# Study sets matching "problem solving cognitive psychology"

Study sets

Diagrams

Classes

Users

Means-End Analysis

Operators

Goal

Well-defined problems

Solving problems by repeatedly determining the difference betw…

The set of legal moves, actions, that can be performed during…

The desired end-point or solution of the problem-solving activ…

explicitly specify the goal.

Means-End Analysis

Solving problems by repeatedly determining the difference betw…

Operators

The set of legal moves, actions, that can be performed during…

Problem

Problem solving

Well-defined problems

Ill-defined problems

Situation where your current state is not the same as goal sta…

Getting to goal state

Problems in which the initial state, goal and methods availabl…

Problems in which the definition of the problem statement is i…

Problem

Situation where your current state is not the same as goal sta…

Problem solving

Getting to goal state

problem solving

3 approaches to problem solving

1) Behaviorist Approach

cat-in-a-box experiment

you have a goal but are not currently at that goal

1) Behaviorist approach... 2) Gestalt approach... 3) Information Pro…

problem solving is a matter of chance and whatever behaviors a…

-does the cat have the ability/insight to figure out how to es…

problem solving

you have a goal but are not currently at that goal

3 approaches to problem solving

1) Behaviorist approach... 2) Gestalt approach... 3) Information Pro…

What are 3 Features of Problem solving

Goal Directedness

subgoal decomposition

Operator Application

1. Goal Directedness... 2. Subgoal decomposition... 3. Operator appl…

There's an end state, aka a solution, you're are trying to rea…

Problems have structure; there are subgoals you must reach on…

Creating representations of subgoals makes it easier to find o…

What are 3 Features of Problem solving

1. Goal Directedness... 2. Subgoal decomposition... 3. Operator appl…

Goal Directedness

There's an end state, aka a solution, you're are trying to rea…

Well-defined problems

Ill-defined problems

Knowledge-rich problems

Knowledge-lean problems

Problems in which the initial state, goal and methods availabl…

Problems in which the definition of the problem statement is i…

Problems that can only be solved through the use of considerab…

Problems that can be solved without the use of much prior know…

Well-defined problems

Problems in which the initial state, goal and methods availabl…

Ill-defined problems

Problems in which the definition of the problem statement is i…

Analogical encoding

Analogical paradox

Analogical problem solving

Analogical transfer

A technique in which people compare two problems that illustra…

People find it difficult to apply analogies in laboratory sett…

The use of analogies as an aid to solving problems. Typically,…

Transferring experience in solving one problem to the solution…

Analogical encoding

A technique in which people compare two problems that illustra…

Analogical paradox

People find it difficult to apply analogies in laboratory sett…

analogical encoding

analogical paradox

analogical problem solving

analogical transfer

A technique in which people compare two problems that illustra…

People find it difficult to apply analogies in laboratory sett…

The use of analogies as an aid to solving problems. Typically,…

Transferring experience in solving one problem to the solution…

analogical encoding

A technique in which people compare two problems that illustra…

analogical paradox

People find it difficult to apply analogies in laboratory sett…

Algorithms

Analogies

Deep similarity

Difference reduction

Methods that will lead to guaranteed solution

Relating one problem to another (older) one

When things are alike in an abstract or conceptual way; import…

Changing the situation so it's more similar to the goal state

Algorithms

Methods that will lead to guaranteed solution

Analogies

Relating one problem to another (older) one

Arrangement problems

useful skills to solve problems

insight

functional fixedness

a problem that requires rearranging its parts to satisfy a spe…

it requires a trial and error process, one thing that is usefu…

you feel like you are doing trial and error and then boom the…

a negative situation, you can only think of an object based of…

Arrangement problems

a problem that requires rearranging its parts to satisfy a spe…

useful skills to solve problems

it requires a trial and error process, one thing that is usefu…

problem

well-defined problem

ill-defined problem

initial state

A problem consists of some initial state in which a person beg…

Well-defined problems have ... 1. A clearly defined initial stat…

-Ill-defined problems are a combination of an unknown goal sta…

The state at which a person begins when gauging a problem

problem

A problem consists of some initial state in which a person beg…

well-defined problem

Well-defined problems have ... 1. A clearly defined initial stat…

problem solving

problem space

state

initial state

when you want to reach a specified goal but the solution is no…

various states of the problem

representation of the problem with some degree of solution

describes the situation at the beginning of the problem

problem solving

when you want to reach a specified goal but the solution is no…

problem space

various states of the problem

Verbal Protocol

Problem Space

Operators

Ill-defined (structured) problems

A word-for-word

The initial, intermediate, and goal states in a problem.

The set of legal moves that can be performed during problem so…

Vaguely specify the starting or goal states, the operators, or…

Verbal Protocol

A word-for-word

Problem Space

The initial, intermediate, and goal states in a problem.

Well-defined problems

Ill-defined problems

Knowledge-rich problems

Knowledge-lean problems

Problems in which the initial state, goal and methods availabl…

Problems in which the definition of the problem statement is i…

Problems that can only be solved through the use of considerab…

Problems that can be solved without the use of much prior know…

Well-defined problems

Problems in which the initial state, goal and methods availabl…

Ill-defined problems

Problems in which the definition of the problem statement is i…

Analogical encoding

Analogical paradox

Analogical problem solving

Analogical transfer

A technique in which people compare two problems that illustra…

People find it difficult to apply analogies in laboratory sett…

The use of analogies as an aid to solving problems. Typically,…

Transferring experience in solving one problem to the solution…

Analogical encoding

A technique in which people compare two problems that illustra…

Analogical paradox

People find it difficult to apply analogies in laboratory sett…

4 Aspects of a problem

Well-defined problems

Ill-defined problems

Search

Goal- what is to be accomplished... Givens- what is known from t…

All four aspects of the problem are specified... tower of hanoi... m…

one or more of the aspects of the problem are not well defined…

in a well defined problem the problem is that there are so man…

4 Aspects of a problem

Goal- what is to be accomplished... Givens- what is known from t…

Well-defined problems

All four aspects of the problem are specified... tower of hanoi... m…

Limitations of General Problem Solver (…

Sub-goal creation

Operator

Progress monitoring theory

- GPS 'remembers better' which moves have previously been made…

reduces the difference between the current state and the goal…

solves sub goal

A computer model based on 2 heuristics:... 1. Maximising heuristi…

Limitations of General Problem Solver (…

- GPS 'remembers better' which moves have previously been made…

Sub-goal creation

reduces the difference between the current state and the goal…

problem solving

representation

elements

operators

circumventing or eliminating an obstacle to a (sub)goal

how one defines what the problem to be solved is, including el…

items, tools, and/or structures available.

rules for manipulating elements; allows you to move from one s…

problem solving

circumventing or eliminating an obstacle to a (sub)goal

representation

how one defines what the problem to be solved is, including el…

Problem

Well-Defined Problems

Ill-Defined Problems

Gestalt Psychologists and Problem Solvi…

Occurs when there is an obstacle between a present state and a…

Usually has a correct answer; certain procedures, when applied…

Occur frequently in everyday life; do not necessarily have one…

These researchers saw problem solving as 1. how people represe…

Problem

Occurs when there is an obstacle between a present state and a…

Well-Defined Problems

Usually has a correct answer; certain procedures, when applied…

Problem

Well-Defined Problems

Ill-Defined Problems

Gestalt Psychologists and Problem Solvi…

Occurs when there is an obstacle between a present state and a…

Usually has a correct answer; certain procedures, when applied…

Occur frequently in everyday life; do not necessarily have one…

These researchers saw problem solving as 1. how people represe…

Problem

Occurs when there is an obstacle between a present state and a…

Well-Defined Problems

Usually has a correct answer; certain procedures, when applied…

What are 3 Features of Problem solving

Goal Directedness

subgoal decomposition

Operator Application

1. Goal Directedness... 2. Subgoal decomposition... 3. Operator appl…

There's an end state, aka a solution, you're are trying to rea…

Problems have structure; there are subgoals you must reach on…

Creating representations of subgoals makes it easier to find o…

What are 3 Features of Problem solving

1. Goal Directedness... 2. Subgoal decomposition... 3. Operator appl…

Goal Directedness

There's an end state, aka a solution, you're are trying to rea…

What is problem solving?

What is an initial state?

What are operators?

What are path constraints?

the process of figuring out how to reach a goal

current knowledge and resources

actions that can change your state

possible problems (rule out solutions)

What is problem solving?

the process of figuring out how to reach a goal

What is an initial state?

current knowledge and resources

Problem

Well-defined problem

Ill-defined problem

Gestalt approach

Obstacle between a present state and a goal... Not immediately o…

Correct answer, certain procedures will lead to solution

Path to solution is unclear, no one "correct" answer

Two steps in problem solving... 1. Creating a mental representat…

Problem

Obstacle between a present state and a goal... Not immediately o…

Well-defined problem

Correct answer, certain procedures will lead to solution

Well defined

Ill defined

5 techniques of problem solving

Generate and test

Have a clear solution, rules for solving, set of rules, guidel…

Not always a clear goal or solution. Not a clear path to solve…

1. Generate and test.... 2. Means-end analysis... 3. Working backwar…

Generating a solution and then test it. It is fast and easy. (…

Well defined

Have a clear solution, rules for solving, set of rules, guidel…

Ill defined

Not always a clear goal or solution. Not a clear path to solve…

When there is an obstacle between a pre…

Creating new knowledge

Frontal lobes

Decision Making

Q: when does a problem occur?

Q: what is a key aspect of higher-order thinking?

Q: what area in the brain is involved in higher order thinking?

D: evaluating alternative outcomes or making choices

When there is an obstacle between a pre…

Q: when does a problem occur?

Creating new knowledge

Q: what is a key aspect of higher-order thinking?