# Study sets matching "problem solving cognitive psychology"

Study sets

Diagrams

Classes

Users

Types of problem

Behaviourist psychology

Wolfgang Kohler

Gestalt theory problem solving

Knowledge lean (little knowledge to be solved) e.g puzzles... Kn…

Thonrdike learn by trial and error... Cats in cage food outside... R…

Mentality apes ... Apes used boxes as stools to reach... Shows insig…

Reproductive ps- re use of previous experience... Productive ps-…

Types of problem

Knowledge lean (little knowledge to be solved) e.g puzzles... Kn…

Behaviourist psychology

Thonrdike learn by trial and error... Cats in cage food outside... R…

Means-End Analysis

Operators

Goal

Well-defined problems

Solving problems by repeatedly determining the difference betw…

The set of legal moves, actions, that can be performed during…

The desired end-point or solution of the problem-solving activ…

explicitly specify the goal.

Means-End Analysis

Solving problems by repeatedly determining the difference betw…

Operators

The set of legal moves, actions, that can be performed during…

Well-defined problems

Ill-defined problems

Knowledge-rich problems

Knowledge-lean problems

Problems in which the initial state, goal and methods availabl…

Problems in which the definition of the problem statement is i…

Problems that can only be solved through the use of considerab…

Problems that can be solved without the use of much prior know…

Well-defined problems

Problems in which the initial state, goal and methods availabl…

Ill-defined problems

Problems in which the definition of the problem statement is i…

What are 3 Features of Problem solving

Goal Directedness

subgoal decomposition

Operator Application

1. Goal Directedness... 2. Subgoal decomposition... 3. Operator appl…

There's an end state, aka a solution, you're are trying to rea…

Problems have structure; there are subgoals you must reach on…

Creating representations of subgoals makes it easier to find o…

What are 3 Features of Problem solving

1. Goal Directedness... 2. Subgoal decomposition... 3. Operator appl…

Goal Directedness

There's an end state, aka a solution, you're are trying to rea…

Problem

Problem solving

Well-defined problems

Ill-defined problems

Situation where your current state is not the same as goal sta…

Getting to goal state

Problems in which the initial state, goal and methods availabl…

Problems in which the definition of the problem statement is i…

Problem

Situation where your current state is not the same as goal sta…

Problem solving

Getting to goal state

Analogical encoding

Analogical paradox

Analogical problem solving

Analogical transfer

A technique in which people compare two problems that illustra…

People find it difficult to apply analogies in laboratory sett…

The use of analogies as an aid to solving problems. Typically,…

Transferring experience in solving one problem to the solution…

Analogical encoding

A technique in which people compare two problems that illustra…

Analogical paradox

People find it difficult to apply analogies in laboratory sett…

Analogical encoding

Analogical paradox

Analogical problem solving

Analogical transfer

A technique in which people compare two problems that illustra…

People find it difficult to apply analogies in laboratory sett…

The use of analogies as an aid to solving problems. Typically,…

Transferring experience in solving one problem to the solution…

Analogical encoding

A technique in which people compare two problems that illustra…

Analogical paradox

People find it difficult to apply analogies in laboratory sett…

Arrangement problems

useful skills to solve problems

insight

functional fixedness

a problem that requires rearranging its parts to satisfy a spe…

it requires a trial and error process, one thing that is usefu…

you feel like you are doing trial and error and then boom the…

a negative situation, you can only think of an object based of…

Arrangement problems

a problem that requires rearranging its parts to satisfy a spe…

useful skills to solve problems

it requires a trial and error process, one thing that is usefu…

Problem

Restructuring

Fixation

Functional Fixedness

When there is an obstacle between a present state and a goal.

Changing a problem's representation - according to Gestalt psy…

People's tendency to focus on a specific characteristic of a p…

Focusing only on the familiar functions or uses of an object.

Problem

When there is an obstacle between a present state and a goal.

Restructuring

Changing a problem's representation - according to Gestalt psy…

Analogical encoding

Analogical paradox

Analogical problem solving

Analogical transfer

A technique in which people compare two problems that illustra…

People find it difficult to apply analogies in laboratory sett…

The use of analogies as an aid to solving problems. Typically,…

Transferring experience in solving one problem to the solution…

Analogical encoding

A technique in which people compare two problems that illustra…

Analogical paradox

People find it difficult to apply analogies in laboratory sett…

Arrangement problems

useful skills to solve problems

insight

functional fixedness

a problem that requires rearranging its parts to satisfy a spe…

it requires a trial and error process, one thing that is usefu…

you feel like you are doing trial and error and then boom the…

a negative situation, you can only think of an object based of…

Arrangement problems

a problem that requires rearranging its parts to satisfy a spe…

useful skills to solve problems

it requires a trial and error process, one thing that is usefu…

Verbal Protocol

Problem Space

Operators

Ill-defined (structured) problems

A word-for-word

The initial, intermediate, and goal states in a problem.

The set of legal moves that can be performed during problem so…

Vaguely specify the starting or goal states, the operators, or…

Verbal Protocol

A word-for-word

Problem Space

The initial, intermediate, and goal states in a problem.

problem

well-defined problem

ill-defined problem

initial state

A problem consists of some initial state in which a person beg…

Well-defined problems have ... 1. A clearly defined initial stat…

-Ill-defined problems are a combination of an unknown goal sta…

The state at which a person begins when gauging a problem

problem

A problem consists of some initial state in which a person beg…

well-defined problem

Well-defined problems have ... 1. A clearly defined initial stat…

GESTALT APPROACH

insight

problem representation

Mental Set

Representing a problem in the mind... Restructuring: changes the…

suddenly perceive the solution to the problem

A code describes the internal or mental representation of info…

One way of thinking about a problem

GESTALT APPROACH

Representing a problem in the mind... Restructuring: changes the…

insight

suddenly perceive the solution to the problem

Analogical encoding

Analogical paradox

Analogical problem solving

Analogical transfer

A technique in which people compare two problems that illustra…

People find it difficult to apply analogies in laboratory sett…

The use of analogies as an aid to solving problems. Typically,…

Transferring experience in solving one problem to the solution…

Analogical encoding

A technique in which people compare two problems that illustra…

Analogical paradox

People find it difficult to apply analogies in laboratory sett…

Limitations of General Problem Solver (…

Sub-goal creation

Operator

Progress monitoring theory

- GPS 'remembers better' which moves have previously been made…

reduces the difference between the current state and the goal…

solves sub goal

A computer model based on 2 heuristics:... 1. Maximising heuristi…

Limitations of General Problem Solver (…

- GPS 'remembers better' which moves have previously been made…

Sub-goal creation

reduces the difference between the current state and the goal…

Well-defined problems

Ill-defined problems

Knowledge-rich problems

Knowledge-lean problems

Problems in which the initial state, goal and methods availabl…

Problems in which the definition of the problem statement is i…

Problems that can only be solved through the use of considerab…

Problems that can be solved without the use of much prior know…

Well-defined problems

Problems in which the initial state, goal and methods availabl…

Ill-defined problems

Problems in which the definition of the problem statement is i…

problem

well defined problems

ill defined problems

Gestalt approach

obstacle between present state and goal . There may or may not…

type of problem where there is an answer. clear path/paths of…

a typer of problem where there is no correct answer. there is…

approach to problem solving where you represent the problem in…

problem

obstacle between present state and goal . There may or may not…

well defined problems

type of problem where there is an answer. clear path/paths of…

Problem solving

Well-defined goals

Subroutines

Ill-defined goals

This is where we have a goal, and have to work out the steps t…

Problems where the goal is clear (e.g.sudoku, crosswords)

Specific procedures for solving commonly encountered, well-def…

Problems where the goal is unclear as is the path to achieving…

Problem solving

This is where we have a goal, and have to work out the steps t…

Well-defined goals

Problems where the goal is clear (e.g.sudoku, crosswords)

Algorithms

Analogies

Deep similarity

Difference reduction

Methods that will lead to guaranteed solution

Relating one problem to another (older) one

When things are alike in an abstract or conceptual way; import…

Changing the situation so it's more similar to the goal state

Algorithms

Methods that will lead to guaranteed solution

Analogies

Relating one problem to another (older) one

Problem

Well-Defined Problems

Ill-Defined Problems

Gestalt Psychologists and Problem Solvi…

Occurs when there is an obstacle between a present state and a…

Usually has a correct answer; certain procedures, when applied…

Occur frequently in everyday life; do not necessarily have one…

These researchers saw problem solving as 1. how people represe…

Problem

Occurs when there is an obstacle between a present state and a…

Well-Defined Problems

Usually has a correct answer; certain procedures, when applied…

What are 3 Features of Problem solving

Goal Directedness

subgoal decomposition

Operator Application

1. Goal Directedness... 2. Subgoal decomposition... 3. Operator appl…

There's an end state, aka a solution, you're are trying to rea…

Problems have structure; there are subgoals you must reach on…

Creating representations of subgoals makes it easier to find o…

What are 3 Features of Problem solving

1. Goal Directedness... 2. Subgoal decomposition... 3. Operator appl…

Goal Directedness

There's an end state, aka a solution, you're are trying to rea…

Problem Solving

Problem Solving Components

Well-defined problems

Ill-defined problems

solving (break it down)... The behavior of individuals when conf…

Components (using debate example)... ① Initial state: What is the…

Usually has a correct answer; certain procedures, when applied…

Occur frequently in everyday life; do not necessarily have one…

Problem Solving

solving (break it down)... The behavior of individuals when conf…

Problem Solving Components

Components (using debate example)... ① Initial state: What is the…