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Study sets matching "problem solving cognitive psychology"

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Study sets matching "problem solving cognitive psychology"

16 terms
Cognitive Psychology - Problem Solving
Thinking
Mental Representations
Algorithm
Heuristic
going beyond the information given. Finding relations, having…
truthful representations, ability to manipulate them, skill i…
a step by step procedure that guarentees a solution
a short cut that may lead to a solution
Thinking
going beyond the information given. Finding relations, having…
Mental Representations
truthful representations, ability to manipulate them, skill i…
28 terms
cognitive psychology problem solving
Arrangement problems
useful skills to solve problems
insight
functional fixedness
a problem that requires rearranging its parts to satisfy a sp…
it requires a trial and error process, one thing that is usef…
you feel like you are doing trial and error and then boom the…
a negative situation, you can only think of an object based o…
Arrangement problems
a problem that requires rearranging its parts to satisfy a sp…
useful skills to solve problems
it requires a trial and error process, one thing that is usef…
10 terms
Cognitive Psychology Problem Solving
Basic four levels of a problem
Three Structures of a Problem
Problem Space Theory
How to solve a problem
-Goal state: where you want to be... -Initial state: were you ar…
-Well-defined problems: initial state and goal state are clea…
Views problem solving as a search within a problem space: a s…
Algorithm: will always, sooner or later produce the correct a…
Basic four levels of a problem
-Goal state: where you want to be... -Initial state: were you ar…
Three Structures of a Problem
-Well-defined problems: initial state and goal state are clea…
57 terms
Problem Solving-Cognitive Psychology
When does a problem occur?
The Gestalt psychologists
The Gestalt psychologists introduced?
Insight
when there is an obstacle between a present state and a goal…
focused on how people represent a problem in their mind. They…
the idea that reorganization is associated with insight
a sudden realization of a problem's solution. This has been d…
When does a problem occur?
when there is an obstacle between a present state and a goal…
The Gestalt psychologists
focused on how people represent a problem in their mind. They…
34 terms
Cognitive Psychology: Problem Solving
problem solving
3 approaches to problem solving
1) Behaviorist Approach
cat-in-a-box experiment
you have a goal but are not currently at that goal
1) Behaviorist approach... 2) Gestalt approach... 3) Information Pr…
problem solving is a matter of chance and whatever behaviors…
-does the cat have the ability/insight to figure out how to e…
problem solving
you have a goal but are not currently at that goal
3 approaches to problem solving
1) Behaviorist approach... 2) Gestalt approach... 3) Information Pr…
33 terms
Cognitive Psychology, Problem Solving
What are 3 Features of Problem solving
Goal Directedness
subgoal decomposition
Operator Application
1. Goal Directedness... 2. Subgoal decomposition... 3. Operator app…
There's an end state, aka a solution, you're are trying to re…
Problems have structure; there are subgoals you must reach on…
Creating representations of subgoals makes it easier to find…
What are 3 Features of Problem solving
1. Goal Directedness... 2. Subgoal decomposition... 3. Operator app…
Goal Directedness
There's an end state, aka a solution, you're are trying to re…
21 terms
Cognitive Psychology: Problem Solving
4 Aspects of a problem
Well-defined problems
Ill-defined problems
Search
Goal- what is to be accomplished... Givens- what is known from…
All four aspects of the problem are specified... tower of hanoi…
one or more of the aspects of the problem are not well define…
in a well defined problem the problem is that there are so ma…
4 Aspects of a problem
Goal- what is to be accomplished... Givens- what is known from…
Well-defined problems
All four aspects of the problem are specified... tower of hanoi…
17 terms
Problem Solving - Cognitive Psychology
Verbal Protocol
Problem Space
Operators
Ill-defined (structured) problems
A word-for-word
The initial, intermediate, and goal states in a problem.
The set of legal moves that can be performed during problem s…
Vaguely specify the starting or goal states, the operators, o…
Verbal Protocol
A word-for-word
Problem Space
The initial, intermediate, and goal states in a problem.
9 terms
Cognitive Psychology-Problem Solving
problem solving
representation
elements
operators
circumventing or eliminating an obstacle to a (sub)goal
how one defines what the problem to be solved is, including e…
items, tools, and/or structures available.
rules for manipulating elements; allows you to move from one…
problem solving
circumventing or eliminating an obstacle to a (sub)goal
representation
how one defines what the problem to be solved is, including e…
AP Psychology: Cognition and Problem Solving
Cognition
Concepts
Schema
Prototypes
The mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, reme…
Mental groupings of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
A cognitive concept that we use to organize into
A mental image or best example of a category
Cognition
The mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, reme…
Concepts
Mental groupings of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
51 terms
Cognitive Psychology - Problem Solving and Intelligence
What is problem solving?
What is an initial state?
What are operators?
What are path constraints?
the process of figuring out how to reach a goal
current knowledge and resources
actions that can change your state
possible problems (rule out solutions)
What is problem solving?
the process of figuring out how to reach a goal
What is an initial state?
current knowledge and resources
79 terms
Psychology (Intelligence, Cognition, Problem solving)
problem solving
Concept
Prototype
Insight
active efforts to discover what must be done to achieve a goa…
mental grouping of similar items and what categories they bel…
a mental model containing the most typical features of a conc…
people discover the correct answer to a problem after struggl…
problem solving
active efforts to discover what must be done to achieve a goa…
Concept
mental grouping of similar items and what categories they bel…
15 terms
Cognitive Psychology Chapter 11- Problem solving
problem solving
problem space
state
initial state
when you want to reach a specified goal but the solution is n…
various states of the problem
representation of the problem with some degree of solution
describes the situation at the beginning of the problem
problem solving
when you want to reach a specified goal but the solution is n…
problem space
various states of the problem
116 terms
Cognitive Psychology - Language, Decisions, Problem Solving, and Creativity
Characteristics of Language
Phonology
Morphology
Syntax
-Arbitrary (made up of learned symbols)... -Structured (governed…
-Language sounds (phonemes) and how to combine them... -rules we…
-Parts of words have "meaning"... -Ex) cat"s", walk"ed"
-Ways that words can (and can't) be put together... -Ex) need to…
Characteristics of Language
-Arbitrary (made up of learned symbols)... -Structured (governed…
Phonology
-Language sounds (phonemes) and how to combine them... -rules we…
35 terms
PSYC 3530 - Cognitive Psychology - Problem Solving/Reasoning
A problem is akin to a ___ between whe…
___ have correct answers and certain p…
___ have no one correct answer and the…
___ always work but are time-consuming…
gap or obstacle
well-defined problems
ill-defined problems
algorithms
A problem is akin to a ___ between whe…
gap or obstacle
___ have correct answers and certain p…
well-defined problems
37 terms
Cognitive Psychology, Goldstein, Ch. 12, Problem Solving
Problem
Well-Defined Problems
Ill-Defined Problems
Gestalt Psychologists and Problem Solv…
Occurs when there is an obstacle between a present state and…
Usually has a correct answer; certain procedures, when applie…
Occur frequently in everyday life; do not necessarily have on…
These researchers saw problem solving as 1. how people repres…
Problem
Occurs when there is an obstacle between a present state and…
Well-Defined Problems
Usually has a correct answer; certain procedures, when applie…
33 terms
Cognitive Psychology- Chapter 12 Problem Solving
Problem
Well-defined problem
Ill-defined problem
Gestalt approach
Obstacle between a present state and a goal... Not immediately…
Correct answer, certain procedures will lead to solution
Path to solution is unclear, no one "correct" answer
Two steps in problem solving... 1. Creating a mental representa…
Problem
Obstacle between a present state and a goal... Not immediately…
Well-defined problem
Correct answer, certain procedures will lead to solution
34 terms
Cognitive Psychology Ch. 12 - Problem Solving and Intelligence
Problem Solving
Initial State
Operators
Path Constraints
Finding a way around an obstacle to reach a goal.
The knowledge and resources one possess at the outset of prob…
Actions that can change one's state in problem solving when w…
Limitations such as time, money or ethical boundaries that ru…
Problem Solving
Finding a way around an obstacle to reach a goal.
Initial State
The knowledge and resources one possess at the outset of prob…
37 terms
Cognitive Psychology, Goldstein, Ch. 12, Problem Solving
Problem
Well-Defined Problems
Ill-Defined Problems
Gestalt Psychologists and Problem Solv…
Occurs when there is an obstacle between a present state and…
Usually has a correct answer; certain procedures, when applie…
Occur frequently in everyday life; do not necessarily have on…
These researchers saw problem solving as 1. how people repres…
Problem
Occurs when there is an obstacle between a present state and…
Well-Defined Problems
Usually has a correct answer; certain procedures, when applie…
21 terms
Cognitive Psychology Chapter 10: Thinking and Problem Solving
problem solving
thinking
well-defined problems
ill-defined problems
The cognitive processes used in transforming starting informa…
A cognitive process used to transform or manipulate informati…
Have a clear goal, present a small set of information to star…
Don't have their goals, starting information, or steps clearl…
problem solving
The cognitive processes used in transforming starting informa…
thinking
A cognitive process used to transform or manipulate informati…
24 terms
cognitive psychology chapter 12: problem solving
analogical encoding
analogical paradox
analogical problem solving
analogical transfer
A technique in which people compare two problems that illustr…
People find it difficult to apply analogies in laboratory set…
The use of analogies as an aid to solving problems. Typically…
Transferring experience in solving one problem to the solutio…
analogical encoding
A technique in which people compare two problems that illustr…
analogical paradox
People find it difficult to apply analogies in laboratory set…
87 terms
Cognitive Psychology Ch 11 - Solving Problems
A breadth-first strategy is used when…
A counterfactual strategy is similar t…
A couple is making a list of their fav…
T/F: A flowchart diagram called a prob…
explores all of the main possibilities first
there are only three steps instead of four
reading through all of the names in a baby book letter by let…
True
A breadth-first strategy is used when…
explores all of the main possibilities first
A counterfactual strategy is similar t…
there are only three steps instead of four
18 terms
Cognitive Psychology Test 3- Problem Solving
Newell & Simon (1972) problem
Four Features of problems
well defined vs ill defined problems
Algorithm vs Heuristics
an instance where a person wants something but doesn't know h…
1. initial state-description of unsolved problem ... 2. set of o…
well defined- all four features defined... ill defined- 1 or mor…
algorithm- specific rules or procedures that guarantee an acc…
Newell & Simon (1972) problem
an instance where a person wants something but doesn't know h…
Four Features of problems
1. initial state-description of unsolved problem ... 2. set of o…
20 terms
Cognitive Psychology, Goldstein, Ch. 12, Problem Solving
Well-Defined Problems
Ill-Defined Problems
Initial State
Goal State
Usually has a correct answer; certain procedures, when applie…
Occur frequently in everyday life; do not necessarily have on…
The conditions at the beginning of a problem in problem solvi…
The condition that occurs when a problem has been solved in p…
Well-Defined Problems
Usually has a correct answer; certain procedures, when applie…
Ill-Defined Problems
Occur frequently in everyday life; do not necessarily have on…
37 terms
Cognitive Psychology, Goldstein, Ch. 12, Problem Solving
Problem
Well-Defined Problems
Ill-Defined Problems
Gestalt Psychologists and Problem Solv…
Occurs when there is an obstacle between a present state and…
Usually has a correct answer; certain procedures, when applie…
Occur frequently in everyday life; do not necessarily have on…
These researchers saw problem solving as 1. how people repres…
Problem
Occurs when there is an obstacle between a present state and…
Well-Defined Problems
Usually has a correct answer; certain procedures, when applie…
35 terms
PSYC 3530 - Cognitive Psychology - Problem Solving/Reasoning
A problem is akin to a ___ between whe…
___ have correct answers and certain p…
___ have no one correct answer and the…
___ always work but are time-consuming…
gap or obstacle
well-defined problems
ill-defined problems
algorithms
A problem is akin to a ___ between whe…
gap or obstacle
___ have correct answers and certain p…
well-defined problems
8 terms
Cognitive Psychology: Problem Solving & Reasoning (Chapter 12)
What is the difference between inducti…
What is validity in deductive reasoning?
what is soundness is deductive reasoni…
What is the behavioralist approach to…
inductive reasoning: reasoning from a specific case to derive…
argument is logical in that it follows previous arguments, fo…
an argument is sound if it is valid & premises are true
Throndike - learn through trial and error, initial problem is…
What is the difference between inducti…
inductive reasoning: reasoning from a specific case to derive…
What is validity in deductive reasoning?
argument is logical in that it follows previous arguments, fo…
16 terms
Cognitive Psychology: Chapter 12 Problem Solving
Problem Solving
Problem Solving Components
Well-defined problems
Ill-defined problems
solving (break it down)... The behavior of individuals when con…
Components (using debate example)... ① Initial state: What is th…
Usually has a correct answer; certain procedures, when applie…
Occur frequently in everyday life; do not necessarily have on…
Problem Solving
solving (break it down)... The behavior of individuals when con…
Problem Solving Components
Components (using debate example)... ① Initial state: What is th…
37 terms
Cognitive Psychology, Goldstein, Ch. 12, Problem Solving
Problem
Well-Defined Problems
Ill-Defined Problems
Gestalt Psychologists and Problem Solv…
Occurs when there is an obstacle between a present state and…
Usually has a correct answer; certain procedures, when applie…
Occur frequently in everyday life; do not necessarily have on…
These researchers saw problem solving as 1. how people repres…
Problem
Occurs when there is an obstacle between a present state and…
Well-Defined Problems
Usually has a correct answer; certain procedures, when applie…
23 terms
Cognitive Psychology Chapter 10: Thinking and Problem Solving
problem solving
thinking
well-defined problems
ill-defined problems
The cognitive processes used in transforming starting informa…
A cognitive process used to transform or manipulate informati…
Have a clear goal, present a small set of information to star…
Don't have their goals, starting information, or steps clearl…
problem solving
The cognitive processes used in transforming starting informa…
thinking
A cognitive process used to transform or manipulate informati…
Cognitive Psychology 13: Problem Solving and Intelligence
problem solving
problem space
hill-climbing strategy
means-end analysis
A process in which a person beings with a goal and seeks some…
The set of all states that can be reached in solving a proble…
A commonly used strategy in problem-solving. If people use th…
A strategy used in problem solving in which the person is gui…
problem solving
A process in which a person beings with a goal and seeks some…
problem space
The set of all states that can be reached in solving a proble…
17 terms
Cognitive Psychology Chapter 11: Problem Solving and Creativity
What is a problem?
Features of every problem (3)
Understanding the problem
Representing the problem
- Definition: any situation in which a person has a goal that…
1) Initial state: "point A"... 2) Goal state: "point B" ... 3) Obst…
- 1st step of problem solving: gain a mental representation o…
- Methods: (3)... a) Symbols: math-type problems, formal problem…
What is a problem?
- Definition: any situation in which a person has a goal that…
Features of every problem (3)
1) Initial state: "point A"... 2) Goal state: "point B" ... 3) Obst…
21 terms
Cognitive Psychology Chapter 10: Thinking and Problem Solving
problem solving
thinking
well-defined problems
ill-defined problems
The cognitive processes used in transforming starting informa…
A cognitive process used to transform or manipulate informati…
Have a clear goal, present a small set of information to star…
Don't have their goals, starting information, or steps clearl…
problem solving
The cognitive processes used in transforming starting informa…
thinking
A cognitive process used to transform or manipulate informati…
21 terms
Cognitive Psychology Chapter 10: Thinking and Problem Solving
problem solving
thinking
well-defined problems
ill-defined problems
The cognitive processes used in transforming starting informa…
A cognitive process used to transform or manipulate informati…
Have a clear goal, present a small set of information to star…
Don't have their goals, starting information, or steps clearl…
problem solving
The cognitive processes used in transforming starting informa…
thinking
A cognitive process used to transform or manipulate informati…
51 terms
Cognitive Psychology - Problem Solving & Expertise - Lecture 8
What is a 'problem'?
What is not a 'problem'?
Types of problems
Types of problems (2)
You are in a current state or situation. (start state)... Your g…
If it is obvious to you how to reach the goal state.... - If you…
Well-defined problem: All aspects of the problem are clearly…
Ill-defined problem: The problem is underspecified.... - Start s…
What is a 'problem'?
You are in a current state or situation. (start state)... Your g…
What is not a 'problem'?
If it is obvious to you how to reach the goal state.... - If you…
41 terms
Cognitive Psychology Problem Solving Ch 10 (Final)
Problem Solving
Thinking
Focused Thinking
Unfocused Thinking
Cognitive processes used in transforming starting information…
cognitive process used to transform or manipulate information…
begins with a clear starting point and has a specific goal.
has the character of daydreaming, or unintentionally calling…
Problem Solving
Cognitive processes used in transforming starting information…
Thinking
cognitive process used to transform or manipulate information…
Cognitive Psychology 105: Chapter 12, problem solving
problem
well-defined
ill-defined
restructuring
an obstacle between a present state and a goal, for which it…
correct answer, certain procedures will lead to solution... -mat…
path to solution is unclear, no one "correct" answer... -relatio…
(gestalt psychology)... changes the problem's representation... -Ko…
problem
an obstacle between a present state and a goal, for which it…
well-defined
correct answer, certain procedures will lead to solution... -mat…
15 terms
Cognitive Psychology: Chapter 10-Problem Solving
Well defined
Ill defined
5 techniques of problem solving
Generate and test
Have a clear solution, rules for solving, set of rules, guide…
Not always a clear goal or solution. Not a clear path to solv…
1. Generate and test.... 2. Means-end analysis... 3. Working backwa…
Generating a solution and then test it. It is fast and easy.…
Well defined
Have a clear solution, rules for solving, set of rules, guide…
Ill defined
Not always a clear goal or solution. Not a clear path to solv…
26 terms
Cognitive Psychology: Chapter 12: Problem Solving
What is a problem?
Gestalt's psychologists ideas on Probl…
restructuring
Insight
occurs when there is an obstacle between a present state and…
1. how people represent a problem in their mind ... 2. how solvi…
Gestalts; process of changing the problem's representation
Gestalts; associated with restructuring, the sudden realizati…
What is a problem?
occurs when there is an obstacle between a present state and…
Gestalt's psychologists ideas on Probl…
1. how people represent a problem in their mind ... 2. how solvi…
38 terms
Cognitive Psychology Chapter 12: Problem Solving
Problem
subgoals
group brainstorming
Expert
Occurs when there is an obstacle between a present state and…
In the means-end analysis approach to problem solving, interm…
When people in a problem solving group are encouraged to expr…
Person who, by devoting a large amount of time to learning ab…
Problem
Occurs when there is an obstacle between a present state and…
subgoals
In the means-end analysis approach to problem solving, interm…
21 terms
Cognitive Psychology Chapter 12: Problem Solving
What is a problem?
Gestalt Approach
What group of psychologists claimed th…
Restructuring (Gestalt)
A _______ is an obstacle between a present state and a goal.…
Problem solving was about (1) how people represent a problem…
Gestalt psychologists. Insight is the sudden realization of a…
Gestalt psychologists' name for the process of changing the p…
What is a problem?
A _______ is an obstacle between a present state and a goal.…
Gestalt Approach
Problem solving was about (1) how people represent a problem…
20 terms
Cognitive Psychology -- Problem Solving -- Exam 3 Brockmole
analogical encoding
analogical paradox
analogical problem solving
analogical transfer
process that helps people discover similar structural feature…
while it is difficult to apply analogies in laboratory resear…
occurs when experience with a previously solved source proble…
transfer experiences from solving one problem to another prob…
analogical encoding
process that helps people discover similar structural feature…
analogical paradox
while it is difficult to apply analogies in laboratory resear…
21 terms
Cognitive Psychology Chapter 10: Thinking and Problem Solving
problem solving
thinking
well-defined problems
ill-defined problems
The cognitive processes used in transforming starting informa…
A cognitive process used to transform or manipulate informati…
Have a clear goal, present a small set of information to star…
Don't have their goals, starting information, or steps clearl…
problem solving
The cognitive processes used in transforming starting informa…
thinking
A cognitive process used to transform or manipulate informati…
38 terms
Cognitive Psychology Chapter 12: Problem Solving
Problem
subgoals
group brainstorming
Expert
Occurs when there is an obstacle between a present state and…
In the means-end analysis approach to problem solving, interm…
When people in a problem solving group are encouraged to expr…
Person who, by devoting a large amount of time to learning ab…
Problem
Occurs when there is an obstacle between a present state and…
subgoals
In the means-end analysis approach to problem solving, interm…
28 terms
AP Psychology Unit 7B - Cognition - Thinking, Problem Solving, Creativity, and Language
cognition
concept
prototype
algorithm
all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing,…
a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.
a mental image or best example of a category.
a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solvi…
cognition
all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing,…
concept
a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.
16 terms
Cognitive Psychology (Final Exam) - Problem Solving
Constraint by common knowledge
Cohort Model
Pros of bilingualism
Cons of bilingualism
Ex: "Read chapter 12 in the book"... - Which book am I talking a…
Initially activate multiple possible meanings and then only d…
- Bilinguals do better on tests of first language skills... - Bi…
- Early theorists proposed that bilingualism produces cogniti…
Constraint by common knowledge
Ex: "Read chapter 12 in the book"... - Which book am I talking a…
Cohort Model
Initially activate multiple possible meanings and then only d…
90 terms
Cognition: Problem-Solving & Cognition
Concept
Concept
Concept
a
A generalization or abstraction from experience that allows f…
A way of grouping or classifying the world around oneself.
Mental category used to classify an event or object according…
A generalization or abstraction from experience that allows f…
Concept
A generalization or abstraction from experience that allows f…
Concept
A way of grouping or classifying the world around oneself.
36 terms
Cognitive Psychology Ch. 12 Problem Solving
Analogical Encoding
Analogical Paradox
Analogical Problem Solving
Analogical Transfer
353... A technique in which people compare two problems that ill…
People find it difficult to apply analogies in laboratory set…
349... The use of analogies as an aid to solving problems. Typic…
Transferring experience involving one problem to the solution…
Analogical Encoding
353... A technique in which people compare two problems that ill…
Analogical Paradox
People find it difficult to apply analogies in laboratory set…
19 terms
Cognitive Psychology Chapter 10: Thinking and Problem Solving
problem solving
well-defined problems
ill-defined problems
generate-and-test technique
The cognitive processes used in transforming starting informa…
Have a clear goal, present a small set of information to star…
Don't have their goals, starting information, or steps clearl…
A problem solving technique that involves generating possible…
problem solving
The cognitive processes used in transforming starting informa…
well-defined problems
Have a clear goal, present a small set of information to star…
35 terms
Cognitive Psychology Test: Language, Imagery, and Problem-Solving
Categorical perception
Context effects
Grammar
Grice maxims
Perceiving gradations of a continuous variable as being chunk…
Influence of environmental factors on one's perception of a s…
The set of structural rules governing the composition of clau…
Rules of conversational etiquette, including, but not limited…
Categorical perception
Perceiving gradations of a continuous variable as being chunk…
Context effects
Influence of environmental factors on one's perception of a s…
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