Study sets matching "population genetics"

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Study sets matching "population genetics"

46 terms
Population Genetics
What is a Mendelian population? How is…
What are the predictions given by the…
What assumptions must be met for a pop…
What is random mating?
A group of sexually reproducing individuals mating with each…
States that a large population mating randomly with no effect…
Large population, random mating, and not affected by migratio…
Takes place when genotypes mate with each other according to…
What is a Mendelian population? How is…
A group of sexually reproducing individuals mating with each…
What are the predictions given by the…
States that a large population mating randomly with no effect…
Population Genetics
Hardy-Weinberg principle
allopatric speciation
sympatric speciation
adaptive radiation
when frequency of alleles remain constant, a population is in…
a physical barrier divides one population into two or more po…
a species evolves into a new species without a physical barrier
one species gives rise to many species in response to creatio…
Hardy-Weinberg principle
when frequency of alleles remain constant, a population is in…
allopatric speciation
a physical barrier divides one population into two or more po…
54 terms
Population Genetics
Population genetics
Polymorphism
Genotype Frequency
Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
Study of genetic variation in populations
Multiple forms (alleles) of a gene in population (with minor…
let "p" be the functional allele, or the commonly found allel…
Population genetics
Study of genetic variation in populations
Polymorphism
Multiple forms (alleles) of a gene in population (with minor…
65 terms
Population Genetics
Natural Selection
Genetic Drift
Genetic Process which leads to adaptat…
Gene Flow
Increases the frequency of certain alleles
Causes allele frequencies to change randomly.
Natural Selection
Occurs when individuals leave one population, join another, a…
Natural Selection
Increases the frequency of certain alleles
Genetic Drift
Causes allele frequencies to change randomly.
16 terms
Population Genetics
Evolution (standard def)
Evolution (pop. geneticists def)
gene frequency
Fisher, Haldane, and Wright
any change in the genetic constitution of a population
any change in gene frequency
the frequency of an allele in a population
They laid the mathematical foundation for the theory of popul…
Evolution (standard def)
any change in the genetic constitution of a population
Evolution (pop. geneticists def)
any change in gene frequency
19 terms
Population Genetics
Hardy Weinburg Formula
Hardy Weinburg Equation
Allele Frequency vs. Genotypic Frequency
Non Random Mating
No migration... No mutation... Large population... Random mating... No na…
p^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1
Positive Assortative... Negative Assortative... Interbreeding vs. O…
Hardy Weinburg Formula
No migration... No mutation... Large population... Random mating... No na…
Hardy Weinburg Equation
p^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1
18 terms
Population Genetics
Population Genetics
Microevolution
Gene pool
Allele frequency
Study of genetic variation within a population
Change in allele frequency over time
All of the alleles in a population
The relative occurrence of an allele in a population
Population Genetics
Study of genetic variation within a population
Microevolution
Change in allele frequency over time
93 terms
Population Genetics
The major architects of Neo-Darwinian…
Bottleneck Effect
Founder Effect
Genetic Drift
R.A. Fisher, Sewell Wright, J.B.S. Haldane... A comprehensive t…
the form of genetic drift that occurs... when the population siz…
when a population is initially established... by a small number…
random change in allelic frequency due to... chance.
The major architects of Neo-Darwinian…
R.A. Fisher, Sewell Wright, J.B.S. Haldane... A comprehensive t…
Bottleneck Effect
the form of genetic drift that occurs... when the population siz…
Population Genetics
gene pool
genetic variation
Transversion
Translation
total number of genes (alleles) of every individual in an int…
component of phenotypic variance that is due to genetic diffe…
base substitution in which a purine is replaced by a pyrimidi…
process by which a protein is assembled from information cont…
gene pool
total number of genes (alleles) of every individual in an int…
genetic variation
component of phenotypic variance that is due to genetic diffe…
population genetics
single nucleotide polymorphisms
copy number variations ( deletions, du…
junk DNA
alleles
homologous genomic sequences are compared between people, app…
exons, entire genes, and chromosomal regions are affected. Do…
what kind of DNA is more diverse?
specific variants in polymorphic sites
single nucleotide polymorphisms
homologous genomic sequences are compared between people, app…
copy number variations ( deletions, du…
exons, entire genes, and chromosomal regions are affected. Do…
Population Genetics
Carrier Screening Panels
Population Genetics
Gene Pool
allele vs genotype frequency
- panels for 100's of conditions ... - prenatally and pre-concep…
- determining mutation frequencies from incidence data... - appl…
- consists of individuals... - look at picture and define allele…
- genotype freq = how frequent are AA, Aa, and aa ... - allele f…
Carrier Screening Panels
- panels for 100's of conditions ... - prenatally and pre-concep…
Population Genetics
- determining mutation frequencies from incidence data... - appl…
81 terms
population genetics
loss of genetic variation that occurs…
Ellis-van Creveld (EVC) syndrome MOI
The distinct phenotype exhibited by El…
Pt presents with:... Post-axial polydact…
Founder Effect
AR
Founder Effect
Ellis-van Creveld (EVC) syndrome
loss of genetic variation that occurs…
Founder Effect
Ellis-van Creveld (EVC) syndrome MOI
AR
37 terms
Population Genetics
Microevolution
mutations
point mutation
chromosomal mutation
Change in allele frequencies in a population over generations.
A change in the nucleotide sequence of an organism's DNA, ult…
a mutation in which a single nucleotide base is substituted f…
A change in the structure of a chromosome (e.g., deletion, th…
Microevolution
Change in allele frequencies in a population over generations.
mutations
A change in the nucleotide sequence of an organism's DNA, ult…
36 terms
Population Genetics
What is a gene pool in the context of…
What are races
What's polymorphism?
What is a gene pool?
the collection of all the alleles of that gene in the populat…
major population subgroups whose gene pools differ from each…
Occurrence of two or more clearly different morphs or forms,…
The sum of all genes (alleles) in a population at a given tim…
What is a gene pool in the context of…
the collection of all the alleles of that gene in the populat…
What are races
major population subgroups whose gene pools differ from each…
6 terms
Population Genetics
What is population genetics?
What is the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium?
What is the Hardy-Weinberg Equation?
For Step 1, what is general simplifica…
is the study of genetic variation in populations... allows us t…
Predictable relationship between genotype frequencies and all…
Generally p (normal) allele frequency is very close to 1 (i.e…
What is population genetics?
is the study of genetic variation in populations... allows us t…
What is the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium?
Predictable relationship between genotype frequencies and all…
34 terms
Population Genetics
Alleles
Phenotype
"Genotype determines Phenotype"
Population Genetics
1 copy of that gene. Genotype is all the slightly different v…
Anything that is observable - not just overtly physical but a…
No. Non genetic and epigentic factors influence the activity…
...
Alleles
1 copy of that gene. Genotype is all the slightly different v…
Phenotype
Anything that is observable - not just overtly physical but a…
Population Genetics
p
q
p^2
2pq
probability of dominant allele
probability of recessive allele
probability of homo-dominant
probability of heterozygote dominant-recessive
p
probability of dominant allele
q
probability of recessive allele
Population Genetics
Population Genetics
Allele
Gene Pool
Genotype Frequency
the study of genetic variability within a population and the…
one of two or more alternate forms of a gene that occupy corr…
all the alleles for all the loci present in a population
The proportion of a particular genotype in a population, expr…
Population Genetics
the study of genetic variability within a population and the…
Allele
one of two or more alternate forms of a gene that occupy corr…
20 terms
Population Genetics
The Science of Population Genetics
Evolution
Phenotypic Frequencies
Equilibrium
seeks to understand how genetic variation is generated and in…
the change in frequencies of alleles in a population over time.
changes in allele and genotypic frequencies for individual ge…
no changes in the frequencies of the population
The Science of Population Genetics
seeks to understand how genetic variation is generated and in…
Evolution
the change in frequencies of alleles in a population over time.
Population Genetics
q^2
2pq
p^2
Balance model
Expected frequency of the recessive genotype in Hardy-Weinber…
Expected frequency of the heterozygous genotype in Hardy-Wein…
Expected frequency of the dominant genotype in Hardy-Weinberg…
Genetic variation in natural populations is maintained by sel…
q^2
Expected frequency of the recessive genotype in Hardy-Weinber…
2pq
Expected frequency of the heterozygous genotype in Hardy-Wein…
Population Genetics
p
q
2pq
q^2
the allele frequency of dominant phenotype
the allele frequency of recessive phenotype
carrier frequency
homozygous affected frequency
p
the allele frequency of dominant phenotype
q
the allele frequency of recessive phenotype
13 terms
Population Genetics
Transmission genetics
Molecular genetics
Quantitative genetics
Population genetics
genetic processes that occur within individuals and how genes…
molecular structure of heredity, DNA and how biochemical proc…
transmission of traits in large groups of individuals, where…
transmission of traits in large groups of individuals, where…
Transmission genetics
genetic processes that occur within individuals and how genes…
Molecular genetics
molecular structure of heredity, DNA and how biochemical proc…
14 terms
Population Genetics
Population Genetics
SNPs
Microsatellites
Most prevalent type of polymorphism
Analysis of the amount and distribution of genetic variation…
Single nucleotide polymorphisms
Short sequence motif, 2 to 6 bp long, is repeated multiple ti…
SNPs
Population Genetics
Analysis of the amount and distribution of genetic variation…
SNPs
Single nucleotide polymorphisms
5 terms
Population genetics
population
species
population genetics
gene pool
a group of organisms that are potentially capable of breeding…
a group of organisms that consists of all the organisms poten…
a study that observes the occurrence, the numbers and the cha…
all the alleles of all the... individuals in a population
population
a group of organisms that are potentially capable of breeding…
species
a group of organisms that consists of all the organisms poten…
Population Genetics
Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
HW assumptions
Deviation from HW
fitness vs. selection
allele frequency p+q = 1... genotype frequency p^2+2pq+q^2 = 1... -…
large pop... no mutation... no selection... random mating... no migration
selection... -if a trait is genetically lethal,frequency of a wo…
F = 1-s =0 if normal offspring... use fitness in mutation-selec…
Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
allele frequency p+q = 1... genotype frequency p^2+2pq+q^2 = 1... -…
HW assumptions
large pop... no mutation... no selection... random mating... no migration
15 terms
Population Genetics
central issue
population
demes
a population may change in
genetic variation and its extent, why it exists, how it changes
a group of individuals of the same species that occupy the sa…
smaller local populations within a population
-size... -geographic location... -genetic composition
central issue
genetic variation and its extent, why it exists, how it changes
population
a group of individuals of the same species that occupy the sa…
36 terms
Population Genetics
Cladogram
Cladogram
Mutations
Gene Pool
A diagram that is based on patterns of shared, derived traits…
...
A change in the nucleotide sequence of an organism's DNA, ult…
All the genes, including all the different alleles for each g…
Cladogram
A diagram that is based on patterns of shared, derived traits…
Cladogram
...
13 terms
Population Genetics
Gene Pool
Survival of the fittest
Natural Selection
Mutation
Common set of alleles/genes
Individuals compete for limited resources and those best adap…
Process by which a population becomes adapted to its local en…
Source of genetic variation and creates new alleles.
Gene Pool
Common set of alleles/genes
Survival of the fittest
Individuals compete for limited resources and those best adap…
27 terms
Population genetics
Gene (allele) frequency
Genotype frequency
Phenotype frequency
Co-dominant autosomal alleles
Proportion of chromosomes that contain a specific gene in a p…
Proportion of individuals in a population that carry a specif…
Proportion of indiv. in a population having a particular phen…
Heterozygotes can be distinguished from both homozygotes.
Gene (allele) frequency
Proportion of chromosomes that contain a specific gene in a p…
Genotype frequency
Proportion of individuals in a population that carry a specif…
Population Genetics
Pop. Genetics
Gene Pool
microevolution
Genetic structure of populations
study of patterns, variation and changes in allele freq. in g…
the set of shared alleles of an interbreeding group
changes in allele frequencies in the gene pool over time
how alleles are distributed among individ. in a group
Pop. Genetics
study of patterns, variation and changes in allele freq. in g…
Gene Pool
the set of shared alleles of an interbreeding group
8 terms
Population Genetics
study how the frequency of alleles, wh…
an interbreeding group of individuals…
simply the sum total of all of the gen…
changes in allele frequency drive
population geneticists
population
gene pool
evolution and speciation
study how the frequency of alleles, wh…
population geneticists
an interbreeding group of individuals…
population
Population Genetics
Independent Assortment
Principle of Segregation
Panmixia
Natural Selection
the outcome of each event, or trait inherited, has no effect…
Sexually reproducing organisms produce genes that occur in pa…
random matings
process in which alleles that confer survival or reproductive…
Independent Assortment
the outcome of each event, or trait inherited, has no effect…
Principle of Segregation
Sexually reproducing organisms produce genes that occur in pa…
36 terms
Population Genetics
when 2 populations that have been divi…
genetic structure also means
what is the goal of population genetics
reproductively interacting group of in…
speciation
the distribution of alleles
to understand the genetic composition of a population and the…
population
when 2 populations that have been divi…
speciation
genetic structure also means
the distribution of alleles
Population Genetics
individual
population
community
fertile
one organism
A group of individuals that belong to the same species and li…
All the different populations that live together in an area
able to reproduce
individual
one organism
population
A group of individuals that belong to the same species and li…
34 terms
Population Genetics
broad sense variability equation
broad sense variability
narrow sense variability
narrow sense variability equation
H2= Vg/Vp
proportion of phenotypic variance that can be attributed to G…
proportion of the phenotypic variance that can be attributed…
h2=Va/Vp
broad sense variability equation
H2= Vg/Vp
broad sense variability
proportion of phenotypic variance that can be attributed to G…
38 terms
Population Genetics
Genotype frequency
Allele frequency
Hardy-Weinberg Eqn
H-W Eqn Assumptions
Measure of each genotype in a population, dividing the count…
Measure of the proportion of chroms that have a specific alle…
Allows us to make estimations or predictions about the popula…
1. The population is large.... 2. Mating is random. ... 3. No selec…
Genotype frequency
Measure of each genotype in a population, dividing the count…
Allele frequency
Measure of the proportion of chroms that have a specific alle…
27 terms
Population genetics
Population genetics
Alleles
Polymorphism
Homozygote
Study of genetic variation in populations
Different forms (versions) of a gene... Note the DNA sequences m…
Multiple alleles of a gene in a population, where the greater…
Same allele on each chromosome at a specific locus
Population genetics
Study of genetic variation in populations
Alleles
Different forms (versions) of a gene... Note the DNA sequences m…
13 terms
Population Genetics
Population
neutural theory
natural selection
microevolution
group of individuals with common set of genes, lives in same…
when genetic variation is expected due to neutral theory
high genetic variation
changes in allele frequencies, do not result in reproductive…
Population
group of individuals with common set of genes, lives in same…
neutural theory
when genetic variation is expected due to neutral theory
40 terms
Population genetics
Microsatellite
Rare SNPs
Common SNPs
Discovery panel
A locus composed of several to many copies (repeats) of a sho…
A SNP for which the less common allele occurs at a frequency…
A SNP for which the less common allele occurs at a frequency…
A group of individuals used to detect variable nucleotide sit…
Microsatellite
A locus composed of several to many copies (repeats) of a sho…
Rare SNPs
A SNP for which the less common allele occurs at a frequency…
Population Genetics
Population
Gene pool
Evolution
Hardy-weinberg law
The group of interest; often represented by a subset called a…
Total of all genes in a population.
Genetic change taking place in a group of organisms.
Important principle of population genetics stating that, in a…
Population
The group of interest; often represented by a subset called a…
Gene pool
Total of all genes in a population.
Population Genetics
Genotype Frequencies
Allele Frequencies
Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
Hardy-Weinberg Equation... pg 335, Kapl…
proportion of genotype in population
proportion of chromosomes ... containing specific allele of a ge…
Constant and predictable relationship b/n genotype freq and a…
p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1... p2 = homozygous normal ... 2pq = heterozygous…
Genotype Frequencies
proportion of genotype in population
Allele Frequencies
proportion of chromosomes ... containing specific allele of a ge…
Population Genetics
5 Conditions that must be met for Hard…
Why can we apply hardy weinburg to hum…
Hardy Weinburg allows you to predict 3…
Trend between how rare an X linked rec…
1-Random Mating... 2- No selection for or against genes... 3- No mi…
We have a huge population, so it makes up for us not followin…
1-Estimate carrier frequencies... 2- Mating Type probabilities... 3…
Men are always more likely for X linked recessive, but the ra…
5 Conditions that must be met for Hard…
1-Random Mating... 2- No selection for or against genes... 3- No mi…
Why can we apply hardy weinburg to hum…
We have a huge population, so it makes up for us not followin…
12 terms
Population Genetics
Evolution
Gene pool
Genetic drift
Founder effect
Change in gene frequencies in a gene pool of a population
All possible alleles in a population
production of random evolutionary changes in a small population
Genetic drift that occurs after a small number of individuals…
Evolution
Change in gene frequencies in a gene pool of a population
Gene pool
All possible alleles in a population
Population Genetics
Population genetics
Alelles
Polymorphism
Genotype Frequency
Study of genetic variation in population
different forms (Versions) of a gene
mutliple forms (alleles) of a gene on population
-assay of 100 individuals in the population that show three d…
Population genetics
Study of genetic variation in population
Alelles
different forms (Versions) of a gene
Population Genetics
Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
Genotype frequency
Allele frequency
Autosomal Recessive disorder... Hardy-Wei…
p^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1... q = disease causing or rarely found allel…
AA = p^2... Aa = 2pq... aa = q^2
individuals have 2 alleles for every autosomal locus... Frequenc…
q is a very low number (< 5%) so p~1... 2pq ~ 2q... I = q^2... Inciden…
Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
p^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1... q = disease causing or rarely found allel…
Genotype frequency
AA = p^2... Aa = 2pq... aa = q^2
18 terms
Population genetics
Population genetics
Population
Sub population
Local population
The study of the frequency and interaction of alleles and gen…
A group of organisms of the same species living in the same g…
Any of the breeding groups within a population amount which m…
A si population within which most individuals find their mates
Population genetics
The study of the frequency and interaction of alleles and gen…
Population
A group of organisms of the same species living in the same g…
21 terms
Population Genetics
Population genetics (evolutionary gene…
Mendelian population
population geneticists are interested in
Hardy-Weinberg Law
deals with patterns of genetic variations among individuals i…
a group of interbreeding individuals who share a common set o…
- amount of variation in natural populations and the processe…
describes the influence of random mating on the allele and th…
Population genetics (evolutionary gene…
deals with patterns of genetic variations among individuals i…
Mendelian population
a group of interbreeding individuals who share a common set o…
12 terms
Population Genetics
Natural selection
Disruptive selection
Stabilizing selection
Mutation
the differential survival and reproduction in nature that fav…
selection that favors extreme values of a trait at the expens…
selection that favors intermediate values of a trait at the e…
the molecular source of variation that underlies the process…
Natural selection
the differential survival and reproduction in nature that fav…
Disruptive selection
selection that favors extreme values of a trait at the expens…
16 terms
Population genetics
population genetics
natural selection
variation
environmental variances
The study of genetic changes in populations; the science of m…
A process in which individuals that have certain inherited tr…
Any difference between individuals of the same species.
Variation among individuals in a phenotypic trait that is cau…
population genetics
The study of genetic changes in populations; the science of m…
natural selection
A process in which individuals that have certain inherited tr…
Population Genetics
Population
Allele
genotype
population genetics
Individuals of same species live in a particular place at the…
version or variant of a gene
combination of alleles
concerned with the genotype and allele frequencies and their…
Population
Individuals of same species live in a particular place at the…
Allele
version or variant of a gene
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