is as long…
False
Conus medullaris
The region where the spinal cord becomes tapered and conical
86 terms
Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 13
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
Sensory Receptors
Classification of receptors is based on:
Mechanoreceptors
All neural structures outside the brain including, Sensory re…
Specialized to respond to changes in their environment (stimu…
Stimulus type, Location, and Structural complexity
respond to touch, pressure, vibration, stretch, and itch
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
All neural structures outside the brain including, Sensory re…
Sensory Receptors
Specialized to respond to changes in their environment (stimu…
97 terms
Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 13
brain
parts of the brain
brainstem
cerebellum
part of CNS contained in cranial cavity; control center for m…
brainstem, cerebellum, diencephalon, and cerebrum
connects spinal cord to brain; integration of reflexes necess…
involved in control of locomotion, balance, and posture
brain
part of CNS contained in cranial cavity; control center for m…
parts of the brain
brainstem, cerebellum, diencephalon, and cerebrum
32 terms
Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 13
major function
brain
foramen magnum
enlarges
The _____ of the spinal cord is to provide conduction routes…
Ascending tracts conduct impulses up the cord to the _____, a…
The spinal cord extends from the _____ to the end of the firs…
The spinal cord _____ in two areas to provide more area for n…
major function
The _____ of the spinal cord is to provide conduction routes…
brain
Ascending tracts conduct impulses up the cord to the _____, a…
11 terms
Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 13
Allergen
Antibody
Antigen
Complement
A foreign substance that stimulates an allergic reaction
a substance produced by B cells in responce to a specific ant…
a foreigen substance capable of stimulating the production of…
a group of plasma protiens that works with antibodies to dest…
Allergen
A foreign substance that stimulates an allergic reaction
Antibody
a substance produced by B cells in responce to a specific ant…
90 terms
Anatomy and Physiology: Chapter 13 - PNS
Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
Sensory (afferent) nerves
Sensory receptors
Stimulus
Portion of the nervous system consisting of nerve, ganglia, s…
Nerves that contain processes of sensory neurons and carry im…
A cell or part of a cell specialized to respond to a stimulus
An excitant; a change in the environment that evokes a response
Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
Portion of the nervous system consisting of nerve, ganglia, s…
Sensory (afferent) nerves
Nerves that contain processes of sensory neurons and carry im…
107 terms
Anatomy and Physiology: Chapter 13
White Matter
Gray Matter
Sensory Neurons
Motor Neurons
myelinated , long distance communication... Posterior white colu…
not myelinated, neuron cell bodies, dendrites, integration ar…
receiving input from the environment. ... afferent
carrying info from CNS to effectors. ... efferent
White Matter
myelinated , long distance communication... Posterior white colu…
Gray Matter
not myelinated, neuron cell bodies, dendrites, integration ar…
90 terms
Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 13
Reflex Circuits
Grey Matter in the spinal cord:
White Matter in the spinal cord:
What is the spinal cord a continuation…
-respond to environmental changes... -autonomic reaction
responsible for integration of EPSP and IPSP
contains major sensory and motor tracts to and from brain
Medulla Oblongata
Reflex Circuits
-respond to environmental changes... -autonomic reaction
Grey Matter in the spinal cord:
responsible for integration of EPSP and IPSP
67 terms
Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 13
Functions of the Spinal Cord
Spinal Cord-
Spinal cord extends from ___________ _…
Protection Structure
1. Process reflexes (gray matter)... 2. Integrate EPSPs IPSPs (g…
-Continuation of medusa oblongata
Foramen magnum; conus modulars (L1-l2)
Oval in shape; slightly flattened anteriorly and posteriorly
Functions of the Spinal Cord
1. Process reflexes (gray matter)... 2. Integrate EPSPs IPSPs (g…
Spinal Cord-
-Continuation of medusa oblongata
219 terms
Anatomy & Physiology: Chapter 13
Neural structures outside the CNS
Sensory Receptors
Sensation and perception occur where?
sensation
sensory receptors, peripheral nerves and assoicated ganglia;…
specialized to respond to changes in their environment (stimu…
The brain
awareness of a stimulus in the internal and external environm…
Neural structures outside the CNS
sensory receptors, peripheral nerves and assoicated ganglia;…
Sensory Receptors
specialized to respond to changes in their environment (stimu…
73 terms
Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 13
meninges
the vertebral foramina; housed is the…
Dura mater, Arachnoid mater, Pia mater
epidural space
Protective connective tissue covering that encircles the spin…
What structure of the vertebrae form the vertebral canal? Wha…
Three layers of meninges from outermost to innermost?
What is the space between the dura mater and the vertebral wa…
meninges
Protective connective tissue covering that encircles the spin…
the vertebral foramina; housed is the…
What structure of the vertebrae form the vertebral canal? Wha…
20 terms
Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 13
epicardium
myocardium
endocardium
pericardium
visceral portion of pericardium on surface of the heart
muscle tissue of the heart
inner lining of heart chambers
encloses the heart and the proximal ends of the large blood v…
epicardium
visceral portion of pericardium on surface of the heart
myocardium
muscle tissue of the heart
63 terms
Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 13
What is a spinal reflex?
Where does the adult spinal cord end?
The longitudinal groove on the posteri…
The deep groove on the anterior surfac…
A quick, automatic response triggered by specific stimuli and…
L1 and L2
Posterior median sulcus
Anterior median fissure
What is a spinal reflex?
A quick, automatic response triggered by specific stimuli and…
Where does the adult spinal cord end?
L1 and L2
16 terms
Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 13
Brainstem
Medullar Oblongata
Pons
Midbrain
*connects the spinal cord to the cerebrum... *consists of medula…
*Pathway for ascending and descending nerve tracts ... *center f…
*contains ascending and descending nerve tacts ... *relays infor…
*contain ascending and descending nerve tacts ... *serves as vis…
Brainstem
*connects the spinal cord to the cerebrum... *consists of medula…
Medullar Oblongata
*Pathway for ascending and descending nerve tracts ... *center f…
28 terms
Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 13
Allergen
Antibody
Antigen
Complement
A foreign substance that stimulates an allergic reaction
A protein produced by plasma cells in response to a specific…
A foreign substance capable of stimulating the production of…
A group of plasma proteins that destroy pathogens
Allergen
A foreign substance that stimulates an allergic reaction
Antibody
A protein produced by plasma cells in response to a specific…
81 terms
Anatomy and Physiology: Chapter 13
White Matter
Gray Matter
Sensory Neurons
Motor Neurons
myelinated , long distance communication... Posterior white colu…
not myelinated, neuron cell bodies, dendrites, integration ar…
receiving input from the environment. afferent
carrying info from CNS to effectors. efferent
White Matter
myelinated , long distance communication... Posterior white colu…
Gray Matter
not myelinated, neuron cell bodies, dendrites, integration ar…
55 terms
Hole's Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 13 cardiovascular system
pericardium
14 cm long and 9 cm wide
epicardium
myocardium
Encloses the heart and the proximal ends of the large blood v…
Size of the average adult heart
Corresponds to the visceral pericardium, protects the heart b…
Consists mostly of cardiac muscle tissue that pumps blood out…
pericardium
Encloses the heart and the proximal ends of the large blood v…
14 cm long and 9 cm wide
Size of the average adult heart
78 terms
Anatomy & Physiology | Chapter 13
Brain + spinal cord =
Four major regions
folds of the outer surface are called
shallow depressions between gyri are c…
CNS
-cerebrum ... -diencephalon... -brainstem ... -cerebellum
gyri
sulci
Brain + spinal cord =
CNS
Four major regions
-cerebrum ... -diencephalon... -brainstem ... -cerebellum
131 terms
Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 13
__________ are receptors that can resp…
Pressure, pain, and temperature recept…
Potentially damaging stimuli that resu…
Which receptors adapt most slowly?... A)…
mechanocreceptors
B) exteroceptors
C) nociceptors
C) nociceptors
__________ are receptors that can resp…
mechanocreceptors
Pressure, pain, and temperature recept…
B) exteroceptors
78 terms
Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 13
Spinal cord ends between...
How many divisions of the spinal cord…
Dorsal root ganglia
Ventral root ganglia
L1 & L2
31
Cell bodies or sensory neurons just outside of the spinal cord
Contains the axons of Motor neurons
Spinal cord ends between...
L1 & L2
How many divisions of the spinal cord…
31
62 terms
Hole's Anatomy & Physiology: Chapter 13 - The Heart
Anoxia
Aorta
Arrhythmia
Arteriole
lack of oxygen
largest artery in the body
Symptom of Cardiovascular disease, irregular heartbeat
small artery
Anoxia
lack of oxygen
Aorta
largest artery in the body
183 terms
Anatomy and Physiology- Chapter 13
Pathogens
Immune system
Innate (Nonspecific) immune system
Adaptive (specific) immune system
Organisms that are capable of causing disease.
System of the body that recognizes foreign material and prote…
Portion of the immune system where the first line of defense…
Portion of the immune system that acts as the third line of d…
Pathogens
Organisms that are capable of causing disease.
Immune system
System of the body that recognizes foreign material and prote…
63 terms
Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 13
What is a spinal reflex?
Where does the adult spinal cord end?
The longitudinal groove on the posteri…
The deep groove on the anterior surfac…
A quick, automatic response triggered by specific stimuli and…
L1 and L2
Posterior median sulcus
Anterior median fissure
What is a spinal reflex?
A quick, automatic response triggered by specific stimuli and…
Where does the adult spinal cord end?
L1 and L2
71 terms
Anatomy and Physiology 1: Chapter 13
The Embryologic Perspective
Ectoderm
At around which day does the anterior…
The 3 Primary Vesicles
begins as a straight line that gets more complex
where nerve cells come from
around day 25 after conception
1. Prosencephalon (forward brain)... 2. mesencephalon (mid brain…
The Embryologic Perspective
begins as a straight line that gets more complex
Ectoderm
where nerve cells come from
13 terms
anatomy and physiology: chapter 13
tidal volume
inspiratory reserve volume
expiratory reserve volume
residual volume
amount of air inhaled or exhaled with a normal breath
the amount of air that can be taken in forcibly over the tida…
the amount of air forcibly exhaled after a tidal expiration
even after the most strenuous expiration, about 1200 ml of ai…
tidal volume
amount of air inhaled or exhaled with a normal breath
inspiratory reserve volume
the amount of air that can be taken in forcibly over the tida…
55 terms
Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 13
exteroreceptors
interoreceptors
proprioceptors
mechanoreceptors
responds to stimuli from outside the body
responds to stimuli from within the body
responds to changes in position (stretch, movement)
responds to pressure, touch, stretch, vibration
exteroreceptors
responds to stimuli from outside the body
interoreceptors
responds to stimuli from within the body
47 terms
Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 13 review
External respiration
Internal respiration
Alveolar-capillary membrane
Upper airway functions
Gas exchange in lungs blood and air in external atmosphere
Oxygenated blood is transported internally via cardiovascular…
Combination of alveolus and capillary. Connection between res…
1. Heating or cooling inhaled air... 2. Filtering particles... 3. H…
External respiration
Gas exchange in lungs blood and air in external atmosphere
Internal respiration
Oxygenated blood is transported internally via cardiovascular…
78 terms
Anatomy and Physiology: Chapter 13: Anatomy of the Nervous System
gyri
sulci
fissures
cerebral hemispheres
ridges
shallow grooves
deep grooves; divides cerebrum from cerebellum divides hemisp…
largest portion
gyri
ridges
sulci
shallow grooves
59 terms
Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 13
Olfactory bulb
Optic nerve
Oculomotor nerve
Trochlear nerve
Olfactory bulb
Optic nerve
Anatomy and Physiology: Chapter 13
White Matter
Gray Matter
Sensory Neurons
Motor Neurons
myelinated , long distance communication... Posterior white colu…
not myelinated, neuron cell bodies, dendrites, integration ar…
receiving input from the environment. afferent
carrying info from CNS to effectors. efferent
White Matter
myelinated , long distance communication... Posterior white colu…
Gray Matter
not myelinated, neuron cell bodies, dendrites, integration ar…
71 terms
Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 13
Brady
Papill
Diastol
Syn
Slow
Nipple
Dilation
Together
Brady
Slow
Papill
Nipple
57 terms
Chapter 13 Anatomy and Physiology
specialized cells or cell processes th…
squeezing the receptor, stretching, it…
receptors that feel hot and cold
aware of various chemicals in the envi…
sensory receptors
mechanoreceptors
thermoreceptors
chemoreceptors
specialized cells or cell processes th…
sensory receptors
squeezing the receptor, stretching, it…
mechanoreceptors
18 terms
Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 13
4 Functions of the spinal cord
2 elargements of the spinal cord
Meninges
3 meninges
1. Conduction... 2. Neural integration... 3. Locomotion... 4. Reflexes
1. Cervical - Upper limbs... 2. Lumbar - pelvic region and lower…
3 fibrous connective tissue membranes that enclose the brain…
1. Dura matter... 2. Arachnoid matter... 3. Pia matter
4 Functions of the spinal cord
1. Conduction... 2. Neural integration... 3. Locomotion... 4. Reflexes
2 elargements of the spinal cord
1. Cervical - Upper limbs... 2. Lumbar - pelvic region and lower…
90 terms
Anatomy and Physiology: Chapter 13 - PNS
Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
Sensory (afferent) nerves
Sensory receptors
Stimulus
Portion of the nervous system consisting of nerve, ganglia, s…
Nerves that contain processes of sensory neurons and carry im…
A cell or part of a cell specialized to respond to a stimulus
An excitant; a change in the environment that evokes a response
Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
Portion of the nervous system consisting of nerve, ganglia, s…
Sensory (afferent) nerves
Nerves that contain processes of sensory neurons and carry im…
29 terms
Apologia Anatomy and physiology chapter 13
Lymphatic system
Pathogens
Localized infection
Systemic infection
Protects from invaders and gives you immunity to many infecti…
Harmful germs enter your body and multiply and then you have…
Only infects a small area such as a splinter in your foot
Infection that spreads throughout your body that affects many…
Lymphatic system
Protects from invaders and gives you immunity to many infecti…
Pathogens
Harmful germs enter your body and multiply and then you have…
109 terms
Anatomy and Physiology: Chapter 13
Ectoderm
Neural groove
Neural tube
CNS
Where do new cells come from?
In embryonic development, what do nervous cells come together…
What does the neural groove become as it develops?
What does the neural tube become in embryonic development?
Ectoderm
Where do new cells come from?
Neural groove
In embryonic development, what do nervous cells come together…
54 terms
Anatomy and Physiology: Chapter 13
True/False: The spinal cord is as long…
Conus medullaris
What is the longitudinal groove that i…
What are the two enlargements on the s…
False
The region where the spinal cord becomes tapered and conical
Posterior median sulcus
Cervical enlargement and lumbar enlargement
True/False: The spinal cord is as long…
False
Conus medullaris
The region where the spinal cord becomes tapered and conical
140 terms
Anatomy & Physiology I Chapter 13
spinal cord functions
conduction
neural integration
locomotion
conduction, neural integration, locomotion, & reflexes
bundles of nerve fibers conduct information up & down the spi…
pools of spinal neurons receive input from multiple sources,…
walking involves repetitive, coordinated contractions of seve…
spinal cord functions
conduction, neural integration, locomotion, & reflexes
conduction
bundles of nerve fibers conduct information up & down the spi…
107 terms
Anatomy and Physiology: Chapter 13
White Matter
Gray Matter
Sensory Neurons
Motor Neurons
myelinated , long distance communication... Posterior white colu…
not myelinated, neuron cell bodies, dendrites, integration ar…
receiving input from the environment. ... afferent
carrying info from CNS to effectors. ... efferent
White Matter
myelinated , long distance communication... Posterior white colu…
Gray Matter
not myelinated, neuron cell bodies, dendrites, integration ar…
133 terms
Anatomy and Physiology chapter 13
rostal
caudal
cerebrum
gyri
toward the nose
toward the tail
83% of brain's volume; consists of 2 half globes called cereb…
thick folds
rostal
toward the nose
caudal
toward the tail
Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 13
1. What are the functions of the spina…
2. Name the spinal meninges from super…
3. Describe the external anatomy of th…
4. At what level does the adult spinal…
a. Conducts impulses to and from the brain... b. Integrates refl…
a. Spinal meninges... i. Dura mater... ii. Arachnoid mater... iii. Pia…
a. Cervical enlargement... i. From 4th cervical vertebra to the…
a. Lumbar 1-2
1. What are the functions of the spina…
a. Conducts impulses to and from the brain... b. Integrates refl…
2. Name the spinal meninges from super…
a. Spinal meninges... i. Dura mater... ii. Arachnoid mater... iii. Pia…
Hole's Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 13 cardiovascular system
pericardium
epicardium
myocardium
endocardium
Encloses the heart and the proximal ends of the large blood v…
Corresponds to the visceral pericardium, protects the heart b…
Consists mostly of cardiac muscle tissue that pumps blood out…
Consists of epithelium and connective tissue that contains ma…
pericardium
Encloses the heart and the proximal ends of the large blood v…
epicardium
Corresponds to the visceral pericardium, protects the heart b…
158 terms
Chapter 13 Anatomy and Physiology
On average the brains of males are ___…
Is there a correlation between brain s…
Neural tube
Neurocel
10
No
Hollow cylinder that is the beginning of the central nervous…
Central cavity of the neural tube.
On average the brains of males are ___…
10
Is there a correlation between brain s…
No
42 terms
Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 13
Conduction, neural integration, locomo…
Conduction
Neural integration
Locomotion
Principal functions of the spinal cord
Send info up & down the spinal cord, connecting the brain w t…
Receive info from multiple sources, integrate the info, & exe…
Repetitive, coordinated contraction of several muscle groups…
Conduction, neural integration, locomo…
Principal functions of the spinal cord
Conduction
Send info up & down the spinal cord, connecting the brain w t…
12 terms
Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 13 Vocabulary-Hall
pulmonary circuit
systemic circuit
pericardium
epicardium
sends oxygen-depleted blood to the lungs to pick up oxygen an…
sends oxygen-rich blood and nutrients to all body cells and r…
encloses the heart and the proximal ends of the large blood v…
the outer layer of the heart wall, protects the heard by redu…
pulmonary circuit
sends oxygen-depleted blood to the lungs to pick up oxygen an…
systemic circuit
sends oxygen-rich blood and nutrients to all body cells and r…
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