Study sets matching "policy historiography"

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Study sets matching "policy historiography"

28 terms
Foreign Policy Historiography
The league failed because it lacked te…
Presence and future of the league was…
Mussolini appeared to have triumphed i…
League was never able to overcome the…
F.S. Northedge (Structuralist LON counter)
Maxwell Garnett (Interwar - LON counter)
G. Scott (revisionist- LON Counter)
Webster (Great People - LON)
The league failed because it lacked te…
F.S. Northedge (Structuralist LON counter)
Presence and future of the league was…
Maxwell Garnett (Interwar - LON counter)
Historiography - Stalins Domestic Policies
Roy Medvedev (1983)
David Christian (1997)
Dmitri Volkogonov (1991)
E.H. Carr (1953)
ECONOMIC - AGRICULTURE... Collectivization: war against the peas…
ECONOMIC - AGRICULTURE... Condemned a whole generation of Russia…
ECONOMIC - AGRICULTURE... "Stalin's forced agrarian revolution c…
ECONOMIC - INDUSTRY... It is impossible to dissociate Russia's p…
Roy Medvedev (1983)
ECONOMIC - AGRICULTURE... Collectivization: war against the peas…
David Christian (1997)
ECONOMIC - AGRICULTURE... Condemned a whole generation of Russia…
6 terms
Historiography - Stalins Domestic Policies
Roy Medvedev (1983)
David Christian (1997)
Dmitri Volkogonov (1991)
E.H. Carr (1953)
ECONOMIC - AGRICULTURE... Collectivization: war against the peas…
ECONOMIC - AGRICULTURE... Condemned a whole generation of Russia…
ECONOMIC - AGRICULTURE... "Stalin's forced agrarian revolution c…
ECONOMIC - INDUSTRY... It is impossible to dissociate Russia's p…
Roy Medvedev (1983)
ECONOMIC - AGRICULTURE... Collectivization: war against the peas…
David Christian (1997)
ECONOMIC - AGRICULTURE... Condemned a whole generation of Russia…
9 terms
Historiography: Stalin's Economic Policies
Leonard Shapiro
Sheila Fitzpatrick
Robert Conquest
Alec Nove
had industrial growth proceed under the Tsarist regime uninte…
highly critical of Stalin. His gigantomania distorted the eco…
highly critical of Stalin's policies, Conquest remarked "Stal…
Stalin's economic policies were a failure. They caused misery…
Leonard Shapiro
had industrial growth proceed under the Tsarist regime uninte…
Sheila Fitzpatrick
highly critical of Stalin. His gigantomania distorted the eco…
17 terms
Foreign policy 1870-1914 historiography
(Franco Prussian war) "G Stone acted p…
(Black Sea) "public opinion went again…
(Alabama) "useful as a precedent for f…
(Suez Canal) "to control and minimise…
Lee
Fortune
Lee
Hicks
(Franco Prussian war) "G Stone acted p…
Lee
(Black Sea) "public opinion went again…
Fortune
15 terms
Elizabeth I Historiography (6) - Foreign policy
Wernham on Elizabeth's goal in early p…
Mervyn on goal of foreign policy
Murphy et al on England's power
Doran on turning point of foreign policy
'She wanted to retain Spain as a counterpoise to France'
Need to 'reassert England's status' after Mary's failures
'second rate power' compared with France and Spain (throughou…
1576-8 as Elizabeth begins to build up English fleet
Wernham on Elizabeth's goal in early p…
'She wanted to retain Spain as a counterpoise to France'
Mervyn on goal of foreign policy
Need to 'reassert England's status' after Mary's failures
Third Reich Domestic Policy 2 Historiography
Corkery & Stone
Judt T
O'Dochartaigh #1
O'Dochartaigh #2
In Nazi's teaching, the German peasant was the embodiment of…
The immediate cause of the division of Germany lies on Stalin…
Ultimately, both (Adenauer and Ulbricht) chose to settle for…
In the final analysis it should not be forgotten that ultimat…
Corkery & Stone
In Nazi's teaching, the German peasant was the embodiment of…
Judt T
The immediate cause of the division of Germany lies on Stalin…
Third Reich: Democratic Policy 1 Historiographies
Klaus Fischer
Karl Bracher (+group of Historians)
Noakes and Pridham (three main develop…
Gellately (Nazis Terror)
The chief strategy in Hiler's arsenal of gaining, maintaining…
identify Nazism as totalitarian... dominate individual's life w…
1. Individual employed to work in the press began to be vette…
Without the active participation of the population, it would…
Klaus Fischer
The chief strategy in Hiler's arsenal of gaining, maintaining…
Karl Bracher (+group of Historians)
identify Nazism as totalitarian... dominate individual's life w…
8 terms
Foreign Policy Historiography (will add to this as I go)
"a defensive league" against Spain
Elizabeth supported it
Risky and act of piracy
Unfairly and immediately suspected
Treaty of Blois 1572 [John Guy]
Hawkins' attempt to break the Spanish trade monopoly [Ronald…
The acquisition of the Genoese Loan/bullion [Charles Wilson]
The murder of Lord Darnley, Mary's husband. Mary was...[John…
"a defensive league" against Spain
Treaty of Blois 1572 [John Guy]
Elizabeth supported it
Hawkins' attempt to break the Spanish trade monopoly [Ronald…
Historiography - Cold War Revision
historiography
Hegel
CW post-revisionist
CW orthodoxy
the recognition of multiple points of view
father of the dialectic
John Lewis Gaddis - 1982 - both systems are to blame
George Frost Kennan - 1946 - soviet system is to blame
historiography
the recognition of multiple points of view
Hegel
father of the dialectic
13 terms
Historiography - Origins of Cold War
ORTHODOX PERSPECTIVE
REVISIONIST PERSPECTIVE
POST-REVISIONIST PERSPECTIVE
Arthur Schleisinger... ORTHODOX ---POST-R…
holds that USSR was responsible for outbreak of war, USSR see…
claimed that the US was responsible for Cold War, and that US…
strike a balance between Orthodox and Revisionist views, stre…
ORTHODOX... Argued that collaboration between Soviet Russia and…
ORTHODOX PERSPECTIVE
holds that USSR was responsible for outbreak of war, USSR see…
REVISIONIST PERSPECTIVE
claimed that the US was responsible for Cold War, and that US…
Historiography - WWII Revision
Lloyd Gardner
Donald Cameron
Bruce Russett
Robert Dallek
WWII could have been avoided had the US abandoned the isolati…
FDR, a cunning and insightful statesmen, used his skills to g…
The US had no strategic interests relative to the conflict in…
FDR underestimated the threats posed by the rising tide of to…
Lloyd Gardner
WWII could have been avoided had the US abandoned the isolati…
Donald Cameron
FDR, a cunning and insightful statesmen, used his skills to g…
6 terms
Hitler Maintenance Historiography
David Irving
Timothy Mason
Martin Broszat
Karl Bracher
Holocaust didn't happen
Hitler went to war because of German economic crisis in 1938
Cumulative radicalism (party leaders one-uping each other)
Deliberate overlapping of interests
David Irving
Holocaust didn't happen
Timothy Mason
Hitler went to war because of German economic crisis in 1938
Historiography
AJP Taylor; Hitler and Foreign policy
Kershaw; Hitler
Shirer; Ideology
Hildebrand; Soviets
Hitler consisted of Opportunism and improvisation, Functional…
Hitler Lazy Dictator, Functionalist. Didn't think allies woul…
Nazism was logical phase in Germany's development, Determinist
External events such as Munich pact 1938 caused the Nazi Sovi…
AJP Taylor; Hitler and Foreign policy
Hitler consisted of Opportunism and improvisation, Functional…
Kershaw; Hitler
Hitler Lazy Dictator, Functionalist. Didn't think allies woul…
10 terms
Historiography
Gordon Craig
Mary McAuley
Orlando Figes
Niall Ferguson
Negative cohesion
...
...
...
Gordon Craig
Negative cohesion
Mary McAuley
...
Historiography - Nazi Germany Revision
Bracher
Overy
Unemployment figures
Mefo bills figures
'at no time did National Socialism develop a consistent econo…
'the policies actually pursued in 1933 had much more in commo…
within 18 months reduced to 2.5 million ... by 1936, reduced to…
12 M Reichsmark paid out in Mefo bills by 1937... 50% of governm…
Bracher
'at no time did National Socialism develop a consistent econo…
Overy
'the policies actually pursued in 1933 had much more in commo…
Historiography
Colonial America
American Revolution
Early Nationhood
Late 1800s/Early 1900s
God's chosen people were led to America to better their lives…
God guided the americans to victory against England and Georg…
They believed the movement westward proved that their human p…
Democracy is proven to have worked over a vast area. Providen…
Colonial America
God's chosen people were led to America to better their lives…
American Revolution
God guided the americans to victory against England and Georg…
IB Historiography - Stalin
Rise to power (Figes)
Rise to power (Lewin)
Great Terror (Service)
Purges (Shapiro)
Lenin takes a lot of the blame for appointing Stalin to so ma…
Lenin's poor health opened the door for Stalin's rise, especi…
Stalin initiated the Great Terror, but he was not the only on…
The Post-Kirov Purges were "Stalin's victory over the party"
Rise to power (Figes)
Lenin takes a lot of the blame for appointing Stalin to so ma…
Rise to power (Lewin)
Lenin's poor health opened the door for Stalin's rise, especi…
Original Thesis: Historiography
America largely reactive to
Stalin seeking Geopolitical and strate…
Communism Seeking
FDR naively trusted
Soviet Policy
the act of increasing the wealth or prestige or power or scop…
World Domination
Stalin
America largely reactive to
Soviet Policy
Stalin seeking Geopolitical and strate…
the act of increasing the wealth or prestige or power or scop…
7 terms
historiography
Williams (revisionist)
Deudney and Ikenberry
Diggins
Bowker and Williams (post revisionist)
Vietnam was an attempt to spread US dominance
Reagan's military policies and ideology pushed the Soviet eco…
The ending of the cold war was the Soviet Union imploding fro…
Detente was necessary in dealing with international relations…
Williams (revisionist)
Vietnam was an attempt to spread US dominance
Deudney and Ikenberry
Reagan's military policies and ideology pushed the Soviet eco…
60 terms
HISTORIOGRAPHY
HISTORIOGRAPHY
NEOLITHIC PERIOD
sargon the great
Hammurabi
the study of writing history
(10,000-3,000 B.C.) new agricultural techniques, domesticatio…
conquers Sumerians: blends their culture
Babylonian king sly foreign policy devises famed legal code e…
HISTORIOGRAPHY
the study of writing history
NEOLITHIC PERIOD
(10,000-3,000 B.C.) new agricultural techniques, domesticatio…
12 terms
Historiography
C. Carpenter on Henry's usurpation
G. Elton on rebellions
Francis Bacon on the nobility
G. Elton on the church
'Henry had the enormous advantage of replacing a king who had…
'The Simnel plot was a major threat'
'He kept a strong hand on his nobility'
'The state of the church was widely believed to be rotten'
C. Carpenter on Henry's usurpation
'Henry had the enormous advantage of replacing a king who had…
G. Elton on rebellions
'The Simnel plot was a major threat'
18 terms
Russia historiography
Disution of CA- CPSU
Dissolution of CA- Figes
Dissolution of CA- Pipes
Civil war- Trotsky
It was negcessary ti dissolve the bourgeios CA
Peasantry saw the assembly as a distant thing in the city
The machine gun became the principle instrument if political…
Everything for the front!
Disution of CA- CPSU
It was negcessary ti dissolve the bourgeios CA
Dissolution of CA- Figes
Peasantry saw the assembly as a distant thing in the city
IB Historiography - Weimar Germany and Hitler
Hitler's foreign policy - AJP Taylor
Weimar's 'Golden Age' - AJP Taylor
Weimar's 'Golden Age' culture - Willia…
Fall of Weimar democracy - Ian Kershaw
Hitler's foreign policy was simply a continuation of German a…
Poincare (French PM)--not Stresemann--was responsible for Wei…
'Nowhere else did the arts of intellectual life seem so livel…
The very people who were meant to uphold the democracy (conse…
Hitler's foreign policy - AJP Taylor
Hitler's foreign policy was simply a continuation of German a…
Weimar's 'Golden Age' - AJP Taylor
Poincare (French PM)--not Stresemann--was responsible for Wei…
16 terms
Historiography
Charles Beard
Avery Craven
Drew Faust
William Dunning and Howard Beale
Conflicting economic interests between the North and the Sout…
Sectional issues were the primary cause of the Civil War.
Slavery was the primary cause of the Civil War.
Reconstruction was politically, economically, and socially da…
Charles Beard
Conflicting economic interests between the North and the Sout…
Avery Craven
Sectional issues were the primary cause of the Civil War.
Historiography
K. Pyle
W. Beasley
P. J. Bailey
P. J. Bailey 2
Conservatives felt Japan had a duty to have a strong military…
1880s onwards, Western ideas should not be adopted just for b…
Yuan's failure to create support for modernisation under the…
1916-1928, Pure Warlordism.
K. Pyle
Conservatives felt Japan had a duty to have a strong military…
W. Beasley
1880s onwards, Western ideas should not be adopted just for b…
26 terms
Historiography
Neo-Marxism
Consensus Historians
New left Historians
Individual history
Reject aughoritarian of capitalism and communism; blames the…
Post WWII-mid 60s; evils of communism, goods of am culture; v…
Civil rights movement; try to persuade people to be more resp…
70s-present; minority studies
Neo-Marxism
Reject aughoritarian of capitalism and communism; blames the…
Consensus Historians
Post WWII-mid 60s; evils of communism, goods of am culture; v…
28 terms
historiography
British orthodox view (ww2)
Wheeler-Bennett (ww2)
Keith Middlemass (ww2)
R.A.C Parker (ww2)
perceives the appeasement view as an act of surrender, target…
Orthodox british historian: with the case of appeasement, he…
Orthodox british historian: appeasement was "diplomacy of ill…
Orthodox british historian: Believed Chamberlain was so entic…
British orthodox view (ww2)
perceives the appeasement view as an act of surrender, target…
Wheeler-Bennett (ww2)
Orthodox british historian: with the case of appeasement, he…
Historiography
Hagen Schulze
Karl Bracher
A.J.P Taylor
Hans Mommsen
WEIMAR: 'Vicious Cycle' - weak coalitions led to radicalisati…
Main Problem with the constitution was the relationship betwe…
Reparations were damaging because of the 'resentment' they ca…
Brüning's use of Article 48 was as much the cause of collapse…
Hagen Schulze
WEIMAR: 'Vicious Cycle' - weak coalitions led to radicalisati…
Karl Bracher
Main Problem with the constitution was the relationship betwe…
Historiography
(1) Alexis de Tocquerville
(1) Christopher Hibbert (1)
(1) Christopher Hibbert (14th July 1789)
(1) Marxist Historian Eric Hobsbawm
Never was any such event so inevitable yet so completely unfo…
(Royal Session 23rd June 1789) "despite this apparent abandon…
(14th July 1789) "crowd was becoming an irresistible force"
"In times of revolution nothing is more powerful than the fal…
(1) Alexis de Tocquerville
Never was any such event so inevitable yet so completely unfo…
(1) Christopher Hibbert (1)
(Royal Session 23rd June 1789) "despite this apparent abandon…
35 terms
Historiography
Religion under Somerset -Duffy
Religion under Somerset -Haigh
1549 Rebellions -Guy
1549 Rebellions -Duffy
A charter for revolution
Met with much strife and contention
The closest England came to a class war
Due to class antagonism
Religion under Somerset -Duffy
A charter for revolution
Religion under Somerset -Haigh
Met with much strife and contention
Paper 2 Historiography
Intentionalist
Structuralist
Anderson
Ritter
Policies a result of deliberate planning
Subject to pressure forced to adopt policies not of their cho…
Nazi support was reliant on economic crisis
Collapse of Weimar Republic and Hitler's rise to power was du…
Intentionalist
Policies a result of deliberate planning
Structuralist
Subject to pressure forced to adopt policies not of their cho…
Historiography - WWI and Stalin
Ritter
Fischer
Taylor
Zuber
The Schlieffen Plan for German mobilization was risky and inf…
Germany pushed war to avoid internal socialist revolution
Germany's plans accelerated the tempo of events and left no t…
The Schlieffen Plan was one of at least five German alternati…
Ritter
The Schlieffen Plan for German mobilization was risky and inf…
Fischer
Germany pushed war to avoid internal socialist revolution
Historiography of Slavery
Ulrich B. Phillips
Paternalism
Hebert Aptheker
Kenneth Stampp
Wrote "American Negro Slavery" (1918)... Paternalistic, benign i…
A policy of treating subject people as if they were children,…
Wrote "American Negro Slave Revolts" (1943)... Challenged Ulrich…
Wrote "The Peculiar Institution" (1956)... Slavery was harsh and…
Ulrich B. Phillips
Wrote "American Negro Slavery" (1918)... Paternalistic, benign i…
Paternalism
A policy of treating subject people as if they were children,…
20 terms
Nazi Germany Historiography
Kershaw on the rise of Nazi Germany
Hildebrand on the rise of Nazi Germany
Broszat on the rise of Nazi Germany
Anderson on the rise of Nazi Germany
- External events, young plan, wall street crash, elections o…
Hitler was an intentionalist and a stategist with a detailed…
Hitler was an opportunist that took advantage of any opportun…
- Nazi support was reliant on economic crisis.... - The senility…
Kershaw on the rise of Nazi Germany
- External events, young plan, wall street crash, elections o…
Hildebrand on the rise of Nazi Germany
Hitler was an intentionalist and a stategist with a detailed…
19 terms
Historiography
AJP Taylor
Ian Kershaw
Ian Kershaw
Dennis Mack Smith
If there had been a strong democratic sentiment in Germany, H…
Strasser hoped to replace the Programme of 1920. In November,…
The repeated claim before the 'seizure of power' - that the N…
Mussolini was far too sensible to have been responsible for t…
AJP Taylor
If there had been a strong democratic sentiment in Germany, H…
Ian Kershaw
Strasser hoped to replace the Programme of 1920. In November,…
20 terms
Historiography - Mao's China
Rise, Sun Yatsen X: E. Moise
Rise, Sun Yatsen Y: J. Fairbank
Rise, the May Fourth Movement X: J. Ro…
Rise, the May Fourth Movement Y: T. Ryan
'The final collapse of the Qing Dynasty was to a considerable…
Whilst none of the uprisings gained much support, Sun 'certai…
Chinese reformists 'lost faith in Western democracy after the…
The impact of the May Fourth Movement lies more in the realis…
Rise, Sun Yatsen X: E. Moise
'The final collapse of the Qing Dynasty was to a considerable…
Rise, Sun Yatsen Y: J. Fairbank
Whilst none of the uprisings gained much support, Sun 'certai…
AQA HIS3K - Brezhnev Historiography
Brezhnev relied on 'conventional methods
Party members 'couldn't bring themselv…
Brezhnev 'abandoned his hare brained s…
'Economically speaking, the Brezhnev p…
Lowe
Laver
Lowe
Nove
Brezhnev relied on 'conventional methods
Lowe
Party members 'couldn't bring themselv…
Laver
WWI and WWII Historiography
Ruth Henig
A.P Taylor
Namier
Cato
Lack of super powers in League of nations
Treaty of Versailles- insufficiently dealt with reparations f…
german policy to spread over europe
Appeasement by chamberlain was cowardly and allowed hitler to…
Ruth Henig
Lack of super powers in League of nations
A.P Taylor
Treaty of Versailles- insufficiently dealt with reparations f…
Bismarck Historiography
AJP taylor
Gordon Craig
Eric Eyck
C Grant Robertson
In 1871, the reich was merely a wartime coalition... State soci…
State socialism not a fraud, similar policies can be traced b…
State socialism was a fraud pursued for political opportunism
Bismarck sacrificed the kulturkampf for success in other area…
AJP taylor
In 1871, the reich was merely a wartime coalition... State soci…
Gordon Craig
State socialism not a fraud, similar policies can be traced b…
Historiography WW1, Treaty of Versailles, Hitler Revision
Sydney Bradshaw Fay
Fritz Fischer
Eric Hobsbawm
John Stoessinger
No one country to blame for WW1, none plotted for an aggressi…
Germany totally to blame, sought an aggressive war of expansi…
(marxist view) Imperialist capitalism to blame, hunger for re…
Personal failings of those trying to manage the July Crisis
Sydney Bradshaw Fay
No one country to blame for WW1, none plotted for an aggressi…
Fritz Fischer
Germany totally to blame, sought an aggressive war of expansi…
22 terms
Historiography - Cold War
Origins, wartime conferences X: I. Gray
Origins, wartime conferences Y: D. Cop…
Origins, US policies in Europe X: W. W…
Origins, US policies in Europe Y: A. S…
The change in British & American representatives 'at Potsdam…
At Potsdam 'it was the successful atomic tests which gave Tru…
The onset of the Cold War was due to 'dollar diplomacy' - the…
The USA had to act defensively in their policy in Europe such…
Origins, wartime conferences X: I. Gray
The change in British & American representatives 'at Potsdam…
Origins, wartime conferences Y: D. Cop…
At Potsdam 'it was the successful atomic tests which gave Tru…
29 terms
Historiography
Who views Northumberland as a "bad duk…
Who views Northumberland as a mostly p…
Who views the Treaty of Boulogne as "i…
Who believes that Elizabeth set out to…
Loach
Hook
Pollard
Camden
Who views Northumberland as a "bad duk…
Loach
Who views Northumberland as a mostly p…
Hook
10 terms
EK Terms and Historiography
Appeasement
Appeasement as a Cause of War
Examples of Appeasement
Appeasement Historiography
A policy of settling international disputes by satisfying gri…
Historians such as Taylor argue that Hitler was not acting, b…
The Munich Pact was the best example when Chamberlain allowed…
Keith Middlemass: Chamberlain should be judged harshly, for h…
Appeasement
A policy of settling international disputes by satisfying gri…
Appeasement as a Cause of War
Historians such as Taylor argue that Hitler was not acting, b…
20 terms
IBH2 Historiography - Mao's China
Rise, Sun Yatsen X: E. Moise
Rise, Sun Yatsen Y: J. Fairbank
Rise, the May Fourth Movement X: J. Ro…
Rise, the May Fourth Movement Y: T. Ryan
'The final collapse of the Qing Dynasty was to a considerable…
Whilst none of the uprisings gained much support, Sun 'certai…
Chinese reformists 'lost faith in Western democracy after the…
The impact of the May Fourth Movement lies more in the realis…
Rise, Sun Yatsen X: E. Moise
'The final collapse of the Qing Dynasty was to a considerable…
Rise, Sun Yatsen Y: J. Fairbank
Whilst none of the uprisings gained much support, Sun 'certai…
10 terms
Mid-Tudor Historiography (1) - Somerset and Northumberland
Paget on Somerset
Privy Council on Somerset (in 1549)
Murphy et al on Somerset
Guy on Somerset's religious policy
'your softness, your opinion to be good to the poor'
'malice and evil government'
'disastrous set of policies'
'chaotic'
Paget on Somerset
'your softness, your opinion to be good to the poor'
Privy Council on Somerset (in 1549)
'malice and evil government'
22 terms
Historiography - Hitler's Germany
Rise, political & economic context X:…
Rise, political & economic context Y:…
Rise, weakness of the Weimar Republic…
Rise, weakness of Weimar Republic Y: K…
Hitler's prominence was circumstantial - political and econom…
'Zeitgeist may have assisted Hitler's coming to power; but in…
'Tarnished by its opponents with the stigma of Versailles and…
'In five years, German parliamentarianism had produced no ide…
Rise, political & economic context X:…
Hitler's prominence was circumstantial - political and econom…
Rise, political & economic context Y:…
'Zeitgeist may have assisted Hitler's coming to power; but in…
Historiography for League of Nations
William Keylor
Ruth Henig
Sally Marks
Richard Ovary
failed because there was not enough implementation of policies
failed because of the absence of the US
nations wanted to gain own power, not peace
The Great Depression is to blame, success after the Locarno Era
William Keylor
failed because there was not enough implementation of policies
Ruth Henig
failed because of the absence of the US
23 terms
Historiography COLD WAR Paper 2
R. Beggs
B. Lightbody
Andrews
Gaddis
Cuban Missiles were risky, but if it had gone to plan, the So…
The Berlin wall ruined peaceful co-existence.
The Cold War was caused by the Soviet Union, was sustained by…
The Cold War was caused by both complicated external and inte…
R. Beggs
Cuban Missiles were risky, but if it had gone to plan, the So…
B. Lightbody
The Berlin wall ruined peaceful co-existence.
History - AOS2 historiography
"Together with the strikes and the Kro…
"If war Communism was a leap into soci…
"he (lenin) always insisted that the N…
"...now Lenin proposed to retire a lit…
...they (the peasants) would force the Congress to abandon fi…
...then the NEP was a leap out of socialism." - Martin McCauley
...really the old economic policy on 1918, but he never attem…
...to change from an assault of the fortress to the slower me…
"Together with the strikes and the Kro…
...they (the peasants) would force the Congress to abandon fi…
"If war Communism was a leap into soci…
...then the NEP was a leap out of socialism." - Martin McCauley
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