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Study sets matching "physiology"

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Study sets matching "physiology"

1,259 terms
Physiology
What structures make up the Central Ne…
What is the breakdown of our Nervous s…
Sensory nerves are responsible for what?
Sensory nerves
The Brain and Spinal Cord
Central Nervous System... Peripheral Nervous System... Sensory (Aff…
These nerves are responsible for informing the CNS about what…
What structures make up the Central Ne…
The Brain and Spinal Cord
What is the breakdown of our Nervous s…
Central Nervous System... Peripheral Nervous System... Sensory (Aff…
2,000 terms
Physiology
In a ventricular pacemaker cell, what…
Anatomical and alveolar dead spaces to…
What three organs are necessary for th…
What is the effect of LH on the produc…
Phase 4; NE increase the slope of the prepotential, allowing…
Physiologic dead space is the total dead space of the respira…
Skin, liver, and kidneys
LH has no effect on the production of adrenal androgens; ACTH…
In a ventricular pacemaker cell, what…
Phase 4; NE increase the slope of the prepotential, allowing…
Anatomical and alveolar dead spaces to…
Physiologic dead space is the total dead space of the respira…
166 terms
Physiology
Steady State
what facilitated the process that prov…
What is a drawback of use of ATP metab…
How do multicellular organisms adapt t…
The maintenance of nearly constant conditions over time... -- Re…
Semipermable membrane via Diffusion, endocytosis and exocytos…
It produces heat that needs to be dissipated
It uses cells, tissues, organs and organ systems to effective…
Steady State
The maintenance of nearly constant conditions over time... -- Re…
what facilitated the process that prov…
Semipermable membrane via Diffusion, endocytosis and exocytos…
22 terms
Physiology
reflex
motor neuron
sensory neuron
interneuron
an involuntary response to a stimulus; happens very quickly b…
a neuron that passes messages from the CNS to the body
a neuron that passes messages from the body to the CNS
a neuron that passes messages within the CNS
reflex
an involuntary response to a stimulus; happens very quickly b…
motor neuron
a neuron that passes messages from the CNS to the body
36 terms
physiology
Role of regulation of the Adrenal gland
Adrenal Medulla is... part of the __nervo…
3 Zones of the Adrenal Cortex
3 Major Groups of Hormones of the Adre…
-Adaptive response to stress.... -Body water, Na+ and K+ balance…
sympathetic ... (neural crests cells)... make catecholamines (NE &…
(from mesoderm) 90% of wt
Role of regulation of the Adrenal gland
-Adaptive response to stress.... -Body water, Na+ and K+ balance…
Adrenal Medulla is... part of the __nervo…
sympathetic ... (neural crests cells)... make catecholamines (NE &…
145 terms
Physiology
Bases
Acids
Ions
Transports via blood... Lubricant... Cools b…
Substances that combines with H+ (H+ acceptor) Ex. NH3, NaOH
Substances that release H+ (H+ donor) Ex. HCl, CO2
Electrically charged particles in the body. (Cations and anio…
What does water do in your body?
Bases
Substances that combines with H+ (H+ acceptor) Ex. NH3, NaOH
Acids
Substances that release H+ (H+ donor) Ex. HCl, CO2
129 terms
Physiology
Glucose
Cellular Respiration
Glucose to Energy
Potential difference
C6 H12 O6
How we derive energy from the food we eat. Especially glucose…
Requires an addition of 6 Oxygen molecules (6-O2)
The difference in voltage between two points
Glucose
C6 H12 O6
Cellular Respiration
How we derive energy from the food we eat. Especially glucose…
1,250 terms
Physiology
abdomen
abduction
ABO
absorption
(ab´duo-men, ab-do´men) The portion of the trunk between the…
(ab-duk´shun) The movement of a body part away from the axis…
system The most common system of classification for red blood…
(ab-sorp´shun) The transport of molecules across epithelial m…
abdomen
(ab´duo-men, ab-do´men) The portion of the trunk between the…
abduction
(ab-duk´shun) The movement of a body part away from the axis…
1,259 terms
Physiology
What structures make up the Central Ne…
What is the breakdown of our Nervous s…
Sensory nerves are responsible for what?
Sensory nerves
The Brain and Spinal Cord
Central Nervous System... Peripheral Nervous System... Sensory (Aff…
These nerves are responsible for informing the CNS about what…
What structures make up the Central Ne…
The Brain and Spinal Cord
What is the breakdown of our Nervous s…
Central Nervous System... Peripheral Nervous System... Sensory (Aff…
101 terms
physiology
cardiovascular circuit pathway
force of blood flow definition
stead state blood flow
Left Ventricular Cardiac Output
Oxygenated blood from the lungs... --> pulmonary vein ... --> left…
= the pressure gradient (difference in blood pressure) across…
LV CO = RV CO = venous return
= rate of blood flow into aorta (aka systemic blood flow)
cardiovascular circuit pathway
Oxygenated blood from the lungs... --> pulmonary vein ... --> left…
force of blood flow definition
= the pressure gradient (difference in blood pressure) across…
87 terms
physiology
histology
tissue is
name 4 primary tissues
all organs are lined with
study of tissue
similiar groups of cells and cell products that derive from s…
epithelial, connective, nervous, muscular tissue
epithelial tissue
histology
study of tissue
tissue is
similiar groups of cells and cell products that derive from s…
12 terms
Physiology
Alveolus
Peristalsis
Oesophagus
Amino acids
Tiny air sac at the end of a bronchiole in the lungs that pro…
Involuntary waves of muscle contraction that keep food moving…
The muscular tube that carries food from the mouth to the sto…
Building blocks of protein
Alveolus
Tiny air sac at the end of a bronchiole in the lungs that pro…
Peristalsis
Involuntary waves of muscle contraction that keep food moving…
13 terms
Physiology
Plane
Osteon
Osteocytes
Canalculi
intercarpal and intertarsal joints
Complex consisting of central canal and matrix rings; found i…
Mature bone cells
Tiny canals
Plane
intercarpal and intertarsal joints
Osteon
Complex consisting of central canal and matrix rings; found i…
95 terms
Physiology
Cardiac Output (CO)=
Fick Principle
Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) =
Pulse Pressure (PP) =
SV X HR
CO = (rate of O2 consumption)/(arterial O2 content - venous O…
CO X TPR... or... 2/3 DBP + 1/3 SBP
SBP - DBP... -Proportional to SV... -Inversely proportional to arte…
Cardiac Output (CO)=
SV X HR
Fick Principle
CO = (rate of O2 consumption)/(arterial O2 content - venous O…
77 terms
Physiology
P Wave
QRS Complex
R Wave
S wave
small, atrial depolarization caused by SA node just before th…
Represents ventricular depolarization from the AV node to the…
tall upward reflection
medium downward reflection
P Wave
small, atrial depolarization caused by SA node just before th…
QRS Complex
Represents ventricular depolarization from the AV node to the…
1,394 terms
Physiology
loss of isotonic fluid changes...
losing salt and replacing sweat with s…
loss of hypertonic fluid
What is Boerhaave syndrome?
only the extracellular fluid, as no osmotic draw in any direc…
= hypotonic contraction
= hypotonic retraction... - hypertonic urine loss (NaCl, sec do…
= esophageal rupture after severe retching... ... presentation... - s…
loss of isotonic fluid changes...
only the extracellular fluid, as no osmotic draw in any direc…
losing salt and replacing sweat with s…
= hypotonic contraction
12 terms
Physiology
Nernst equation
Overall Conductance equations
Net Voltage Driving Force
Negative Feedback
equilibrium potential
G=N x Po x g... I=GV
Vdf(ion)=V- E(ion)
sensor information returning to a comparator corrects the out…
Nernst equation
equilibrium potential
Overall Conductance equations
G=N x Po x g... I=GV
217 terms
Physiology
Function of the Circulatory System
Circulatory Transport
Circulatory Regulation
Circulatory Protection
Transport... Regulation... Protection
Delivery of Nutrients and O2... Removal of metabolic wastes and…
Distribution of hormones... Temperature regulation
Clotting after injury... Immune response
Function of the Circulatory System
Transport... Regulation... Protection
Circulatory Transport
Delivery of Nutrients and O2... Removal of metabolic wastes and…
331 terms
Physiology
4 main functions of membranes
describe the the water molecule
Surface tension
what reduces surface tension?
signaling (receptors)... solute permeation/transport... adhesion an…
dipole and forms H bonds
G=yA... water molecules at the water-air interface are unstable…
surfactants
4 main functions of membranes
signaling (receptors)... solute permeation/transport... adhesion an…
describe the the water molecule
dipole and forms H bonds
1,259 terms
Physiology
What structures make up the Central Ne…
What is the breakdown of our Nervous s…
Sensory nerves are responsible for what?
Sensory nerves
The Brain and Spinal Cord
Central Nervous System... Peripheral Nervous System... Sensory (Aff…
These nerves are responsible for informing the CNS about what…
What structures make up the Central Ne…
The Brain and Spinal Cord
What is the breakdown of our Nervous s…
Central Nervous System... Peripheral Nervous System... Sensory (Aff…
Physiology
Cell Theory
Plasma membrane
Functions of the plasma membrane are a…
Phospholipid Bilayer
- All cells came from other pre-existing cells... - All living t…
- outside of cell that provides protection and regulate excha…
- phospholipid bilayer... *proteins... *carbohydrates ... *lipids
-2 layers... -heads out (hydrophillic); tails in (hydrophobic)... -…
Cell Theory
- All cells came from other pre-existing cells... - All living t…
Plasma membrane
- outside of cell that provides protection and regulate excha…
115 terms
Physiology
Types of Phospholipids
Types of Glycerophospholipids
Plasmalogen
Phosphatidylethanolamine
1. Glycerophospholipids... 2. Sphingolipids
-Phosphatiylehanolamine (PE)... -PhosphatidylCholine (PC)... -Phosp…
Glycerophospholipids characterized by the presence of a vinyl…
Types of Phospholipids
1. Glycerophospholipids... 2. Sphingolipids
Types of Glycerophospholipids
-Phosphatiylehanolamine (PE)... -PhosphatidylCholine (PC)... -Phosp…
570 terms
Physiology
communicating junctions at intercalate…
why is the heart muscle divided into t…
action potential in ventricular muscle?
plateau in the curve is representative…
gap junctions
to allow atria to contract a short time before ventricles
+120mv (-85 to +20mV)
membrane depolarization that lasts for about 0.2seconds... lengt…
communicating junctions at intercalate…
gap junctions
why is the heart muscle divided into t…
to allow atria to contract a short time before ventricles
127 terms
Physiology
Homeostasis
Osmotic equilibrium
Chemical Disequilibrium
Electrical Disequilibrium
Only reached with water
Fluid concentrations are equal on the 2 sides of the cell mem…
Some solutes are more concentrated in ECF or ICF than the other
Inside of the cells is slightly negative relative to the ECF
Homeostasis
Only reached with water
Osmotic equilibrium
Fluid concentrations are equal on the 2 sides of the cell mem…
118 terms
Physiology
Sensation of Hunger
Satiety
Leptin
Contraction of Muscularis Mucosa
Lateral Hypothalamic Area
Ventromedial Nucleus of Hypothalamus
Released by adipocytes acting on arcuate and paraventricular…
Cause Fluctuations of entire mucosal layer ↑ exposer to epith…
Sensation of Hunger
Lateral Hypothalamic Area
Satiety
Ventromedial Nucleus of Hypothalamus
56 terms
Physiology
Homeostasis
Variable
Receptor
Control Center
a system in which there is constant regulation to keep the in…
factor or event being regulated
a sensor that monitors the environment and responds to stimul…
determines what level a variable should be maintained, and pr…
Homeostasis
a system in which there is constant regulation to keep the in…
Variable
factor or event being regulated
54 terms
Physiology
What are the four objectives of a micr…
How do you calculate the magnification…
Cell (plasma) membrane
Cytoplasm
4x, 10, 40, & 100x
Total magnification power X ocular... ocular = 10x mag
Controls passage of materials in & out of cell
- Contains molecules for breaking down waste & aid metabolic…
What are the four objectives of a micr…
4x, 10, 40, & 100x
How do you calculate the magnification…
Total magnification power X ocular... ocular = 10x mag
25 terms
Physiology
Ouabain
Coupling ratio
Hodgkin and Huxley
Resting membrane potential
A Na+/k+ pump poison
the ratio in which a cell exchanges Na+/K+ in a 3:2 ratio
they found voltage within a neuron of a squid which read -63.
the natural state of the membrane
Ouabain
A Na+/k+ pump poison
Coupling ratio
the ratio in which a cell exchanges Na+/K+ in a 3:2 ratio
120 terms
Physiology
What are the two different approaches…
What are the levels or organization fo…
What is the difference between anatomy…
What are the different tissue types an…
Teleological, which is based off of feeling/ answers the ques…
two of the same organisms=populations... two or more populations…
Anatomy is the study of structure and Physiology is the study…
Muscle is used for contractions and movement, nervous is used…
What are the two different approaches…
Teleological, which is based off of feeling/ answers the ques…
What are the levels or organization fo…
two of the same organisms=populations... two or more populations…
119 terms
Physiology
What explains decrease in blood pressu…
What is somatosympathetic reflex?
Where is Endothelin-1 produced?
Where is Endothelin-2 produced?
This is explained by VAGAL afferents that INHIBIT VASOMOTOR d…
It is pressure response to sympathetic stimulation from somat…
It is produced in the endothelium of the blood vessels.
Endothelin-2 is produced in the intestines and kidneys.
What explains decrease in blood pressu…
This is explained by VAGAL afferents that INHIBIT VASOMOTOR d…
What is somatosympathetic reflex?
It is pressure response to sympathetic stimulation from somat…
98 terms
Physiology
nervous system is composed of: (2 thin…
can neurons or supporting cells underg…
nerve butons end up in:
3 regions of a neuron
1. neurons (basic structural and functional units)... 2. support…
only supporting (glial) cells
1. another nerve... 2. muscle... 3. gland
1. cell body... 2. dendrites... 3. axon
nervous system is composed of: (2 thin…
1. neurons (basic structural and functional units)... 2. support…
can neurons or supporting cells underg…
only supporting (glial) cells
46 terms
physiology
what are the 3 ways that the skin cont…
disruption of the skin barrier leads to:
what type of challenges is skin a barr…
what are the 4 main functions of the s…
1) insulation... 2) heat exchange via blood flow... 3) latent heat…
increased transepidermal water loss
1) water... 2) mechanical... 3) chemical... 4) microbial
1) barrier... 2) maintain body temp... 3) produce vitamin D... 4) senses
what are the 3 ways that the skin cont…
1) insulation... 2) heat exchange via blood flow... 3) latent heat…
disruption of the skin barrier leads to:
increased transepidermal water loss
Physiology
Products of glycolosis
Catabolic
Products of citric acid cycle
Anabolic
2 atp 2 Nadh
Reactions that release energy thru breakdown of larger biomol…
1 atp 3 nadh 1 fadh2
Energy-utilizing reactions that result in the synthesis of la…
Products of glycolosis
2 atp 2 Nadh
Catabolic
Reactions that release energy thru breakdown of larger biomol…
107 terms
Physiology
What is the structure of a neuron?
What are the types of neurons?
Function of a Neuron
Characteristics of a Neuron
Cell body... Dendrites... Axon... Myelin Shealth
Bipolar... Multipolar... Unipolar (pseudounipolar)
Conduct
Excitable (Respond)
What is the structure of a neuron?
Cell body... Dendrites... Axon... Myelin Shealth
What are the types of neurons?
Bipolar... Multipolar... Unipolar (pseudounipolar)
28 terms
Physiology
Ciguatoxin(block inactivation of Na ch…
Batratoxin(block inactivation of Na ch…
Highest K conductance is at
2/3 of hyperpolarization and whole dep…
comes from fish
Comes from Frog
at midpoint of action potential
Absolute refractory period.
Ciguatoxin(block inactivation of Na ch…
comes from fish
Batratoxin(block inactivation of Na ch…
Comes from Frog
43 terms
Physiology
Head
Neck
Face
Skull
Cephalic
Cervical
Facial
Cranial
Head
Cephalic
Neck
Cervical
26 terms
physiology
do catecholamines use second messenger…
are catecholamine receptors metabotrop…
what is the second messenger in alpha-…
what is the second messenger in beta-a…
yes
metabotrophic
PLC... calcium; makes it excitatory
cAMP... potassium; makes it inhibitory
do catecholamines use second messenger…
yes
are catecholamine receptors metabotrop…
metabotrophic
15 terms
Physiology
Osmolal concentration of plasma
5% Glucose solution is initially isoto…
Contributors of plasma osmolality are
Major non-electrolytes that contribute…
Plasma freezing point averages -0.54 degrees C. The osmolal c…
glucose is metabolized, so the net effect is that of infusing…
Na, Cl, HCO3, ( about 270mOsm) ... Glu ( about 5 mOsm/L )... Urea (…
Glucose and Urea
Osmolal concentration of plasma
Plasma freezing point averages -0.54 degrees C. The osmolal c…
5% Glucose solution is initially isoto…
glucose is metabolized, so the net effect is that of infusing…
Physiology
Erythropoiesis
Hemostasis
Platelets
Capillary diffusion
The process which produces red blood cells. It is stimulated…
Physiological mechanism that stops bleeding. 3-step process:…
Cell fragments. Have granules (rough edges) and are important…
Exchange of nutrients and metabolic end products.
Erythropoiesis
The process which produces red blood cells. It is stimulated…
Hemostasis
Physiological mechanism that stops bleeding. 3-step process:…
10 terms
Physiology
anatomy
physiology
tissue
homostasis
study of the structure of the human body (ex: bones)
study of the functions of the human body (ex: digestive break…
group of cells working together (ex: nerves, epidermis)
keeping internal conditions the same (ex: blood ph 7.91)
anatomy
study of the structure of the human body (ex: bones)
physiology
study of the functions of the human body (ex: digestive break…
16 terms
Physiology
calat-
erg-
fasc-
-gram
something inserted
work
bundle
something written
calat-
something inserted
erg-
work
Physiology
Epithelial Cells
5 types of epithelial cells
Connective tissue cell types (3)
two types of fibers produced by fibrob…
cover all surfaces of body that come into contact with outsid…
Squamous: cells are thin & flattened, substances diffuse easi…
fibroblasts: v common; produce two types of fibers which dete…
1. Collagenous (connecting) fibers: composed of collagen, ver…
Epithelial Cells
cover all surfaces of body that come into contact with outsid…
5 types of epithelial cells
Squamous: cells are thin & flattened, substances diffuse easi…
Physiology
homeostasis
superior vena cava
inferior vena cava
right atrium
A tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state
A vein that is the second largest vein in the human body and…
A vein that is the largest vein in the human body and returns…
The chamber of the heart, where deoxygenated blood is receive…
homeostasis
A tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state
superior vena cava
A vein that is the second largest vein in the human body and…
1,255 terms
Physiology
What structures make up the Central Ne…
What is the breakdown of our Nervous s…
Sensory nerves are responsible for what?
Sensory nerves
The Brain and Spinal Cord
Central NS... Peripheral NS... Sensory (Afferent) nerves... Motor (eff…
Informing CNS about what is going on within & outside the body.
What structures make up the Central Ne…
The Brain and Spinal Cord
What is the breakdown of our Nervous s…
Central NS... Peripheral NS... Sensory (Afferent) nerves... Motor (eff…
39 terms
Physiology
Three types of muscle in the human body
Physiological Functions of skeletal mu…
Motor unit
Myocin
Cadiac, Skeletal, Smooth
Posture, Purposeful movement, respiratory movements, heat pro…
Single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibres it inn…
Thick filament
Three types of muscle in the human body
Cadiac, Skeletal, Smooth
Physiological Functions of skeletal mu…
Posture, Purposeful movement, respiratory movements, heat pro…
11 terms
Physiology
Lipid Bilayer
Permeability of Cell Membrane
1)Passive(nonmediated) transport
2)Passive(nonmediated transport)
Membrane permeable to gases... Membrane proteins-attachment site…
Noncharged molecules
Diffusion through bilayer... -(determined by partition coefficie…
Diffusion through bilayer... -(determined by partition coefficie…
Lipid Bilayer
Membrane permeable to gases... Membrane proteins-attachment site…
Permeability of Cell Membrane
Noncharged molecules
34 terms
Physiology
Cephalon
Cervicis
Thoracis
Abdomen
head
neck
Chest
Abs
Cephalon
head
Cervicis
neck
54 terms
Physiology
Cephalon (cephalic)
Cranium (cranial)
Face (facial)
Oris (oral)
Head
Skull
Face
Mouth
Cephalon (cephalic)
Head
Cranium (cranial)
Skull
8 terms
physiology
physiology
homeostasis
negative feedback controls
homeostasis receptor
-study of the function of living organisms
-stage of body equilibrium or stable internal environment... -po…
-body senses an internal change from normal range of function…
-senses changes in environment... -sends info to control center
physiology
-study of the function of living organisms
homeostasis
-stage of body equilibrium or stable internal environment... -po…
23 terms
Physiology
Morphology
Signs and symptoms
Sequelae
Validity
the fundamental structure or form of cells or tissues.
the structural and functional changes that accompany a disease.
lesions or impairments that follow or are caused by a disease.
the extent to which a measurement tool measures what it is in…
Morphology
the fundamental structure or form of cells or tissues.
Signs and symptoms
the structural and functional changes that accompany a disease.
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