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Study sets matching "plant chapter 37"

20 terms
Chapter 37-Plant Nutrition
Minerals
Essential Nutrients
Macronutrients
Micronutrients
Extracted from soil and are called mineral nutrients.... Ex] NO3…
Required by a plant to grow and reproduce. There are 18 eleme…
Nutrients required in relatively large amounts. CHONPS.
Elements that are required in relatively small amounts.
Minerals
Extracted from soil and are called mineral nutrients.... Ex] NO3…
Essential Nutrients
Required by a plant to grow and reproduce. There are 18 eleme…
131 terms
Chapter 37: Plant Form & Function
Indeterminate growth
Root system
Shoot system
Vascular tissues
Plant bodies change because they grow throughout their lives
Below ground; anchors plant, takes in water and nutrients fro…
Above ground; gets light & CO2 to produce sugars. Contains st…
Connects the two systems... --Transports water & nutrients UP... --…
Indeterminate growth
Plant bodies change because they grow throughout their lives
Root system
Below ground; anchors plant, takes in water and nutrients fro…
31 terms
Chapter 37: Regulation of Plant Growth
tropisms
phototropism
gravitropism
thigmotropism
a directional response to a stimulus
growth or movement of plant towards light
growth of plant towards gravity
growth of plant toward touch
tropisms
a directional response to a stimulus
phototropism
growth or movement of plant towards light
8 terms
Chapter 37: Soil and Plant nutrition
Name 2 essential Macronutrients (other…
Inorganic Anions
Inorganic Cations
Cation exchange
-Nitrogen ... -Potassium... -Calcium... -Magnesium... -Phosphorus... -Sulfur
Nitrate and Phosphate
Calcium, Potassium, and Magnesium
A process in which positively charged minerals are made avail…
Name 2 essential Macronutrients (other…
-Nitrogen ... -Potassium... -Calcium... -Magnesium... -Phosphorus... -Sulfur
Inorganic Anions
Nitrate and Phosphate
37 terms
Chapter 37: Plant Form and Function
Apical bud
Axillary bud
Cellulose
Fibrous roots
A bud at the tip of a stem or branch, where growth occurs to…
A bud that forms at a node and may develop into a lateral (si…
A structural polysaccharide composed of glucose monomers form…
Many roots that branch out into the soil. Monocot roots.
Apical bud
A bud at the tip of a stem or branch, where growth occurs to…
Axillary bud
A bud that forms at a node and may develop into a lateral (si…
17 terms
Transport in Plants - Chapter 37
Transport Mechanisms
Pushing
Pulling
Movement of water at cellular level
Water enters roots, moves to xylem, rises through xylem, exit…
comes from pressure of water entering roots
created by transpiration -- evaporation of water in stomata.…
water can diffuse through plasma membranes. others depend on…
Transport Mechanisms
Water enters roots, moves to xylem, rises through xylem, exit…
Pushing
comes from pressure of water entering roots
55 terms
Chapter 37: Plant Nutrition
plant nutrition
what are the basic properties of soil?
soil is stratified into layers called
topsoil
study of the chemical elements that are necessary for plant g…
texture and composition
soil horizons
consists of mineral particles, living organisms, and humus ... -…
plant nutrition
study of the chemical elements that are necessary for plant g…
what are the basic properties of soil?
texture and composition
79 terms
Bio 112 Chapter 37: Plant Cells
Cellulose
Fibrous roots
Herbaceous
Indeterminate growth
A structural polysaccharide composed of glucose monomers join…
A root, as in most grasses, having numerous, very fine branch…
Referring to a plant that is not woody.
Refers to growth that is not terminated
Cellulose
A structural polysaccharide composed of glucose monomers join…
Fibrous roots
A root, as in most grasses, having numerous, very fine branch…
8 terms
Organismal Biology: Chapter 37: Soil and Plant Nutrition
Soil conservation
Plant nutrition requires essential ele…
Topsoil - inorganic & organic components
Plant nutrition's relationship with ot…
-Fertilizer - inorganic: N, P, K (15-10-5), mined or produced…
-Macronutrients: need in higher amounts - C, O, H, N, K+, Ca,…
-Inorganic mineral nutrients needed by plants... -Anions (releas…
-Soil bacteria & plant nutrition (especially N): decompositio…
Soil conservation
-Fertilizer - inorganic: N, P, K (15-10-5), mined or produced…
Plant nutrition requires essential ele…
-Macronutrients: need in higher amounts - C, O, H, N, K+, Ca,…
12 terms
Chapter 37: Plant Nutrition
Nutrient
Essential Nutrient
Macronutrient
Micronutrient
Substance metabolized by or incorporated into an organism
Necessary for the plant to grow and reproduce successfully
Needs lots of C, O, H, N
Not much required Cl, Iron, Na
Nutrient
Substance metabolized by or incorporated into an organism
Essential Nutrient
Necessary for the plant to grow and reproduce successfully
17 terms
Chapter 37 Plant nutrition
Mineral nutrients
Essential nutrients
Macronutrients
Micronutrients
NO3- (Nitrate)... Fe 3+ iron ion... Mg 2+ Magnesium ion
are required by a plant to grow and to reproduce ~18 elements…
nutrients required in relatively large amounts
elements required in relatively small amounts
Mineral nutrients
NO3- (Nitrate)... Fe 3+ iron ion... Mg 2+ Magnesium ion
Essential nutrients
are required by a plant to grow and to reproduce ~18 elements…
50 terms
Chapter 37: Intro to Plant Structure
How do plants obtain energy?
Carbon Fixation
C3 Plants
C4 Plants
Photosynthesis
The conversion of inorganic carbon (for example, CO2) into or…
A plant that uses the Calvin cycle for the initial steps that…
A plant that prefaces the Calvin cycle with reactions that in…
How do plants obtain energy?
Photosynthesis
Carbon Fixation
The conversion of inorganic carbon (for example, CO2) into or…
26 terms
Chapter 37 Plant Bio
dormant
germination
imbibition
radicle
if development stops even when external conditions are adequa…
when the seed sprouts, when dormancy is broken and environmen…
the first step in germination is this, the uptake of water
(embryonic root) germination is completed when this emerges f…
dormant
if development stops even when external conditions are adequa…
germination
when the seed sprouts, when dormancy is broken and environmen…
23 terms
Chapter 37, Soil and Plant Nutrition, Campbell 8e
humus
topsoil
soil horizons
loams
material formed from decaying leaves and other organic matter
Mixture of humus, clay, and other minerals that forms the cru…
distinct layers of soil
The most fertile of all soils, loams are made up of roughly e…
humus
material formed from decaying leaves and other organic matter
topsoil
Mixture of humus, clay, and other minerals that forms the cru…
17 terms
Chapter 37 Plant Nutrition
soil texture
topsoil
soil horizons
fertilization
Relative amounts of the different types and sizes of mineral…
Mixture of humus, clay, and other minerals that forms the cru…
Horizontal zones that make up a particular mature soil. Each…
making fertile as by addition of mineral nutrients to the soil.
soil texture
Relative amounts of the different types and sizes of mineral…
topsoil
Mixture of humus, clay, and other minerals that forms the cru…
25 terms
Chapter 37: plant nutrition
humus
topsoil
soil horizons
loams
remains of dead organisms and other organic matter
mineral particles release by weathering plus humus
topsoil and other soil layers
topsoils that are most fertile, composed of roughly equal amo…
humus
remains of dead organisms and other organic matter
topsoil
mineral particles release by weathering plus humus
16 terms
Chapter 37- Plant Nutrition
van Helmont
Plant Composition
macronutrients
micronutrients
1648 ... study a plant for 5 years... the soil remained the same... co…
95% organic molecules... 5% inorganic (minerals)
plant needs in large quantities
plant needs in smaller quantities
van Helmont
1648 ... study a plant for 5 years... the soil remained the same... co…
Plant Composition
95% organic molecules... 5% inorganic (minerals)
70 terms
Chapter 37- Plant Nutrition
Nutrient
Nutrient Examples
Autotrophs
Photoautotrophs
substance that is metabolized by or incorporated into an orga…
water, CO2, minerals
organisms that use organic molecules to make organic molecules
organisms who use light to make their own organic molecules
Nutrient
substance that is metabolized by or incorporated into an orga…
Nutrient Examples
water, CO2, minerals
30 terms
Chapter 37 - Plant Hormones
Dormant
Germinate
Imbibition
Radicle
development stops even when external conditions are adequate
sprout
first step in germination = uptake of water
embryonic root
Dormant
development stops even when external conditions are adequate
Germinate
sprout
20 terms
Chapter 37: Plant Nutrition
Soil is made up of.....
humus
What are the 2 soil aspects?
texture
broken down minerals and humus.
decaying organic material
- texture... - composition
relative amounts of different sized soil particles
Soil is made up of.....
broken down minerals and humus.
humus
decaying organic material
13 terms
Chapter 37- Plant Nutrition
Nutrient
Essential Nutrient
Macronutrient
Micronutrient
A substance that is metabolized by an organism
Substance req'd for plant growth and successful reproduction
LOTS required (Ex: C,O,H,N: mainly in fertilizer)
NOT a lot required (Ex: Cl, Iron, Na)
Nutrient
A substance that is metabolized by an organism
Essential Nutrient
Substance req'd for plant growth and successful reproduction
13 terms
chapter 37 (plant hormones)
gibberellins
auxin
aleurone layer
phototropism
class of plant growth hormones playing roles in stem elongati…
a substance that regulates growth and various aspects of deve…
tissue in some seeds that lies beneath the seed coat and surr…
directed plant growth response to light
gibberellins
class of plant growth hormones playing roles in stem elongati…
auxin
a substance that regulates growth and various aspects of deve…
36 terms
Chapter 37: Plant Growth
Primary Growth
Root Cap
Apical Meristem (In Roots)
Apical Meristem (In Shoots)
Results from the activity of the apical meristem at the tips…
End of root that cover the apical meristem
Roots elongate and push through the soil when new root cells…
Produces new leaves and a stem
Primary Growth
Results from the activity of the apical meristem at the tips…
Root Cap
End of root that cover the apical meristem
12 terms
Chapter 37: Plant Form and Function
why is wood mostly made of xylem?
early wood vs late wood
dendrochronology
oldest living tree
-air bubbles form in xylem in the winter... -shaking by the wind…
-early wood: xylem cells larger with thinner walls... -late wood…
using trees to study history
-bristlecone pine... -4,800 years old
why is wood mostly made of xylem?
-air bubbles form in xylem in the winter... -shaking by the wind…
early wood vs late wood
-early wood: xylem cells larger with thinner walls... -late wood…
22 terms
Plant Nutrition - Chapter 37
Where does plant mass come from
how much of non woody plants is water
Most organic material of a plant deriv…
Plants require how many essential nutr…
Soil provides substance for growth... Plants grow by absorbing s…
80-90%
carbon dioxide
17
Where does plant mass come from
Soil provides substance for growth... Plants grow by absorbing s…
how much of non woody plants is water
80-90%
38 terms
Chapter 37 Plant Nutrition
soil texture
humus
topsoil
soil horizons
Relative amounts of the different types and sizes of mineral…
Rich, dark organic material formed by decay of vegetable matt…
Mixture of humus, clay, and other minerals that forms the cru…
Horizontal zones that make up a particular mature soil. Each…
soil texture
Relative amounts of the different types and sizes of mineral…
humus
Rich, dark organic material formed by decay of vegetable matt…
58 terms
Chapter 37: Plant nutrition
Essential nutrients
macronutrients
micronutrients
why do roots absorb water and minerals…
are required by organisms to complete their growth, developme…
are required in relatively large amounts
are needed only in very small amounts
because they require oxygen for respiration
Essential nutrients
are required by organisms to complete their growth, developme…
macronutrients
are required in relatively large amounts
33 terms
Chapter 37 Plant Nutrition
What elements are plants made of?
Explain Von Helmut's mistake
Where does uptake of nutrients occur?
Define essential element/nutrient
C.H.O.N.P.S... Carbon... Hydrogen... Oxygen... Nitrogen... Phosphorous... Sulfur
He didn't know air had mass (CO2) when calculating mass in pl…
Both the leaves and the roots... Leaves: Carbon dioxide diffuse…
-Required for growth and reproduction ... -No other element can…
What elements are plants made of?
C.H.O.N.P.S... Carbon... Hydrogen... Oxygen... Nitrogen... Phosphorous... Sulfur
Explain Von Helmut's mistake
He didn't know air had mass (CO2) when calculating mass in pl…
31 terms
Chapter 37: Water and Sugar Transport in Plants
transpiration
water potential
solute potential/osmosis potential
wall pressure
loss of water via evaporation from aerial parts of a plant; o…
potential energy that water has in a particular environment c…
tendency for water to move by osmosis in response to differen…
force exerted by cell wall to keep cell from expanding
transpiration
loss of water via evaporation from aerial parts of a plant; o…
water potential
potential energy that water has in a particular environment c…
66 terms
Chapter 37: Plant Form and Function
Indeterminate Growth
Root system
Shoot system
Taproot
grow throughout the span of their lives
a belowground portion that anchors the plant and takes in wat…
an aboveground portion that harvests light and carbon dioxide…
a large vertical main root of a plant's root system
Indeterminate Growth
grow throughout the span of their lives
Root system
a belowground portion that anchors the plant and takes in wat…
10 terms
Chapter 37: Soil and Plant Nutrition
arbuscular mycorrhizal
epiphyte
nodule
endophyte
symbiotic fungus whose hyphae grow through the cell wall of p…
a plant that nourishes itself but grows on the surface of ano…
a swelling on the root of a legume
a harmless fungus, or occasionally another organism, that liv…
arbuscular mycorrhizal
symbiotic fungus whose hyphae grow through the cell wall of p…
epiphyte
a plant that nourishes itself but grows on the surface of ano…
12 terms
CHAPTER 37: Transport in Plants
casparian strip
symplast route
translocation
active transport
it is in the endodermis of the root and runs through the cell…
cytoplasm continuum between cells connected by plasmodesmata
shuttling of metabollites; provides building blocks for activ…
transportation of nutrients from one part of the body to the…
casparian strip
it is in the endodermis of the root and runs through the cell…
symplast route
cytoplasm continuum between cells connected by plasmodesmata
12 terms
Chapter 37: Soil and Plant Nutrition
humus
loams soil
cation exchange
essential elements
remains of dead organisms and other organic matter
composed of roughly equal parts of sand silt and clay
a process in which cations are displaced from soil particles…
required for a plant to complete its life cycle and produce a…
humus
remains of dead organisms and other organic matter
loams soil
composed of roughly equal parts of sand silt and clay
25 terms
Chapter 37: Transport in Plants
Transpiration
Osmosis
Hypoosmotic
Hyperosmotic
The evaporation of thin films of water in the stomata, creati…
The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membran…
Low solute concentration
High concentration of solute
Transpiration
The evaporation of thin films of water in the stomata, creati…
Osmosis
The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membran…
23 terms
Chapter 37: Soil and Plant Nutrition
humus
topsoil
soil horizons
loams
material formed from decaying leaves and other organic matter
Mixture of humus, clay, and other minerals that forms the cru…
distinct layers of soil
The most fertile of all soils, loams are made up of roughly e…
humus
material formed from decaying leaves and other organic matter
topsoil
Mixture of humus, clay, and other minerals that forms the cru…
12 terms
Chapter 37: Soil and Plant Nutrition
Soil texture
Humus
Soil horizons
Topsoil
dependent upon the size of the particles
remains of dead organisms and other organic nature; increases…
Topsoil, much less organic, broken down rock
Plants are nourished by the soil solution, the water, and dis…
Soil texture
dependent upon the size of the particles
Humus
remains of dead organisms and other organic nature; increases…
24 terms
Chapter 37: Soil and Plant Nutrition
humus
loams
cation exchange
sustainable agriculture
the remains of dead organisms and other organic matter
topsoils which are composed of roughly equal amounts of sand,…
a process in which cations are displaced from soil particles…
a commitment embracing a variety of farming methods that are…
humus
the remains of dead organisms and other organic matter
loams
topsoils which are composed of roughly equal amounts of sand,…
58 terms
Chapter 37: Plant Form and Function
Indeterminate growth
Root system
Shoot system
Taproot
A pattern of growth in which an individual continues to incre…
The belowground part of a plant.
The aboveground part of a plant comprising stems, leaves, and…
A large, vertical main root of a plant's root system.
Indeterminate growth
A pattern of growth in which an individual continues to incre…
Root system
The belowground part of a plant.
36 terms
Chapter 37: Soil and Plant Nutrition
Humus
Erosion (water/wind)
Macronutrients
Micronutrients
-Organic material produced by decomposition of dead organisms…
Loss of topsoil, contour tillage and no-till agriculture can…
Needing more of these elements, Plants require in relatively…
Needing small quantities (cofactors- non-protein helpers in e…
Humus
-Organic material produced by decomposition of dead organisms…
Erosion (water/wind)
Loss of topsoil, contour tillage and no-till agriculture can…
17 terms
Chapter 37: Soil & Plant Nutrition
Soil Horizons
Topsoil
Inorganic Components of Topsoil
Cation Exchange
A Horizon (topsoil)... B Horizon... C Horizon
consists of mineral particles, living organisms, humus (decay…
Cations adhere to neg. charged soil particles = prevents them…
cations displaced from soil particles by other cations (H+)... t…
Soil Horizons
A Horizon (topsoil)... B Horizon... C Horizon
Topsoil
consists of mineral particles, living organisms, humus (decay…
28 terms
Chapter 37 Vocabulary: Plant Nutrition
Macronutrients
Micronutrients
Hydroponic Culture
Mobile Nutrient Deficiency
a chemical substance that an organism must obtain in relative…
an element that an organism needs in very small amounts and t…
a method in which plants are grown without soil by using mine…
mineral deficiency that affects older organs more than young…
Macronutrients
a chemical substance that an organism must obtain in relative…
Micronutrients
an element that an organism needs in very small amounts and t…
25 terms
Chapter 37: Plant Form and Function
indeterminate growth
taproot
lateral root
functions of root systems
means that they grow throughout their lives
vertical root
horizontal root
anchors the plant in the soil, absorbs water and ions in the…
indeterminate growth
means that they grow throughout their lives
taproot
vertical root
43 terms
Plant Form and Function; Chapter 37
Most plants exhibit __________ growth,…
For _________ to occur, plants need la…
Plants must obtain Ni________, Ph_____…
The belowground portion of plants is c…
Indeterminate
Photosynthesis, light, water, volume, pressure
Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Magnesium
Root system
Most plants exhibit __________ growth,…
Indeterminate
For _________ to occur, plants need la…
Photosynthesis, light, water, volume, pressure
31 terms
Transport in Plants Chapter 37
3 Levels of Transport
Passive Movement in Cells
Active Movement
Transport
Individual cells... Cell-cell... Long distance with phloem and xylem
Osmosis!! Transport water
Against concentration gradient; involves energy + chemiosmosi…
Water enters roots... Then moves to the xylem- innermost vascula…
3 Levels of Transport
Individual cells... Cell-cell... Long distance with phloem and xylem
Passive Movement in Cells
Osmosis!! Transport water
33 terms
Chapter 37: Soil & Plant Nutrition
humus
topsoil
soil horizons
loam
remains of dead organisms & other organic matter
mixture of particles derived from rock, living organisms, & h…
topsoil & other distinct soil layers
most fertile soil type. made up of roughly = parts sand, silt…
humus
remains of dead organisms & other organic matter
topsoil
mixture of particles derived from rock, living organisms, & h…
19 terms
Chapter 37: Transport in Plants
Plasmodesmata
Flow of Water
Transpiration
Aquaporins
Connection between cells
Roots --> Xylem --> Stomata
Evaporation from films of stomata... Pulling force... Causes water…
Pores in vacuoles and cell membrane... Allow Bulk Flow
Plasmodesmata
Connection between cells
Flow of Water
Roots --> Xylem --> Stomata
16 terms
Chapter 37: Soil and Plant Nutrition
Soil
Components of topsoil
Going from the surface down...
topsoil
The substrates on which plants depend
a) Mineral particles (inorganic compounds)... b) Living organism…
1) Leaf litter and plant life... 2) Topsoil... 3) Subsoil... 4) Bedrock
Where are most roots found?
Soil
The substrates on which plants depend
Components of topsoil
a) Mineral particles (inorganic compounds)... b) Living organism…
14 terms
Chapter 37: Soil & Plant Nutrition
rhizobacteria
rhizosphere
nitrogen cycle
ammonifying bacteria
soil bacteria w esp. large pops in the rhizosphere
soil layer that surrounds plant's roots. unique mix of root s…
transformations of nitrogen & nitrogenous compounds in nature
decomposers living in humus-rich soil. release ammonia (NH3)…
rhizobacteria
soil bacteria w esp. large pops in the rhizosphere
rhizosphere
soil layer that surrounds plant's roots. unique mix of root s…
18 terms
Soil and Plant Nutrition - Chapter 37
Topsoil
Anions
Cations
Cation Exchange
inorganic mineral nutrients are needed by plants
released easily from the soil and easily taken up by the plant
harder to get from the soil because they are attracted to the…
water reacts with carbon molecules which causes the release o…
Topsoil
inorganic mineral nutrients are needed by plants
Anions
released easily from the soil and easily taken up by the plant
33 terms
Chapter 37: Soil and Plant Nutrition
Humus
Erosion (water/wind)
Macronutrients
Micronutrients
Organic material produced by decomposition of dead organisms,…
Loss of topsoil, contour tillage and no-till agriculture can…
Needing more of these elements, Plants require in relatively…
Needing small quantities (cofactors- non-protein helpers in e…
Humus
Organic material produced by decomposition of dead organisms,…
Erosion (water/wind)
Loss of topsoil, contour tillage and no-till agriculture can…
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